The Huddersfield College Magazine: Volume II (1873/74) by various

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Zondon : W. W. MORGAN, 67, BARBICAN, E.C. Huddersheld :


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April, The Firstof ... 0... 0... 115 Art, Schools of ... .. ... 88 Ashantee Boy’s Defence .. 244 Ashbury, J. L., M.P., Sketch of his Life... ... 2... ... 188 Blake Lee... ... 0. 0. ue 241 Boggart Ho’ Clough see aes 170 Bolton Woods and Barden Tower 235 Boys and Boys ... ... ... ... 80 Caterpillars, A few words about 225 Christmas, Prize Essays on... 47, 64 Christmas Party, Our... ... ... 61 Cigar, My first ...0 0.0 1. 0... 4 College Athletic Sports. vee vee 245

College Prize Distribution, &c. .... 179 College, Sketch of its History ... 198

Cathedral, The Regend of of 237 Cricket... ... 0... 6 Derivations :— Cathay ... 248 Laiking... 170 Mile... ow. 227 Riding, Touch ... 228

Devil’s Bridge, The Legend of th the 101 Devonshire, Mount Edgecumbein 123 Devonshire, Our Paper-chasein .. 67

Dinner of the ‘‘Old Boys” 197 Easter Monday, How spent Py four ‘‘ Old Boys” 203 Editorial Notices... ... . 246 Elves, The Riddles of the .. ... 169 Entertainment at the College 141 Entomology... .. 40

Entomology, The Study of 81

Examinations, Cambridge Local 114 Flamborough Head and ton Priory ... 159 Football Match ... .. 28

PAGE Idylls of the King ... ... ... 218 Kissing under the Mistletoe ... 207 Lucerne, The Stork of §... ... 24 Marian, the Miller’s Daughter... 222 Man, The Descent of 44, 78 Natural History, Essayson ... 39 Peel, Sir Robert, Life of . 1, 35

Place-names, the root Jngin ... 126 Puzzles Proposed 10, 29, 48, 70, 88. 108, 129, 150, 173, 209, 230, 250 Puzzles Answered 30, 49, 89, 109, 129, 149, 172, 209, 230, 249

Queries Proposed 10, 27, 46, 69, 86, 106, 128, 149, 171, 208, 229, 248 Queries Answered 27, 46, 69, 87, 107, 126, 170, 207, 227, 246

Reverie, The Old Man’s 248

Scarborough and its neighbourhood 215 Scott, A Visit to the Land of ... 166 Sixt, A Visit to the Valley of ... 95 Sixt, Rambles about the Valley of 118 Sixt, A mountain-walk therefrom

to Chamouni 135

Tennyson ... .. 168 Tower of London, A Visit to the 20 Travancore, A Reminiscence of 84, 105

124, 145 Travelling ... ... 1.00. 0.) 16 Uncle Dan’s Stories—No. 1... 55

No. 2 (with an illustration) 75

Walks and Excursions from Hud- dersfield .. 248 Worthies of the West- -Riding 127, 246

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The City of London Chess Mag- azine on the Huddersfield College Magazine... ... ... 258

West Yorkshire Chess Association

I Oxford and Cambridge Chess Match 155

176, 252

PAGE PAGE Abbott, J. W. ... ... =... ... 181 I Healey, F bee es 11 Carpenter, G.E.... ... ... .... 110 I Hoc ardua vincere doceté ... ... 251 Dale, C. W.M. .... ... 91, 151 I Pierce, J.,. M.A. ... ... 31, 91, 251 Dunne, F. ... ... ... ... « B11 I Pierce, W. T. 2. ww.) B81 Dyson, FE. ... ... .. «. V1, 175 I Shinknran, W. A... 6 Finlinson, J. H.. w+ se @], 175 I Stonehouse, J. ... ... ... 181, 231 Grant, Mr. ... ... ... ... ... I Townsend, A. ....... 51, 110, 211 Greenwood, W. ... ............ 151 I Watkinson, J. 231 CHESS GAMES. Jenkins v. Zukertort ... ....... 12 I Parratt v. De Soyres ... ... 157 Fyfe v. Zukertort ... ........ 18 I Watkinson v. Finlinson ... 218, 214 Thorold v. Crosskill ... ... 52, 58 I Young v. White .. 252 Walker v. Amateur... ........ 72 I Kennedy v. Staunton... 253 De Soyres v. Parratt (2) ... .. 157 MISCELLANEOUS. Answers to Correspondents 14, 34, 54, I Game containing Five Problems 72 94, 113, 134, 158, 214, 234, 254 I Chess Aphorisms... ... ... 73, 118 Solutions of Problems ... 32, 52, 92, I A handful of Chess-nuts ... 74 114, 184, 158, 212, 254 I Chess at our Public Schools 93 Huddersfield College Chess Club 18, I Anecdote of Mendelssohn ... 94 34, 53, 73, 153 I The late Sheriff Bell ...... 111 How I solved Shinkman’s Chess I Chess Sonnet by Sheriff Bell... 113 Puzzle, by A. Townsend ... 32 I Review :—Piéerces’ Chess Problems 132 The Westminster Papers on the I 5, Dubuque Chess Journal 138, 152 Huddersfield College Magazine’ 33 : Important Sale of Works on Chess 154 I I

Huddersfield Chess Club ... 84, 212


114, in Third Class, insert F. Watson. 150, transpose lower half of page above upper half. . 166, line 24, for separated read separate. . 224, last line, for Cassell read Cassal. , 241, line 28, for mile read half a mile.

Mis Sy

Howard Staunton ...... 282, 258

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Huddersteld College Magazine.


Str Robert Peel, second baronet, was the son of Sir Robert Peel, the first baronet. He was born on the 5th of February, 1788, near Bury, in Lancashire. His father was a wealthy cotton- -spinner, and from him he inherited a large fortune. When his father heard of his birth, he vowed “that he would give his child to his country.” He was carefully nurtured and brought up under the eye of his loving father, who was accus- tomed to place him upon a table to practise extemporaneous speaking, and to improve his memory by encouraging him to repeat, every Sunday, as much as he remembered of ‘the sermon he had heard ; and this was done when he was only twelve years of age. At first, of course, he made very little progress, but by degrees, through continual application and perseverance, he became more and more accustomed to listen to what he heard, and was enabled to repeat it almost verbatim. His career presents a most remarkable proof of what may be attained to, even by minds of only moderate ability, by continual application and assiduous labour. He was educated at Harrow, and at Christ Church, Oxford. : Although he did great service to, and applied himself to study closely the interests of his country, and put his whole heart and soul into the parliamentary proceedings, he was never happier and more content than when he was at home, and in the midst of his own family. His character was well depicted by the Duke of Wellington, in the House of Lords, a few days after his (Sir Robert’s) death. . He said: “ Your lordships must all feel the high and honourable character of the late Sir Robert Peel. I was long connected with him in public life. We were both in the councils of our Sovereign together, and I had long the honour to enjoy his private friendship. In all the course of my acquaintance with him, I never knew a man in whose truth and justice I had greater confidence, or in whom I saw a more invariable desire to promote the public service. In the whole course of my com- munication with him I never knew an instance in which he did not show the strongest attachment to truth ; and I never saw, in the whole course of my life, the smallest reason for suspecting that he stated anything which he did not firmly believe to be B

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the fact.” His character seems to be as truly pourtrayed here as could be in a few words. He promoted the facilities for education to a great extent ; and freely gave to charitable institutions. Everything he under- took he did thoroughly. All his speeches in Parliament clearly showed an accurate knowledge of the subject under discussion, and a clear remembrance of all that had been said by former speakers about it. During the whole of the forty years of his Parliamentary life, he always maintained a very high position in the favour and estimation of the members of the House of Commons. In 1809, at the early age of twenty-one, he took his seat in the House of Commons as member for Cashel: and two years afterwards was appointed Under-Secretary for the Colonies ; and from 1812 to 1818, was Secretary for Ireland. In the latter office he displayed an anti-Catholic spirit, (whence he was nick- named by the Irish, ‘Orange Peel,’) and in consequence was fiercely assailed by O’Connell, so that the quiet statesman was compelled to send him a challenge; but they were prevented from duelling by the police. Sir Robert endeavoured to put down the lawlessness of the Irish by promoting education in that Island ; and for the repression of Irish crime he instituted the new police force. As Home-Secretary, he also distinguished himself by his measure for the re-organization of the London police force. The policemen therefore received the name of ‘Peelers,’ or, as they are more frequently called in these parts, ‘ Bobbies.’ He remained out of office from 1818 to 1822, but not out of Parliament, where he sat as member for Oxford. In 1819, on the death of Francis Horner, he was appointed Chairman of the Bank Committee, and he brought about the resumption of cash payments. Before Sir Robert’s statement concerning their re- sumption, his father rose to present a petition against the measure. He said: “To-night I shall have to oppose a very near and dear relation. * * * I well remember when the near and dear relation I have alluded to wasachild. I observed to some friends that the man who discharged his duty to his country in the manner Mr. Pitt had done, was the man in all the world the most to be admired and the most to be emulated ; and I thought at that moment that if my life and that of my dear relative were spared, I would one day present him to his country to follow in the same path. It is very natural that such should be my wish, and I will only say further of him, that though he is deviating from the right path in this instance, his head and heart are in the right place, and I think they will soon recall him to the right way.” In reply to these words, Sir Robert,

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near the close of his speech, said: ‘ Many other difficulties presented themselves to me in discussing this question. Among them is one which it pains me to observe—I mean the necessity I am under of opposing myself to an authority to which I have always bowed from my youth up, and to which I hope I shall always continue to bow with deference. My excuse now is that I have a great public duty imposed on me, and that whatever may be my private feelings, from that duty I must not shrink.” On this occasion Peel’s opinion was adverse to that of his father; he did not consult his own private feelings because he knew that it was his duty to act in such a manner as he thought would be best suited to serve the interests of those whom the measure concerned ; and such opinion was endorsed by the decision of the legislature. In 1822, Sir Robert Peel became Home-Secretary in the place of Lord Sidmouth. But in 1827, when Lord Liverpool was taken ill, so that he was unable to discharge his duties, and Canning became First Lord of the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exchequer, he, together with Wellington and several others, resigned. However, in the following year, another change in the ministry occurred, and Peel again became Home-Secretary. Mr. Peel had for many years been opposed to Catholic Emancipation, but his views on that subject now began to veer round. The High Church and Tory party were flushed with indignation when they found that he, who had ever before been their favourite leader against all Liberal measures, was ready to desert them. Considering it impracticable to remain, Sir Robert vacated his seat for the University of Oxford; and when he offered himself as a candidate again, he was rejected in favour of Sir R. H. Inglis ; but he was returned as member for Westbury, and introduced the ever-memorable Catholic Relief Bill, (1829.) The Roman Catholics had long been politically and religiously oppressed, but had suffered most from the former. There were many very rigorous enactments which deprived them of various privileges. All Irish members of Parliament were compelled to take the Oath of Supremacy. There were also many others which interfered even with the private arrangements of their families. No Roman Catholic was permitted to become the guardian of a Protestant, or even of a Roman Catholic child; and if the son of a Catholic became a Protestant he was-allowed to take possession of the family estate. They were also excluded from civil and military offices, from the profession of the law, and were prohibited from becoming schoolmasters ; and if a lawyer married a Catholic, he was considered as having gone over to her faith. The Irish rebellion of 1798 caused the English to begin to consider how serious would be the consequences, if the

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Catholic disabilities were not removed. About 1824, the subject began to be discussed through the Press, and a Catholic Associa- tion was formed for the purpose of preparing petitions to send to the Government. In 1825, Sir F. Burdett introduced a Relief Bill which passed the Commons, but was rejected by the Lords. A new one was brought forward in 1827, and was lost by a majority of four; but the next year the same resolution passed by a majority of six. The great measure introduced by Peel in 1829, passed through both Houses with considerable majorities. By it the Oath of Abjuration, by which Roman Catholic members of Parliament pledged themselves to uphold the present institu- tions of the State, and not to injure those of the Church, was substituted for that of Supremacy. Catholics were admitted to all corporate offices, and were to enjoy equal municipal rights with the Protestants. The army and navy had already been opened to them. The only offices from which they were excluded were those of Regent, Chancellor of England, Chancellor of Ireland, and Viceroy of Ireland, and all offices in connection withthe Church, its Universities, and Schools, The franchise in Ireland was raised from £2 to £10 for security. This measure was not attended with such beneficial consequences as had been expected by its supporters, yet it averted the impending danger of a civil war in Ireland. The Catholics soon began to make a wrong use of the newly acquired powers by appropriating them rather to the promotion of the interests of the Irish Church than to the good of the Empire. A. H. H. (To be continued. )


Mr. Epitor, Solely for the benefit of the present rising generation, and totally regardless of the deep wound which I am about to re- open in my own breast, I place before you an episode in my existence, which time has failed to heal up. But I do so with the hope that it will prove an effective warning to the ambitious who are willing to risk their peace of body and mind in the attainment of ‘“‘ bubble reputation.” ‘ But to my task.” With what feelings of admiration and envy did Dollops and I view the redoubted Ramsbotham, as he calmly and majestically emitted the clouds of smoke from his fourpenny cigar! Our eyes were ravished at the sight. We stood, “lost in wonder, love and praise.” Would that we had stopped there, but alas for human ambition, such was not to be the case. Why should not we—Dollops and Popinjay—taste the sweets and share the honour of the brave Ramsbotham? Under the influence of this

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one thought, we denied ourselves tarts and sweets without number, and (though some of my readers, and especially you, Mr. Editor, may have. difficulty in believing it,) we even refrained from buying the Huddersfield College Magazine! Of course this system of hoarding and saving could not go on for any lengthened period without our very speedily seeing the results of it, and would you believe it, sir, in less than two months we had accumulated the immense sum of tenpence halfpenny. We were in raptures when on breaking open our cash box we dis- covered that we were possessed of this almost fabulous amount. I instantly threw my hat in the air, while Dollops made half-a- dozen circuits of the room on his head. I We were of course aware of the risks we should have to run, and our experience some years ago with regard to “ Our supper” had taught us the continual watchfulness and ever- wakeful solicitude of our friends, the masters. Consequently — many were the occasions when we were compelled, for obvious reasons, to postpone our proceedings until further notice. But at length the day dawned, when the non-appearance of any masters on the stage of action, (a mystery which to this day I have never been able to fathom,) afforded Dollops and myself a favourable opportunity for displaying our smoking powers. By a strategy which excelled by far any of Moltke’s achievements, we imported four cigars, a box of fusees, and two ounces of peppermint lozenges. We had now acquired all the necessaries requisite for the coming tr , 1 was going to write treat, but on second consideration, trial. And now the moment had arrived when the names of Dollops and Popinjay might justly be placed on a level with that of Ramsbotham. I struck a fusee! I applied it to the pointed end of the cigar! but great was my consternation when I discovered that it would not draw. And looking round, I saw none other than Ramsbotham approaching us. On seeing our difficulty, his magnanimous heart was full of compassion, and he kindly informed us that we had lit the wrong end of our cigars, and on that account they would not draw. Reassured by this information, we proceeded “to light up” in a more scientific manner, and before many minutes had elapsed we were puffing away like a couple of infuriated steam-engines. After continuing the motion for a little longer, we began to feel “squeamish,” but determined to show Ramsbotham how much we were enjoying ourselves, we replied to his enquiries as to whether we did not feel poorly, “Oh no! never felt better in our lives.” They may talk of the perseverance of a Napoleon, or the bravery of a Bruce, but their achievements sink into mere mole- hills, when compared with the mountains of heroism which we

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displayed on this occasion. But the measure of our sufferings was not yet filled up. To add to our discomfiture, the “ squeam- ishness” came to a point,and * * * * * but I will not acquaint you further of the harrowing details which then took place ; they are better imagined than described. But while we were still pale and trembling from the results of our ambition, our misery was more than doubled by the appearance of one of the masters, bearing in his hand the dread instrument of justice— a cane. He looked upon us, wretched boys ! A tear was in his eye ; He looked upon Ramsbotham, And his glance was stern and high. He said we were two little fools, To try to smoke cigars, And if he caught us e’er again, He’d write to our papas. He took the proud Ramsbotham And whacked him with the cane, Till the hero of ten thousand smokes, Cried out for very pain ! Such was the ignominious termination of “ My First Cigar,” which almost made me determine that it should also be my last ; at any rate it had the effect of convincing us that such freaks do not always end in smoke.—F.


We have a good deal of cricket to report this month, as the final month has been by far the busiest of the whole season. It is rather unfortunate that there were so few matches arranged with other clubs, as in our opinion, the playing powers of the boys composing the ‘ Eleven’ would have been much improved. But we hope to see that there will be arrangements made for matches next season with all the Colleges and Grammar Schools within a distance of twenty miles. On the 23rd of August, a match was played between eleven Old Boys v. fifteen Present Boys (with Mr. Ingleson.) The Old Boys won the toss and sent their opponents to the wickets. G. H. Sykes and J. D. Johnstone first represented the present boys, against the bowling of R. Bruce and C. Sykes. G. Sykes was bowled by the former before he had scored, and his place was taken by Rider, and when Watson joined him, after John- stone’s departure, he having been bowled by Bruce for 6, the play

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became more lively. Rider, after hitting together 18 in a very short time, was bowled by Sykes, and his place was taken by Mr. Ingleson. Expectations were now high; nor were they disappuinted. Watson was playing carefully and well, and runs now came more freely, when he was bowled by Storry for 14, and Mr. Ingleson put his leg where his bat should have been, before one of Storry’s balls, when he had got 20 in very good style. James and Woodhead were the next, but the former was caught off Bruce for 5. The latter made 12 by some careful and slow play, and whilst he was in he saw out no less than four of his comrades. No great scores were made after this, Lister’s 9 (not out) being the best performance, and the innings closed for a total of 118. The Old Boys now went in to try their fortune with the bat, but no great scores were made, on account of the good bowling of Mr. Ingleson. Bruce’s 11 and Denham’s 14 were their highest scores, and the innings were brought to a close for 44, leaving them 74 behind. They, therefore, followed their innings, but only got the same total as before for the loss of nine wickets. C. Sykes, Bentley, and Oldroyd, making the highest scores. Score :— Present Boys.—G. H. Sykes b Bruce 0, J. D. Johnstone b Bruce 6, F. Watson b Storry 14, C. Rider b Sykes 18, Mr. Ingleson 1b w b Storry 20, F. James c Sykes b Bruce 5, E. Woodhead b Bruce 12, T. Mallinson b Bruce 6, T. Smith h w b Bruce 0, Hearnshaw run out 1, A. Scarbro b Bruce 3, J. H. Lister not out 9, A. Smith c and b Bruce 0, S. Dixonec G. Woodhead b Storry 1, G. Priestley b Bruce 6; extras, 17 ; total, 118. Otp Boys.—(lst Innings)—R. Bruce c Watson b Ingleson 11, W. Roberts b Ingleson 0, W. Oldroyd b Ingleson 2, W. Storry b Ingleson 0, J. W Denham run out 14, C. Sykes b Woodhead 0, G. Woodhead run out 1, J. Bentley c Watson b Ingleson 2, W. Rookledge b Ingleson 0, H. Roberts s Mallinson b Woodhead 0, T. Wrigley not out 5; extras, 9 ; total, 44. Seconp Innines.—R. Bruce b Ingleson 3, W. Roberts b Ingleson 0, W. Oldroyd run out 7, W. Storry 1 b w b Ingleson 3, J. W. Denham c James b Woodhead 0, C. Sykes b Ingleson 11, G. Woodhead not out 2, J. Bentley b Ingleson 9, W. Rook- ledge b Ingleson 1, H. Roberts not out 1, T. Wrigley c Smith b Woodhead 2 ; extras, 5 ; total, 44. On Wednesday, the 27th August, the return match between the Day-boys and Boarders took place. ‘The Boarders first took the wickets, but were disposed of for twenty runs, seven of the wickets being credited to E. Woodhead. The Day-boys now went in, and at the fall of the last wicket had put together 143

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runs, towards which V. M’Grath contributed 38, W. A. Sykes, (not out) 31; J. W. Taylor, 17; and T. Mallinson, 11. The Boarders then went in again, and had got twenty-one runs for the loss of five wickets, towards which E. W. Anderson con- tributed 13 (not out,) when the stumps were drawn. On the 3rd of September, the College team were arrayed against the representatives of the Cleckheaton Tradesmen’s Association C. C. This match, which through the kind consent of the committee of the United Press C. C., took place on their ground, Trinity Street, was the return match, and resulted in a tie. The highest scorers for Cleckheaton, who went in first, were J. Clegg with 14, and H. C. Sykes, 10 ; and the innings closed for a total of 38. The College now went in, but owing to the good bowling of Carver and Clegg, neither of whom, however, belong to the club, but were borrowed from another club for the occasion, no stand was made except by Mr. Ingleson, who in masterly style obtained 19, the best feature of the match. Score:— CLECKHEATON.—(Ist Bottomley b Ingleson 2, H. C. Sykes 1 b w b Ingleson 10, A. Carver b Ingleson 0, A. Knowles ¢ Mallinson b Woodhead 2, W. Spencer b Ingleson 1, J. Clegg st Denham b Woodhead 14, Mr. Jones b Ingleson 5, McGilley thrown out Bruce 1, Jos Clegg c Rider b Woodhead 0, Muschump not out 0, J. C, Scott b Woodhead ; extras, 3 ; total, 38. Szconp Innines.—R. Bottomley ¢ Denham b Ingleson 2, H. C. Sykes not out 2, A. Carver not out 3, J. Clegg b Ingleson 3, McGilley run out 0; extras, 2; total for three wickets, 10. CoLttece.—W. Storry b Carver 3, C. Rider b Carver 0, Bruce b Clegg 2, F. H. James run out 0, Mr. Ingleson b Bottomley 19, E. Woodhead b Clegg 0, J. W. Denham run out 0, W. Rook- ledge run out 2, T. Mallinson not out 3, G. H. Sykes 1b w b Bottomley 2, Watson b Bottomley 0; extras, 7; total, 38. The return match between eleven Old Boys and fifteen Present Boys was played on Saturday, September 6th, and re- sulted in a victory for the Present Boys, though not so decisive as before. Score :— Present Bors.—C. Rider b Smith 0, G. H. Sykes ¢ and b Smith 1, Mr. Ingleson c Denham b Bruce 11, J. D. Johnstone b Smith 0, T. Smith run out 3, A. Scarbro b Bruce 0, E. Wood- head b Bruce 0, E. Anderson c and b Bentley 8, T. Mallinson b Smith 0, G. Priestley b Smith 6, F. James b Smith 9, F. Watson hit wkt b Smith 3, J. H. Lister b Bentley 2, Hearnshaw c C. Sykes b Denham 3, Sub for Holmes not out 0; extras, 11 ; total, 57. Otp Boys.—(1st Innings)—Bentley b Ingleson 0, Oldroyd b Woodhead 0, C. Sykes b Ingleson 0, J. W. Denham c G. Sykes b Woodhead 28, Bruce run out 0, T. Smith b Woodhead 0,

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Storry 1 b w b Woodhead 1, W. Rookledge b Ingleson 5, P. Brierley b Woodhead 0, J. A. Schofield not out 1, Sub for Whitley run out 1 ; extras, 6 ; total, 42. : Seconp Innines.—Bentley b Ingleson 1, Oldroyd b Ingleson 19, C. Sykes not out 8, J. W. Denham b Ingleson 2, Bruce not out 12, T. Smith run out 5, Storry b Woodhead 0, W. Rookledge run out 5, P. Brierley b Woodhead 4, J. A. Schofield b Ingleson 9; extras, 6; total, 71. As the Boarders were not satisfied with the results of the previous matches, it was agreed to play Day Boys v. Boarders, on Wednesday, the 10th of September, and the match resulted in favour of the Boarders by twenty-two runs. Score :— — Day Boys.—J. W. Taylor b Hearnshaw 10, G. H. Sykes b _ Hearnshaw 3, T. Mallinson b Hearnshaw 0, M’Grath b Scarbro 5, E. Woodhead b Scarbro 10, J. D. Johnstone c Scarbro b James 6, W. A. Sykes run out 4, P. Holmes c Dixon b James 0, T. Kilburn b Scarbro 0, H. J. Brooke c James b Scarbro 0, S. Longworth not out 0; extras, 7 ; total, 45. BoarpEers.—TI. Smith c Holmes b Woodhead 0, Hearnshaw ec Holmes b Woodhead 3, Jordan ec Holmes b Woodhead 1, Rider b M’Grath 1, James c Holmes b Woodhead 9, Anderson c and b Woodhead 9, Dixon b M’Grath 0, Lister c Mallinson b M’Grath 11, Scarbro b Holmes 9, Priestley not out 8, Handley c Mallinson b Woodhead 7 ; extras, 9; total, 67. As holiday was given to all the boys on Thursday, the 11th, in consequence of the marriage of the daughter of the Mayor, it was determined to play the return match, and though the Day Boys had the disadvantage of the absence of three of their best players, they gave the Boarders another defeat. Score :— BoarpErs.—(1st Innings)—Anderson b Woodhead 0, James b Holmes 3, Rider b Woodhead 0, Priestley b Holmes 0, Hearn- shaw c G. Sykes b Holmes 2, Watson run out 0, T. Smith run out 0, Lister c Holmes b Woodhead 2, Scarbro not out 10, Dixon b Woodhead 0, Handley run out 1, extras, 8; total, 26. Seconp Innincs.—Anderson c Holmes b Johnstone 3, James c Mallinson b Woodhead 18, Rider c Jordan b Woodhead 7, Hearnshaw c Johnstone b Woodhead 4, Watson c G. Sykes b Woodhead 0, T. Smith not out 4, Lister not out. 7, Scarbro ¢ Mallinson b Woodhead 3, Handley c Jordan b Holmes 5; extras, 4; total for seven wickets, 55. Day Boys.—G. H. Sykes thrown out Scarbro 13, W. A. Sykes b Hearnshaw 1, P. Holmes run out 3, Jordan c and b Hearnshaw 0, E. Woodhead b Scarbro 15, J. Johnstone st James b Hearnshaw 7, Mallinson c Priestley b Scarbro 4, H. J. Brooke ec Smith b James 3, Longworth c and b James 8, Fell b Scarbro 2, Substitute not out 2; extras, 0; total, 58.

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1. How can magnets be restored? Does mere contact with loadstone impart magnetism to them ?—J. H. H. 2. Homo sum, nihil humanum mihi alienum puto. What orator spoke these words, and on what occasion ?—Z. 3 “If Skiddaw hath a cap, Scruffel wots full well of that.” What is the meaning of this Cumberland proverb 1—F. 4. What is the meaning and derivation of the word “ Royd ?” 5. I have often noticed that there are strips of grass-land at each side of some roads, so broad as to preclude the possibility of their ever having been part of the road itself. Why is not this land either cultivated or made part of the road 7—U. K. 6. What is the origin of the Inn sign, “ Bull and Mouth?”


1. Square the words STONE and DOGS.

2. L’un se chant, se seme ; Le toué cause au chef mal extréme. 3. I am a word of 9 letters.

My 6, 7, 8, is what gamblers do : My 6, 7, 2, 8, is a girdle : My 6, 1, 7, 1 is an insect : My 6, 5, 8, can fly : My 1, 2, 3, is an Israelitish priest : My 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, is a feminine Christian name ; and My whole is an English Sovereign. A. B. B.

4. Divide the number 56 into two parts, such that one may be to the other as 3 to 4. 5. Divide 100 into two parts, such that the differences of their squares may be 1000. .

6. Let A BC bea right angle. From B as centre with any radius B A draw an arc A C, cutting B A and BC respectively in Aand C. Then from A as centre, and with the radius A B, cross the arc A C in E; and from C as centre, with the same radius, cross it again in D. Join B D and B E. Show that the angle A B D=D.B E=E B C=one third of A B C,

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PROBLEM I.—By Mr. F. HEALEY, Lonpown. (A masterpiece of Chess strategy. )

~ = pees oh 4, — a ma =e ©

WHITE White to play and mate i n four mov

PROBLEM II.—By Mr. W. A. SHINKMAN, Micuican. (From the Dubuque Journal for April, 1873.)

nae a / oe i ie



en — a a 5

White mates without making a mo

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The following game was played at the Glasgow Chess Club, February Ist, 1873, between Herr Zukertort, the celebrated Berlin chess-player, and Mr. Jenkins, the accomplished chess editor of the Glasgow Herald, and has not hitherto been published.

Scotch Gambit.

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Jenkins. Herr ZUKERTORT. Mr. JENKINS. HERR ZUKERTORT. 1.PtoK 4 1. P to K 4 22. Kttakes B. 22. R takes Kt 29. KttoKB3 2 KttoQB3 I 23. 23. KttoQ 4 3. PtoQ 4 3. P takes P 24.QtakesQ RP(d)24. R to K Kt 3 4. Kt takes P 4,.QtoK R5 25. KtoK R2 25. QtoK B4 5. KttoK B3(a) 5. QtakesKP(ch)| 26. P to Q B 4 (e) 26. Q to K 5 6. B to K 2 6. BtoK I 27. PtoK B3 27. QtakesQBP(/) 7. Castles 7. KttoK B38 I 28. QR to @ B sq 28. Q to @ to 8. R to K sq 8. Castles 29. QtoQR3 = 29. Q takes Q 9. KttoQB3 9<QtKB4 30. P takes Q 39. QRto K 3 10. B to Q 3 10. QtoK R 4 31. Bto B2 31. PtoK B3 ll BtooK B4 11. PtoQ3 32. K RtoQsq 32. PtoQB3 12,.PtcoK R38 12. BtoQ 2 33. PtoK Kt3 33. RtoQ R sq 18. KttoK2 18.QRtoKsq I 34. KRtoQ3 34 PtoQ Kt3 14. Bto K Kt 5(c) 14. Kt to K 4 35. Q R to K sq 3. PtoK B4 15. Kt takes Kt 15. P takes Kt 36. PtoK Kt4 36. PtoK 5 16. Q to Q 2 16.PtoK R3_ |{-37. PtakesK BP(g)37 P takes R 17. BtoK 8 17. Bto Q 3 38. P takes R 38. R takes Q RP 18. Kt to K Kt3 18.QtoK R5_ I 39. BtakesQKtP(2)39. R takes P (ch) 19. BtoK BS 19.QRtoQsq I 40. Kto Kt3 40. PtcoQ7 20. B takes B 20. R takes B and wins. 21. KttoK BS 21.QtoK R 4 NOTES.

(a.) Kt to Q Kt 5, the invention of Herr Horwitz, has been considered until recently to be Black’s best move at this point ; the move in the text, introduced by Mr. Fraser, of Dundee, is now, however, generally preferred. B to Q Kt 5 (ch) is thought highly of here, by Steinitz and other authorities. (c.) Threatening to win the Q by Kt to Kt 3 next move. (d.) White has scarcely time for this raid into the enemy’s territory. (¢.) Overlooking Black’s next move. (/.) Q to Q B 7 would perhaps have been better. (g.) Well played. (4.) P to K 7 wins the Kt r the Pawn, and might possibly have enabled White to draw.

Our next game was one of twelve played by Herr Zukertort, simultaneously and without sight of the board, at the Glasgow Chess Club, on the 25th of January last, and was the only one lost by him on that occasion. .

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Sicilian Opening.

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Fyre. HERR ZUKERTORT. Mr. Fyre. HERR ZUKERTORT. 4 1.PtcQB4 14. KttksQBP(ch)14. K to B 2 2, KttoKB3 2 PtoK3 15. Kt toQ Kt 4 15. R to K sq (ch) 3. BtoQB4 3. Kt to K 2 16. K to Q sq 16. Bto K 3 4,.PtoQB3 4.KttoQ B38 BtoK B4(ch)17. K to Kt 2 5. PtoQ R4 5. P to Q 4 18. QO KttoQ2 18. PtoQ5 6. PtakesQP 6. P takes P 19. PtoQB4 19. QRtoQ Bsq 7.BtoQ Kt5 7. PtoK Kt3 I 20. PtoQKt3 20. PtooQR4 8. PtoQ4(a) 8. P takes P 21. Kt to Q 3 21. PtooK R38 9. Q takes P 9. K Rto Ktsq| 22. PtoK R4 22. KttoK 2 10. KttoK B4 I 23. QKttoK 4 23. KttoB4 11, Q takes Q(ch) 11. K takes Q 24. PtoK Kt4(c) 24. B takes QBP 12. B takes Q Kt 12. P takes B 25. Q Kt to Q B 5 (ch) and Black 13. Kt to K 5(d) 18. Bto K Kt 2 resigned.

NOTES. (a.) White plays the opening moves in excellent style against his formidable antagonist. (b.) White must win something here. (c.) Black has no reprieve granted him in this game. The publication of this partie brings vividly to the recollection a very pleasant visit to the Land o’ Cakes in 1860, when he had the pleasure of crossing swords with Herr Zuker- tort’s opponent in the present game. Mr. Fyfe, we should say, judging from his play in this encounter, has improved to the extent of a piece since that time.


It has been suggested by a gentleman connected with the College that a Chess Club might prove an interesting source of recreation for the boys during the winter evenings, and that an hour or two a week set apart for practice at the game would not be misspent time. Should such an idea be carried into execution we should be glad to give our aid, both in drawing up the rules, and in occasional visits to the club. The following extract from an article in Mr. Tomlinson’s Chess-Players’ Annual for 1856, entitled, Steamboat parley about Chess,” may appropriately be quoted in favour of the pro- position. The discussion on the game takes place in a voyage between London and Edinburgh, and after various gentlemen, including a ‘graduate of Dublin University,’ a ‘disciple of Galen,’ and a ‘Scotch gentleman-farmer,’ have argued pro and con, an appeal is made to a ‘clergyman of the Scotch Church’ to wind up the discussion.

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He does so in the following words :—“I have little to add,” said the pastor, that, having the charge of youth, the educational bearing of the game has chiefly struck me. My experience has led me to think very highly of chess as a means of developing character in the young, and there- fore revealing to the instructor what it is so vital for him to know, but which he often finds it so hard to get at; fur the hearts of the young are apt to close against the attempts of the teacher to read them in the hour of instruction, and if they open at all it is in the hour of recreation. And at this game especially do the qualities of head and heart reveal themselves quite uncon- sciously on the part of the players. It affords accordingly an easy opportunity for timely correction of deficiency or excess. With youth there is no disguise but will be thrown off in so earnest an occupation as they usually find this to be. The impetuous and the cautious, the timid and the overweening, the deliberate and the unthinking, show themselves here. And here the generous nature, that will take no advantage, contrasts with the illiberal, that accepts every indulgence, but yields nothing in turn. And the emulous but noble spirit that, eager for victory, yet scorns to extenuate defeat, is favourably distinguished from the meaner one, that ascribes discomfiture to anything and everything but the skill of his opponent. In a word, these embryo. men of ours contrive on a chess-board’s narrow field to play by anticipa- tion the game of life in miniature, and with the self-same qualities that will one day mark the larger game. So satisfied indeed do I feel of its beneficial influence, that I would have chess taught in every school throughout the land, so that every one might be able to‘play it.”


We have not received any correct solutions of Problem XI.* Several have been forwarded beginning with 1—Q to K R 8, and P to Q 4. Neither of these moves avail against the best defence, which, however, is not on the surface. This problem was transferred from our columns into the Illustrated London News of August 23rd. The correct solution of Problem XII has been received from J. H. F., Newcastle-on-Tyne ; E. D., J. C., T. H., Huddersfield ; D. W. O., Glasgow ; and the Rev. A. B., Houghton-le-Spring. Change of Address. Solutions of problems, and all other communications for this department to be addressed to the Chess Editor of the Magazine, Fairfield, New North Road, Huddersfield. * Since the above was in type, J. H F. has solved this difficult problem.

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Huddersteld College lagusine.


I aM, let me state, a very little boy, but that, I hope, will not preclude the possibility of my short theme being inserted, since the Magazine is for the benefit of little boys as well as big ones. I am not going to plunge into the midst of a number of deep researches into the causes of the numerous accidents which now make travelling by rail so dangerous, nor am IJ about to discuss any practical method of preventing them. What I want to do is simply to describe the means the generation of about thirty years ago had of going away to spend their holidays, or of visiting their relations in the country, after a long round of hard work at school. I mean the system of railway travelling, by means of which they managed to make their excursions and visits. The first railway intended for regular passengers, as well as goods traffic, was opened in September, 1830, between Liverpool and Manchester, and wonderful indeed seemed the “ Rocket,” and its seven compeers, to the admiring spectators, as they snorted along at the rate of from fourteen to twenty-eight miles per hour, ac- cording to the weight of the train. Soon after this the Leeds and Selby line was opened; that being the first line in this neighbourhood which got into operation, the communication with Hull being carried on by means of small, and not always trust- worthy steamers. Afterwards communication between Leeds and Manchester was opened, via. Normanton ; and it is of an excursion from Dewsbury to Liverpool on this line that I purpose chiefly to speak. I was conversing not very long ago with a very near and dear relative, and in the course of the conversation we got comparing the travelling of his youth with that of the present day, and while speaking on that subject, he gave me the following history of a day’s excursion by rail, from Dewsbury to Liverpool. ‘Soon after the construction of the connecting line between Leeds and Manchester,” said he, ‘there were large placards posted up and down, announcing the first ‘Cheap Trip’ to Liverpool, that was to pass through Dewsbury. Now, as I was at that time staying at T , not far from Dewsbury, I determined to embrace the opportunity of seeing that great C

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seaport, more especially as it was the first day trip from our part of the country. The trip passed through Dewsbury close on four a.m. on the morning of that eventful day, so I was up betimes, and left T for Dewsbury at a quarter-past three in the morning, just before day-break. At Dewsbury I met my two compagnons de voyage, and having secured our tickets, we took our—I was going to say seats—stand in the third-class carriages, and were whirled off towards Lancashire at the rate of about eighteen or twenty miles an hour. And whilst we are on the way, let me describe the carriages in which we were confined for a period of nearly five hours. The third-class carriages then were not the comparatively comfortable third-class carriages of to-day. The nearest representatives we have of them now are the cattle trucks employed for the transportation of such unlucky cows, sheep, or pigs, whose lot it is to go by rail at all. These trucks—and I write the word with due consideration—in which we were conveyed, were oblong wooden structures, without springs. The perpendicularity of their sides, and the rectangu- larity of their corners, would have satisfied the most fastidious stickler for mathematical precision, but which said precision did not add materially to the comfort of us poor excursionists, whose only change of position from that of the erect, was to lean against the said perpendicular sides, for sitting down on those floors was entirely out of the question, unless one were endowed with the most supreme indifference to broad cloth. And as for seats, third-class passengers were supposed not to require them ; or if they did, they had to go second-class and pay for them. Quite right, too, you say ; but I can tell you that you would not have said that, my lad, if you had endured the tedium of standing up for five mortal hours, jolted almost to pieces at every movement of the carriage, and shaken and rolled about whenever you passed a set of points. You would not advocate the “ put-your-self-in- his-place” doctrine if you had the slightest conception of what we suffered during that journey. Well, we got to Liverpool in due course, at nine o’clock, with comparatively few interruptions on the way. We spent our time, as most excursionists do, in looking about us at the different objects of interest in the city, the public buildings, the busy, crowded streets, the docks and shipping, etc., etc., and then re- turned to secure our se—, I mean places—for the return journey. But by some misfortune I got separated from the rest of the party, and got into a carriage with some men who had made use of their time to arrive at various stages of intoxication. Some were just in that social condition which leads them to feel inclined for friendly and amicable intercourse with all comers, and who without any pressing on my part to tell me their

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estimate of my character, confidentially informed me that they thought I was ‘‘a jolly goo’ feller,” and asked me what I would “stan’” (pay for.) Others again were exceedingly pugnaciously inclined, and I received several invitations to “come on and get lick’d,” and not a few challenges to a bout at fisticuffs, which you may be sure I declined with thanks. While a great many more were either in a helpless, maudlin condition, and inclined to pillow their heads on my unoffending carcass, or else lay about the floor of the carriage, sleeping off the effects of the debauch. Add to this the fact that I had already been om my feet for fifteen hours, and felt well tired ; and that for the last two hours an uncom- fortable drizzling rain had been falling, and was increasing in density every moment, and you have a picture of the most miserable predicament that I recollect being in in my life. We set off, and between Liverpool and Manchester, my chief occupa- tion was alternately trying to get comfortable in spite of rain, and shaking myself free of my troublesome neighbours, whom nothing but a good strong determined shove could convince that I preferred to be left to myself, without being forced to act as a leaning post for their benefit. When we got to Manchester, we had to wait outside the town for some reason or other, and the inconvenience and discomfort of my position increased every moment. <A quarter of an hour passed, and my drunken friends behaved pretty well. But the second quarter of an hour, they began to be impatient ; the damp and the delay being too much even for their long- suffering patience, and I suppose they would be getting rather chill, in spite of the numerous bumpers they had swallowed to prevent such a contingency. At the end of half-an-hour, they began to mutter and grumble to themselves ; then to bore me with complaints and stupid suggestions as to the feasibility of making the engine driver proceed by force or by entreaty, and when I cast a wet blanket on all their propositions, they began to bawl out at the top of their voices, threatening what they would do, and what a terrible storm they would bring down on the devoted head of the engine driver, if he did not instantly proceed. Many of them were sitting on the topmost edge of the side of the carriage, and when the engineer perceived that the passengers generally were getting impatient at the delay, he got up steam, drove the train a few yards, and then suddenly reversed his engine, and toppled the unwary and elevated “roosters ” into the middle of the floor. ‘ What a lark!” do you say? You may think so; and it certainly was ludicrous and laughable to see them sprawling impotently on the boards, but it was any- thing but pleasant standing in that dispiriting atmosphere of rain, and stale beer and brandy odours, to say nothing of the c 3

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detestable tobacco some of them were smoking, and the disgusting language they used when they found out that the engine driver was fooling them. But at last our misery was a little alleviated by the moving of the train, and soon we were speeding on again towards home. We had tostop for some time just outside Brighouse in a cutting there, and I remember seeing a porter go past the carriage towards the engine. It was now almost totally dark, and one of the most impatient of those in the next carriage shouted out to ask him, ‘“‘ Wheer are we naah?” The porter replied, “ I’ th’ streets o’ Lunnon,” upon which the querist exclaimed, “I didn’t think they wor like this, neither, I thought they wor leeter ;” and the porter went off highly delighted with the success of his attempt to ‘cram’ the greenhorn. When at last we arrived at Dewsbury, you can imagine with what mingled feelings I stepped upon the platform—joy at finding myself nearly home again, and low spirits because of my wet clothing, which sent a chill through me—struggled for the mastery, and I set out to walk home from Dewsbury to O , about three miles away. What time was it when I got home? Why, it was three o'clock in the morning, and I had been on my feet for twenty-four hours, and nearly half the time I was wet through to the skin ; and I can assure you that the remembrance of that day is almost indelibly impressed upon my mind, and it will be long before I forget the first cheap trip from Dewsbury to Liverpool.” Did I ever have any other memorable occurrence with respect to railways about that time? ‘Well, as I said before, the Leeds and Selby line was the first in this neighbourhood, and when it first came into operation, I was serving my apprenticeship in Leeds. This was before my trip to Liverpool, and I and a fellow apprentice of mine determined to have a ride on one of the locomotives, which caused so much wonder and stir amongst the natives. At first, too, they created even ridicule, for the enyines were made so light that they had not the proper grip upon the metals, and the wheels spun round without moving the train, if it were at all heavy, though, of course, this defect was remedied in the next manufactured engines. We, therefore, got up early one morning and set off to walk along the line, to a small station not many miles out of Leeds. We had got nearly to our journey’s end, and could almost see the station in the distance, when we met one of the railway officials, who kindly informed us that we were rendering ourselves liable to a severe fine, and we knew it would be exacted, since they were more strict in those matters then than they are now ; we, therefore, made haste to get off the line, and jumped into a field of mowing grass, but it was ‘out

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of the frying pan into the fire,’ for we had only got about half way across the field when we heard a great shouting behind us, and turning round we saw the owner of the field, a big, burly farmer with a horsewhip, shouting after us at the top of his voice. Did we run? I should think we did. As soon as we heard his voice and the ominous cracking of his whip, we made an ignom- inious retreat, taking to our heels immediately, and we did not stop till we reached the station. How did we go on then, do you say? Why, we went to a porter and asked him what time the next train for Leeds left, and he told us; but it was so late, that we should have to be at Leeds to be at our work long before the train left here, and so we set off disappointed certainly, but in good spirits, for we could not feel cross on such a beautiful morning, so we returned to Leeds by the high-road, and were in plenty of time to go to business at the proper hour.” Did I know anything about the Hull and Selby steamers that I mentioned? ‘‘ Yes, lad, I have heard some queer. things about those boats, from a man who was in the habit of going backwards and forwards regularly between the two places. He told me that the boats used for traffic between these places were not selected from vessels built exclusively for river trafic, but were usually those steamers which were too unseaworthy for the open sea, so they were used as long as they could possibly float, for the river service ; for the inspection of vessels then was not so strictly attended to as itis now, and owners believed in getting the most out of their boats, with as little expenditure as possible. This person I just mentioned, often used to make me laugh by telling me of the rivalry of the different companies which conducted the river traffic. The captains of the vessels also were very bitter in their emulation of one another. They used to bandy words whenever they met at the wharves and piers, and the disputes often waxed noisy and furious, whilst all efforts were made to secure the greatest number of passengers, and to arrive first at their destination when they set off. In fact, so much was this the case that it nearly resolved itself into a question of capital, as to which would be able to freight at the lowest charge. One morning when my friend went down to the pier in order to go to Selby, he found the captain of one vessel offering to take passengers for nothing ; whilst the other, not to be outdone, offered to take them gratis and provide them a breakfast. He went with the one who took passengers for nothing, and very much enjoyed the greater room which was caused by the absence of those for whom the enticement of a breakfast proved too alluring. But accidents sometimes happened in the eagerness to be first in the race. One morning this gentleman of whom I speak had just got on board his favourite

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boat, when the other, which had been getting up a great pressure of steam, ready for the race, followed the example of the American Mississippi steamers, and blew up with a terrific ex- plosion, whilst several persons were killed, and many injured. But it is time you went to bed, my lad, so we will finish our talk some other night. Good night.” As this has been nearly all about travelling, I think I ought to sign myself—VuarTor.

We take this opportunity of thanking most heartily the Editor of the Camden School Record, for the very kind and complimentary terms in which he speaks of our Magazine.— Ed. H. C. M.


On the bank of the Thames, in the great metropolis of the world, stands ‘* Julius Cesar’s ill-erected tower.” This monument of ancient times and customs is supposed to have been built when Constantine was Emperor. The bnilding is now a great place of resort for lovers of antiquity ; and many a pleasant hour may be spent in examining the rooms, in which at earlier periods, so many persons have suffered and died. The first thing which attracts the eyes of the visitor, as he enters the gate, is the peculiar dress of the warder. The dress is the same as that worn by men who occupied this post ages ago. The post of warder is generally conferred on veterans who have distinguished themselves in their country’s service. One of the smaller towers, called the ‘ Bloody Tower,” was the scene of an event familiar to every one, the murder of the two young princes, sons of Edward IV. Little can be said concerning the armouries, except that the devices in bayonets, swords, &c., and the arrangement of the guns, are most beautiful and well worth going to see. Immediately over the last apart- ment of the White Tower, occupying the space from the first floor to the roof, is St. John’s Chapel, “ one of the finest and most perfect specimens of Norman architecture in this country.” Tradi- tion says that the Brick Tower was the place of imprisonment of Lady Jane Grey. The warder shows also the room, in which tower I cannot well remember, where Sir Walter Raleigh was imprisoned. At your right hand going in may be seen a doorway,

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leading into a dark and miserable little room. <“‘ This,” said the warder, “ was the bedroom of Sir Walter.” He then took up from a stand in the centre of the room, a thumbscrew, and some other old instruments of torture, which he presented to us to examine. Having departed from this wretched looking room, we went outside and looked at the block on which—J think he said—Sir Walter Raleigh was beheaded, and thereon might be seen marks of blood. We now arrive at perhaps the most interesting tower of all to the lovers of old devices and inscriptions, namely, the Beauchamp Tower. I will here lay before my readers some of the inscriptions. As you enter the building you perceive on your left hand side an inscription by Walter Paslew, dated 1569 and 1570, hope is in Christ.” No authentic account is given of this person. In 1537, we read of a John Paslew, Abbot of Whalley, in Lancashire, being apprehended for his part in the rebellion called the ‘‘ Pilgrimage of Grace,” and executed March 12th, 1537. Near to the device of Paslew; is the name of “Robert Dvdley.” This nobleman was the son of John Dudley, Duke of North- umberland, and was arraigned for high treason, on the accession of Mary to the throne, for having endeavoured to place the crown on the head of Lady Jane Grey. Over the fireplace is the following interesting inscription :— The more suffering for Christ in this world—the more glory with Christ in the next. Thou hast crowned him with honour and glory, O Lord! In memory everlasting He will be just. Arundell, June 22nd, 1587.” This unfortunate nobleman, who left this interesting © memorial of his afflictions, was Philip Howard, son of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, (who was beheaded in 1573, for aspiring to marry Mary Queen of Scots.) On the right of the fireplace is a device bearing the name, “John Dvdle.” A lion and bear and ragged staff occupy the centre of the device, which is surrounded by a border of different kinds of flowers, and some oak sprigs, and underneath is the inscription :— ‘‘ You that these beasts do wel behold and se, May deme with ease wherefore here made they be

With borders eke wherein, 4 brothers’ names who list to serche the grovnd.”

On the right of the second recess is an inscription which has. been partly cut away, but may be read as follows :—“I. H. &., 1571, Die 10 Aprilis. Wise men ought circumspectly to see what they do—to examine before they speake—to prove before they take in hand—to beware whose company they use, and above all things to whom they truste. Charles Bailly.”

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Near the above we find an inscription which runs thus :— ‘“‘ Typpyng stand and bere the cross, For thow art Catholyke, bvt no worce, And for that cavse this by-eer space Thow hast conteant wedin great disgrace, Yet what happ will hitt I Cannot tel, bvt be death Or be wel, content swet good.” There is neither date nor signature to this inscription, but we may gather from the words that the writer of it was a Roman Catholic, and he appears to have been holding a conversation with himself. Further on there is another inscription, rather a long and in- teresting one, by William Rame ; it reads thus :—“ Better it is to be in the house of mornyng then in the house of banketing ; the harte of the wyse is in the mornyng house: it is better to have some chastening then to have over muche liberte. There is a tyme for all things—a tyme to be borne and a tyme to dye; ande the daye of deathe is better then the daye of berthe : there is an ende of all things, and the ende of a thing is better then the begenin: be wyse and pacyente in troble, for wysdom defendeth as well as mony, vse well the tyme of prosperite, and ‘remember the tyme of misfortupe. XXII. die, Aprilis Ano. 1559. William Rame.” We have no clue which will assist us in forming a conjecture as to the cause of this person’s imprisonment, excepting the date attached to the inscription. Further on is another inscription, by T. Miagh, consisting of the following words :— ‘* Thomas Miagh whiche lieth here alone That fayne would from hens begon ; By tortyre straynge mi troth was tryed, Yet of my libertie denied. 1581, Thomas Myagh.” On the left of the last recess is the following interesting in- scription, by Charles Bailly :—‘ The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.” “J.H.S.X.P.8.” “Be frend to one— Be ennemye to none. Anno D 1571, 10 Sept.” “The most unhappy man in the world is he that is not pacient in adversities ; For men are not killed with the adversities they have, but withe ye impatcience which they svffer.” ‘All who comes to attend.” “The sighs are the true testimonies of my anguish.” Oct. 29th, Charles Bailly. ‘‘ Hope to the end and have pacience.” On leaving this room with which so many are interested, we perceive on the right of the first loophole, an inscription in another language, of which the following is a translation, which I have obtained from a guide :—“ It is a reproach to be bound in the cause of sin ; but to sustain the bonds of prison, for the sake of Christ, is the greatest glory. Arundell, 26th May, 1587.” This inscription was left by Philip Howard, Earl of Arundell.

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Reader, so far I have tried to interest you by writing some of the most striking inscriptions. Furthermore, I must tell you some of the principal constituents of the regalia which are kept in the tower. It appears from ancient records that they were first kept in the Tower of London in the reign of Henry III. The following is the collection :—The crown of our own beloved Sovereign, St. Edward’s crown, the Prince of Wales’s crown, the royal sceptre, the ivory sceptre made for James II.’s Queen Marie D’Este ; a baptismal font used at the christening of the royal children ; various dishes, spoons, and other articles of gold, used at the coronation ; and a beautiful service of Sacramental plate used at the same august ceremony. Is it not right now that thanks should be rendered to God for having so ordered the state of affairs in our country that we are not under the same restrictions and sufferings as were our forefathers? What a change has come over this land in the course of a few centuries! It must be plain even to the dullest mind that the people are more civilized now than a century or two ago. Reader, I have tried with all my best efforts to write a brief account of what I saw on my visit to the Tower; and I hope anybody who feels interested in antiquities, will spend a shilling and procure an entrance for himself, and thereby see far more than I have here related.



THE first match of the season took place on Saturday, October Ath, at Fieldhouse, the ground being once more kindly placed at the service of the club by E. Brooke, Esq., who also stood as umpire for both teams. Doubts were entertained in the early part of the day as to whether the wet would not prevent the game being played, but by three o’clock in the afternoon, (the time at which play com- menced,) the state of affairs was everything that could be desired, there being just sufficient wind to favour neither club. The ball was set going by the captain of the Grammar School team, and for a few minutes was kept pretty well in the centre of the ground, until a well-directed punt made by Nicholson (of the G. §.,) sent it flying away behind our goal. A very good piece of play was now witnessed. G. Scarborough picked up the ball,

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and rather than touch down in his own goal, and so have given our opponents the credit of obtaining a rouge, he, in a most successful manner, dodged first one and then another of them, eventually bringing out the ball into the middle of the ground again, where it remained for a considerable time. At length, when the call of “half-time” came, the visitors (who had all the chances in their favour, consequent upon being older players, and somewhere about half as heavy again on the whole as their opponents), had not been able to gain any advantage, the game standing at rouge for rouge. The ball being again kicked off, was in a short time driven in behind the Manchesters’ goal, the College thus scoring another rouge. Shortly after this, the Grammar School team, aided by a little negligence on the part of the College back players, succeeded in obtaining a touchdown, from which a goal was got by a splendid kick from Nicholson, captain of the club. When “all off-side” was called, ‘College’ were rapidly gaining ground, their play for the half-hour previous, being very spirited and altogether good ; however, the result of the two hours’ tustle was :—Manchester Grammar School, one goal, one rouge; Huddersfield College, two touchdowns, two rouges. Both clubs now adjourned to the George Hotel, where they partook of an excellent tea, and afterwards spent the remainder of the evening in singing, recitations, and complimentary speech- making. It must be remembered that in this game many of the College team were playing their first match, and so were not as well up as their opponents in those ins-and-outs of the game which tend to make victory sure. However, despite many dis- advantages, they played pluckily and well, and as the season advances, IF THEY BUT TAKE ADVANTAGE OF EVERY OPPORTUNITY PRESENTED TO THEM OF PRACTISING TOGETHER, the Huddersfield College Football Club will not lose any of its last year’s reputa- tion, °

THE STORK OF LUCERNE. From the German of J. M. Usteri.

Tue Stork, seldom if ever seen in England, is to be met with in most parts of the Continent. It is an especial favourite with the peasants for its services in ridding the land of vermin.

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Its affection for its young is well known.

Why this rush through the streets of so anxious a crowd ! And whence all this rumbling and rolling ¢ From each tower the answer is given aloud By the firebell’s* ominous tolling ; And in all directions, both distant and nigh, Ever louder and louder ‘‘ Fire! Fire!” is the cry.

And now by the heat from the rafters uptorn, The red tiles are heavily falling ; But onward the people still press, for they scorn To linger when duty is calling. Undismayed by the peril or glare, each one strives To rescue the inmates’ belongings and lives.

But what is that form aloft yonder in white ? Where the fire-riven timbers are crashing, And forked tongues of flame, appallingly bright, Swiftly upwards are furiously flashing ? a Stork on her nest, where she fearlessly clings, Attempting to shelter her brood with her wings.

Every heart is now seized with compassion, men try The bird from her young ones to sever— By shouting and stoning to cause her to fly— But how utterly vain an endeavour ! She will cleave to her fledglings until her last breath, For the love of a mother is stronger than death.

Now darker and denser the smoke overhead, The fierce flames are mounting still higher, Madly writhing and darting they ruthlessly spread, And already the roof is on fire. All help and all hope for the poor Stork is past ; With wings still extended, she sinks down at last.

But what was that cry which so suddenly broke From the crowd? They are gazing astounded, As the form of a young man appears through the smoke, By a halo of fire surrounded ! His heart, truly noble, bas left him no rest, And, dauntless, he forces his way to the nest.

‘*Q send him success!” all fervently pray— ‘* He succeeds !” shouts one after the other— He has reached the young birds, and brings them away, Closely followed and watched by the mother. From the ladder, now burning, he joyfully springs, With deafening cheers all the neighbourhood rings.

Wherever he goes, since then, through the land, Kindly glances and pleasant smiles meet him, Men hasten to ask for a clasp of his hand, The women all lovingly greet him ; He never need envy a King on his throne Who reaps a reward such as this for his own.

* Firehorn in the original. Constant watch is kept in many church towers of Germany and Switzerland, and an outbreak of fire is announced by the blowing of a horn. On this horn, morning and evening, the watch- man, before being relieved at his post, may be heard to struggle with some fine old tune, seliom to the satisfaction of the listener.

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And books have recorded this deed, which will live To be lauded throughout future ages ; Yet—strange to relate—not one of them give The name of the youth in their pages. But though here below there be of it no trace, It finds in God’s Book of Remembrance a place.

An old writer says that

true, composing is the nobler part, Yet good translation is no easy art ; For though familiar words have long been found, Yet both your fancy and your hands are bound ; And in improving what was writ before, Invention labours less, but judgment more.”

Whether the foregoing attempt be “good translation ” or not, it is certain that when the “fancy and the hands ” are unbound, the tale may be told in a shorter, if not better fashion. Sub- joined is the proof of this remark :—

Why this awful rush ? Soon will make an ending Whence this push and crush ? Of both house and bird, People running madly, If her flight’s deferred.

Church bells tolling sadly ! But why need enquire, When the cry is “Fire!”

Now from the house-top, Tiles begin to drop ; Folk still hurry faster To the sad disaster, And some, bold and brave, Try to help and save.

Here’s a moving sight ! Something dressed in white On the roof ! a spot One would think was hot. "Tis a Stork at rest, Seated on her nest.

This puts us all about, Some begin to shout ; Others stones are shying, To set the poor bird flying ; But her young are there : She their fate will share.

Things are looking black, Floors begin to crack, And the fire ascending,

But look at yonder lad! Surely he must be mad ! Though the flames are spreading— He, no danger dreading, Climbs up to the roof, As if fire proof. Now some offer prayer ; Others cry ‘‘ He’s there!” The young birds he’s seized, The mother follows, pleased. Down he comes all right ; We shout with delight.

And, where’er he goes, Every body knows Who he is, and stands To shake him by the hands, And his praise is sung By both old and young. Many books have told Of this deed so bold ; Yet with all his fame, They have lost his name.

But a Pen of Love Has written it above. G. A. J.

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7. To what does the following Northumberland proverb refer :—“ To take the Hector’s cloak ?”—F. 8. What was the name of David’s mother }—~A. H. H. 9. What is the meaning and derivation of “O yes:” what the criers used to say ? 10. Are there any good places for finding land and fresh water shells near Huddersfield 1—R. 11. How is collodion prepared for photography 12. Is there any legend attached to the sign of the “ Swan with Two Necks ?”—J.


2. The sentence means, “I am a man myself, and consider nothing belonging to a man uninteresting to me.” It was spoken by P. Terentius Afer ; I do not know on what occasion. A. H. H. I “T am a man, I think nothing human strange to me.” These were the words of P. Terentius Afer, in his Play, Heautontimorumenus, Ist act, lst scene, 25th line—J. H. L. 4. In this corner of Yorkshire (vale of Calder, &c.,) which is generally known as the “moor country,” the word royd, either alone or as a suffix (Mytholmroyd, Holroyd, Ackroyd, &c.,) is very common. It is apparently confined to this part of England ; and although many explanations have been suggested, it still re- mains an etymological puzzle. It has been thought that the word may possibly indicate an enclosure from the open moor or forest, or perhaps a portion of the moor unreclaimed ; but “royd” is without Anglian or Danish cognates in this sense, although this explanation is in itself by no means improbable. It has also been regarded as the A.-S., r4d converted into royd, by the peculiar pronunciation of the West Riding. . The prefix of local names, of which it forms part, seems to support this motion—as Stony-royd, “the stony road ; ” Hod-royd, “the old road ;” Hol- ae “the hollow road ; ” How-royd, “the high or hill road,” — (The word “rad or “rdde” is used with similar adjuncts in oa S., charters.) Rood, a measure of land, has also been held to be the original of royd, the true meaning of which still mains uncertain. (Vide Murray’s Handbook of Yorkshire.) H. H.

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6. “ Bull and Mouth” is a corruption of Boulogne Mouth, viz., the mouth of Boulogne Harbour.—J. Similar answer from ‘ Ditto,’ and J. H. H.

To the Editor of the Huddersfield College Magazine.

Dear Sir, The portion of your Magazine devoted to “Notes and Queries ” is by no means the least interesting one, and might, it seems to me, be made even more so if all the questions proposed received their appropriate answers. It has struck me, sir, that when a question remains three months unanswered, it is apt to be overlooked, and that it might be well if the attention of your readers were again directed to it, by some such notice as, that “No. 18, in August, 1873, is still unanswered.” Were this done, important questions would not be overlooked ; for surely amongst the ‘present’ and the ‘old’ boys who read the Magazine, some one could be found to answer any ordinary question. The query to which I have referred, No. 18, p. 222, vol. I., has not yet been noticed ; the amswer is so simple that I can easily believe no one has thought it worth while to send you a solution, but as there may possibly be some to whom this question may be new, I beg to submit the following for your approval: M. states that “the contents of bright or reflecting vessels are not so quickly heated as those of a dull surface by radiated heat,” and asks “Why.” The reason is not far to seek. The surface which re- flects a considerable portion of the light which falls on it is what we call a bright surface, and such a surface not only reflects much of the light, but also a great part of the heat rays falling upon it. Such reflected rays, whether of light or heat, produce no effect upon the reflecting surface but are sent elsewhere, and only those rays which are absorbed produce any heating effect upon the surface. As the surface gets warm, the contents of the vessel become warm also by conduction ; but evidently if the same number of heat rays fall upon two vessels, one bright and the other dull, the contents of the vessel which reflects more rays will have fewer rays left to warm them, and will therefore require longer time. For example: get a bright new tin pan, and one of the same size which has got black with use. Put a lump of butter of the same size in each, place them on the hearthrug at the same distance from the fire, and you will find the butter melted in the dull pan long before it is in the bright one. I Apologising for trespassing so much upon your space, I remain, dear Sir, yours, N.

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7, Square the words RIVAL and REAM.

8. Mon premier et mon second sont chantés par mon fowt.

9. 1. A Fish. 2. An Island in the N. Pacific. 3. A European Sea. 4. An Instrument of Torture. 5. An Indian City. 6. A Show. 7. Constellations. My initials and finals name a well-known English author. E. R. 10. A mathematician stated in his will, “I leave £2,000 to be divided between A. and B., in the Proportion of 7:9.” How much did each receive ?

11. WHO'S WHO?

D’s father is B’s brother, A’s sister is E’s mother, A and B are the children of C, What relation is E to D ?


Show how to trisect a straight line.

Solutions to Puzzle Pages in our last.

RECEIVED.—Answers to 1, by J. H. H., T. H. F., J. H. .W. ; to 2, iH FES. BM to 3 by J. H. L., E. we J L.

hej Sn pie <3

RJ , A. H. H., E. ; to 4, by J. ri BH i. JH bie , &.

HL, H. A., HE. W., A. H. HHA.


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SOLUTION TO QUESTION 2. Mi-graine. SOLUTION TO QUESTION 3. Elizabeth ; Items :—bet, belt, bee, bat, Eli, Eliza.


Let 3 x denote the first part, then 4 x will denote the second ; Therefore, 3 x + 4x=56

Or, 7x=56 Therefore, x= 55 =8 And I 3 x= 24 th And 4x=32 \ e two parts,

Or, by arithmetic, 56=7 x 8 = 8 (3 + 4)=24 +4 32.


Let x and 100 —x= the numbers, then, — (100 -x) ? = 1000 Or, x 7?—10000 + 200 x—x ?=1000 Transposing, the equation becomes,

200 x = 11000 a 100 — x res \ the required numbers


Join A E and D C, Then, AB=AE=>=DC=DB=>EB=CB. Therefore the two triangles A E B and DC B are equilateral. Therefore the angle A BE= 2 of a right angle, and EB » And, since CBD Therefore, ABD

9) 9

” 2” = DBE.

colds calm eo

Erratum in the last Puzzle Pages.—In Question 2, for chant, read. “ chante.”

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CHESS. We are privileged this month in being able to publish two elegant positions from the “forthcoming ollection of pro oblems by Messrs. Pierce.


we le _ pa as state oe at

WHITE White to play and mate in three mov


Bian a a i Be Bue Sagan's 1)

WHITE. White to play and ma ate in two mo ves.

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No. I WHITE. BLACK. 1. Rto K Kt 5 1. P takes R 2, BtoQR5 2. Any move 3. Q to Q B 5 or Q 6 (ch) and mates next move. No. ILI.

This little subtlety has excited considerable attention in the Chess world. No solution has yet appeared in the American Journal from which it was extracted by us, and the Illustrated London News of October 11th, publishes it with a hint that the position is an impracticable one. We are thus thrown on our own resources for its unravelment, and as a clever correspondent has forwarded us a most ingenious and elaborate analysis, which agrees in its results with the opinion we had previously arrived at, we think our readers will be gratified if we place it before them without any curtailment.


To the Chess Editor of the Huddersfield College Magazine.

Dear Sir, I have much pleasure in submitting a few notes on the solution of the ‘‘ Chess Curiosity” from the Dubuque Journal, reprinted as Problem No. II., in current number of Huddersfield College Magazine. ‘White mates without making a move,” being the condition of this interesting puzzle, it is clear the solution must be dependent upon an incomplete move. From the suggestive nature of the position, my first impression was, that White had given check with the Bp, whereupon Black moved Queen’s pawn ¢wo squares, interposing ; and White pur- posed giving a discovered mase by pawn taking pawn en passant. Assuming, therefore, pro. tem., this modus to be correct, White has but to take off the Black Queen’s pawn, and mate is effected by making half a move, thus fulfilling the conditions of the problem. But, at the outstart, (before White gave check with the Bp,) the Black pawn must have stood at Q 2; and a Black pawn being already posted at B 2, the Black Bishop on K square is in an unnatural position, 2. e., he could not get there in actual play. This suggested a difficulty ; but, we have it on high authority that ‘considerable latitude is accorded to problem composers ;” consequently the foregoing might be the intended solution after all. However, we must respect the legal

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bearings of the position, and, as there is a technical objection to the validity of the preceding solution, we will regard it in the light of an ignis fatuus. I Examining the position again, I find the diagram is printed with a black square at the right hand corner. This is legally wrong, and affords a clue to the solution, which I now think is not only dependent on an unfinished move, but also on the displacement of the board. Turning the board towards me half-way round from left to right, so as to have a white square at right corner, the position shews the Black King mated, and the White King in check. There is, moreover, a white pawn on White’s Royal rank. This is a combination of Chess illegalities, and no solution apparent. If, however, the White King was not in check, there is the shadow of a solution by removing the pawn from Kt’s square, which would not constitute @ move in Chess. But this is not logical enough. Now reverse the board. It is in a legal position, and the pieces pretty well placed ; but that White pawn on Kt 8, in front of one on Kt 7, does not appear quite en régle. How did it get there? Eureka! White, on his last move, must have played it there from R 7 or B 7, by capturing a Black piece on Kt square. Now for the solution ! The 21st Law in Chess specifies :—‘‘ Every pawn which has reached the 8th or last square must be immediately exchanged for a Queen, or any other piece the player may think fit, even though ail the pieces remain on the board, Therefore, by removing the White pawn from Kt 8, and substituting a Kt, the Black King is mated ; and, as only a portion of a move is em- bodied in this operation, the condition of the problem is fulfilled, and “ White mates without making a move.” I am, Dear Sir, Yours faithfully, A. TOWNSEND. Newport, (Mon.,) 8th Oct., 1873.


The Westminster Papers for October, speaks as follows of the Chess in our September number :— “The Huddersfield College Magazine, besides an ingenious two-move problem by Mr. Greenwood—whose name we have missed from the Chess World for some time past—contains an interesting melange of problems, games, and reminiscences of the Chess Editor, entitled ‘“‘ Chess in the Holidays.” It is a capital article for a wintry evening, and likely enough to banish painful reflections upon the price of coal, and set pleasant faces in the fire for every Chess player.”

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On Saturday, October 18th, the first meeting of the Huddersfield Chess Club for the present season was held at the Queen Hotel, and was attended by gentlemen from Holmfirth, and new resident members in Huddersfield, as well as by old members of the club. Play commenced shortly after four o’clock, and continued until half-past six, when an adjournment was made to the tea-room, where an excellent repast had been provided. Subsequently, the annual meeting of the Club was held. The officers appointed were Mr. John Watkinson re-elected president, Dr. Scott re-elected vice-president, and Mr. E. Dyson elected secretary, in the place of Mr. J. H. Finlinson, who has removed from Huddersfield to Newcastle-on-Tyne. In acknowledging his re-election, Mr. Watkinson alluded to the position of the club, stated that there was a balance in hand from last year, adverted to the success of the club in the various contests in which it had engaged, and observed that it had now met continuously every winter for more than twenty years, which he thought was more than could be said of any other chess club in Yorkshire. Mr. Dyson, in response to the vote by which he was appointed secretary, stated that he should emulate the example which had been set by his predecessors, ‘and forward the interests of the club to the utmost of his power. The assembly then retired to the club room and play was resumed, and continued until a little after ten o’clock.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE CHESS CLUB. We have great pleasure in announcing the formation of a Chess Club at the College. The Secretary of the newly-formed club informs us that a preliminary meeting of the pupils was held on Saturday, September 25th, when a considerable number of names were enrolled as members. A reso- lution was unanimously passed, requesting Mr. John Watkinson to accept the office of president ; R. L. Knaggs was appointed treasurer, and E. Woodhead, secretary. We hope to report further progress next month, and in the meantime the club has our best wishes for a long and prosperous existence.


The correct solution of Problem I. has been received from D. W. O., Glasgow. k. L. K.—Do not be discouraged by the failure of your attempt at Problem I., as it has baffled some of the most acute solvers in this country. Have a try at No. 4 in the present number. A. W., Lonpon.—R to K R 4 is the reply to your attempted solution of Mr. Healey’s Problem. A. T., NEwport.—We do not wish unnecessarily to alarm our sub- scribers, but it is certainly our intention to publish your fourteen-mover next month.

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Huodersteld College

SIR ROBERT PEEL. (Concluded from owr October Number. )

Now, the great and important question of parliamentary reform became the chief topic of popular agitation. This subject had been considered more or less for a very long time. Even as early as 1782, a motion for a reform of the franchise had been introduced by Pitt, but it was rejected by a majority of 20; similar motions were also made in 1783 and 1785; but were rejected by majorities of 44 and 74, respectively. The popular agitation became very great about 1829 or 1830, and meetings were held throughout the country to discuss this subject. Lord John Russell introduced his bill for parliamentary Reform (which was carried, on the second reading, by a majority of 1) in 1831. On the motion for a committee General Gascoyne proposed, as an amendment, that the number of members returned from England and Wales should not be diminished ; and this having passed, the ministers abandoned the bill and resorted to a dissolution. The elections which followed ‘were accompanied by serious riots, and in some places even with loss of life. The next Parliament was chiefly composed of members who had pledged themselves to vote for ‘The Bill, the whole Bill, and nothing but the Bill.” The Bill.was now carried by con- siderable majorities in the Commons, but was rejected in the Lords by a majority of 41. Thereupon Parliament was prorogued, and still greater disturbances arose. Nottingham Castle, the residence of the Duke of Newcastle, was burnt; at Derby the jail was forced open, and the prisoners liberated ; Bristol was for several days under the control of a mob, and part of the Queen’s Square, together with several public buildings, was burned. In addition to all these disturbances, England was this year, for the first time, visited by the cholera. When Parliament again assembled, the Bill again passed through the House of Commons ; and the ministers ‘proposed to the king (William IV.) that there should be a sufficient number of Peers created to carry the Bill: although His Majesty did not accede to the proposal at first, yet the ministers forced it upon


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him by a temporary resignation. But this expedient was avoided by the agreement that a sufficient number of members should absent themselves from the House of Lords to enable the Bill to pass ; by this means it passed, and afterwards received the royal assent. Amongst other things, this Bill enacted that a borough, to be able to return a member to Parliament, must have a popu- lation of 2,000 ; and to be able to return two members must have a population of 4,000: many of the smaller boroughs were thus totally disfranchised, and the number of members returned from the others reduced. The places left vacant were transferred to several of the more populous counties ; new boroughs were created ; and the larger counties were divided into districts. The franchise was given to householders in the towns paying an annual rent of £10; and to those in the counties paying an annual rent of £50. The first reformed Parliament met in January, 1833, when Sir Robert took his seat as member for Tamworth, which place he continued to represent until his death. He became Prime Minister in 1834, on the resignation of the Melbourne ministry, but after holding this office only for a few months he was obliged to give place to Viscount Melbourne, as a Conservative admin- istration could not yet be formed. We now come to the period at which the agitation about the Corn-laws occupied the principal attention of both people and parliament. In September, 1838, the Anti-Corn-Law League was formed for the promotion of free-trade principles, and to bring about the repeal of the Corn-laws. . Meetings were held throughout the country for this purpose, the management of which was chiefly under the guidance of Mr. Cobden and Mr. Bright ; and at the same time adverse meetings were held to thwart the designs of the free-traders ; finally, however, by strenuous endeavours, its Jabours were crowned with success, having first gained over to their cause Sir Robert, who was the ultimate means of their success. Peel up to that time had opposed free-trade principles, and it is clear that the evidence which induced him to change his opinion must have been very strong. The repeal was opposed by ignorance and prejudice amongst the public. Its adversaries influenced the public with such arguments as the following :— That the Corn-laws were necessary for the promotion of the cultivation of poorer lands, and for the protection of the agricul- turists ; that their repeal would ruin numerous shopkeepers, and would throw others out of work ; that it would by no means improve the growth of grain; and that we should be almost wholly dependent upon other nations for food, and this would occasion great peril and danger; in the event of a war, for

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instance, if our ports were blockaded, famine, disease, and perhaps civil war would be occasioned ; and it would be impos- sible to estimate what other disasters might follow. Of course, these arguments, being frequently brought before the public, prejudiced those (of whom, most likely, there were a great many) who did not thoroughly understand the question, against the abolition, and rendered it much more difficult to secure. But Peel was the suitable man to effect an object, and once having gained him over, the end was won. On the subject of Corn-laws, there have been several enact- ments, some even as far back as the reign of Edward III., at which period the laws were to prohibit exportation (except to certain places to which it might be of advantage to the king to export, and which were named by him), whilst importation was freely permitted ; we find afterwards exportation absolutely forbidden ; still later on a fine of five shillings was exacted from every Parish, on every acre of land which was not in use for growing corn or wheat, if it had been used for such purpose since a stated time. Regulations were also made with respect to home trade in corn; e.g. in the reign of Elizabeth, it was considered one of the gravest and most infamous acts to buy corn in one market and sell it in another, and was made punishable, under the title of Engrossing, by imprisonment or the pillory, More recently we find the opinion of the legislature entirely different, and exportation allowed freely, whilst a tax was levied on imported grain. With respect to the abolition of these laws, the popular feeling, influenced by the enthusiastic speeches of Mr. Cobden and Mr. Bright, began to turn in favour of it. We now find Sir Robert, who not long since had opposed repeal, bringing in a bill for the Abolition of the Corn-laws, which he, after an animated and warm debate, succeeded in passing (1846) ; this enacted that at the expiration of three years the Corn-laws should be abolished. I Peel’s former agricultural friends, as a revenge for his deserting them, joined with the Whigs in opposing one of his measures, and caused him to resign. In 1845, an unexpected circumstance had occurred in the partial failure of the potato crops in Ireland; in 1846, a still more disastrous one, a total failure; the roots decayed, and became diseased, the leaves assumed a dark hue, and exhaled a noxious odour. Various sums of money were col- lected to maintain the starving Irish ; ten thousand pounds were sent from the public exchequer, and nearly seven hundred and fifty thousand pounds were collected from the English. This was a good oppurtunity to experience the benetit

pd 3

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of the Repeal of the Corn-laws ; when the Bill had passed, grain poured into Ireland from all quarters of the globe, and saved the © people, and delivered them from famine. The effect of the Repeal is felt now also in other ways; trade in grain has increased instead of decreased, and the land producing grain has by no means been lessened as was expected by the adversaries of the Repeal ; corn now comes in freely from all quarters, with a nominal duty of only one shilling per quarter, to defray the expenses of registering the importations. On the meeting of Parliament in the year 1850, a very im- portant question was discussed : there was a quarrel between the British and the Grecian Governments; the British Government had protested against some alleged injuries. The Grecian Government signified its willingness to make ample satisfaction, and to submit the case to arbitration. However, the demand of the English was so exorbitant that the Grecians refused to comply. Lord Palmerston resolved that they should be com- pelled by war. Admiral Parker was accordingly despatched to Athens to repeat the demand, and if they still refused to comply, to blockade them. This proceeding was contrary to the laws of nations, and it almost plunged England into a war with two of the most powerful European nations—France and Russia. This was a critical juncture, and the matter was brought before Parliament. Lord Stanley appealed to the House of Lords, to clear the character of England, which, he said, wished to impose unjust exactions upon a weak and defenceless State. In the House of Commons, however, the foreign policy was approved of ; but ultimately, Lord Palmerston found it necessary to retract his steps, and submit to arbitration, and the amount settled upon by the arbitrators was about a thirtieth part of that which had been demanded. Upon this occasion, Sir Robert Peel made one of his most effective and brilliant speeches ; but, it was his last, for shortly after, whilst riding up Constitution Hill, he fell from his horse, and died after lingering a few days in great pain. His death was lamented universally and sincerely throughout England ; and honours were paid to his memory, not only by the British Parliament, but also by the National Assembly of France. He was a statesman who thoroughly understood the interests of the country, and by his wise and beneficial acts, justly merited praise and thankfulness from his countrymen ‘for whose interests he laboured. Statues in memory of him have been erected in many of the large cities and towns of England ; one, as our readers are aware, has been erected in St. George’s Square, in this town, Hudders- field—erected in memory of a statesman who, by his Repeal of

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the Corn-Laws, benefited England to such an extent that his memory will always be cherished with gratitude. The beautiful statue records his own words in his speech on the Repeal of the Corn-Laws :—“ It may be that I shall leave a name sometimes remembered with expressions of goodwill, in the abodes of those whose lot it is to labour and to earn their bread by the sweat of their brow; when they shall recruit their exhausted strength with abundant and untaxed food, the sweeter because it is no longer leavened with a sense of injustice.” I He lived for those who loved him, — For those who knew him true ; For the heaven that smiled above him ; For the good that he should do ; For the cause that needed assistance ; For the wrongs that needed resistance ; For the future in the distance ; For the crown he had in view.

A. H. H.


Three essays were sent in to compete for the prize. Wenow publish the report of the gentleman by whom the prize was offered, and also the essay which has gained the prize.

SCIENCE PERFEOTS GENIUS. This essay takes the prize ; it is inviting in its style, concise in expression, compact in form, and correct in its science. It is not so correctly written as it might be, and a little further revision before printing will be an advantage—indeed a necessity. In all other respects the paper is excellent.


A very neatly expressed paper, but wanting in fulness and not compact; it wanders over too much ground without sufficient thought on the serious subjects about which it speaks ; otherwise a very good essay, I think the best in the formation of sentences and correct etymology.


This paper is a very clever one; it shows very considerable powers of observation and reflection, and the writer deserves great credit for the pains taken in writing so sensible and thoughtful an essay; it has, however, one great fault, viz., abruptness ; this is especially noticeable at the beginning and conclusion, and I fear it would not, if printed, obtain the notice it undoubtedly

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deserves from its ability, simply on account of the plunging into dry, technical terms, at the very commencement of the essay, and so repel rather than induce a further interest. A little attractiveness of expression in introducing the subject, so as to allure the reader on, would have given this paper the first place. Science, especially for boys, wants a little sugaring.”—G. C. O.


As we go through the world, we meet with some very different kinds of people—some clever, some dull ; some industrious, some lazy and indolent ; some literary, some not ; some scientific, some not. Of these different kinds of people we must notice the scientific. Of scientific men, also, there are many kinds, as Chemists, Mathematicians, Naturalists, &c., of these we pick out the last named—Naturalists. Now each Naturalist chooses his own branch of Natural History—there are Geologists, Botanists, Ornithologists, Zoologists, Conchologists,—as for me, I have taken Entomology as my “hobby.” Jam now going to write a short essay on this branch of Natural History. There are many people who object to this study ; one person says, “ Why waste time on such a trifling pursuit?” another, that it is ‘‘a very cruel study.” First, then, I will try to write satisfactory answers to these two objections to the study of insects. Some, I say, ask why waste time on such a trifling pursuit? To answer this objection, it is only necessary to prove that Entomology is not a trifling science, and in so doing, I think I can show that it is not only not trifling, but that it is even useful, and that it would be well if more would turn their attention to this science in some one or more of its’ branches. In watching the habits of insects, we see what good they may be to us, for many insects are of great service to man, e. g. First: the silkworm. All the thousands of yards of silk that are made are the produce of a little insect. (Bombyx Mori.) Second : the bee, which makes us honey and wax. The power of these insects would not have been found out unless their habits had been noticed. A knowledge of Entomology enables us also to find out and destroy nuisances, or to find out what insects destroy nuisances. Let us take an example or two of this: The ‘lady-bird,’ or ‘ lady- cow, has been found to prey on those enemies of the gardener, aphides. Flies and beetles destroy animal refuse. Reaumur relates an instance (see Kirby and Spence’s Entomology) where

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an observer of the insect world put an end to great fear and consternation. ‘The following isan abridgment of the account of it in Kirby and Spence’s :—‘‘ Many species of Lepidoptera, when they emerge from the pupa state, discharge a reddish fluid, which, in’ some instances, where their numbers have been considerable, has produced the appearance of a shower of blood. * * * * * In the beginning of July, 1608, the suburbs of Aix, and a considerable extent of country round it, were covered with what appeared to be a shower of blood. All agreed in attributing this appearance to the powers of darkness, and in regarding it as the prognostic and precursor of some dire- ful misfortune about to befall them. Fear and prejudice would have taken deep root upon this occasion, and might have produced fatal effects upon some weak minds, had not M. Pierese, a celebrated philosopher of that place, paid attention to insects. A chrysalis, which he had preserved in his cabinet, let him into the secret of this mysterious shower. Hearing a fluttering, he opened the box in which he kept it. The animal flew out and left behind it a red spot. He compared this with the spots of the bloody shower, and found they were alike. At the same time he observed that there was a prodigious quantity of butterflies flying about, and that the drops of the miraculous rain were not to be found upon the tiles, nor even upon the upper surface of the stones, but chiefly in cavities, and places where the rain could not easily come. Thus did this judicious observer dispel the ignorant fears and terror which a natural phenomenon had caused.” These examples of the use of Entomology will serve to show that this study is not a trifling one. . Now, as to the second objection, that ‘it is a cruel study.” First: Mr. Coleman, in his “ British Butterflies,” states as an answer to this objection, that he believes that insects do not feel pain, and as a proof of this he says, “I have seen a wasp that has been snipped in two, afterwards regale himself with avidity upon some red syrup, which, as he imbibed, gathered into a large ruby head, just behind the wings, where the stomach should have been ; but really the creature’s pleasure seemed to be only augmented by the change of his anatomy, because he could drink ten times his ordinary fill of sweets, without of course getting any the fuller.” If Entomology be studied not only for pleasure, but also for profit, it certainly is not cruel; are not thousands of oxen, sheep and pigs, slain in England every year? Then may not a few insects be killed for the use of the Entomologist? Then if any one says that the slaughter of these animals—sheep, &c.,— is very much more important than the killing of insects, we

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cannot but allow it; but what about all the fowls, grouse, larks, sparrows, snipes, &c., that are mercilessly shot for the luxurious? These certainly are not necessaries of life, Then again, the Entomologist does not use cruel means of putting an end to the existence of his captives, even if they can feel pain. Many Entomologists use chloroform, and many others bruised laurel leaves, which evolve prussic acid. Surely these are not cruel processes. I have now answered the two objections. In short, more evidence can be brought to disprove them, for which I refer my reader to Kirby and Spence’s Entomology. I will now give a brief sketch of the pleasures to be derived from studying Entomology. First: it is always a pleasure to study the beauties of nature, and what are more beautiful than the butterflies and moths, and other insects with which the world is so thickly peopled? Take as examples of the beauties of the insect world—the blue butterfly, (Z. Alexis) which is common in most parts of England, as well as the other blues ; the small copper, (C. Phleas) still more plentiful ; the oak-egger (L. Quercus), and in other branches of Entomology—the dragon- flies, with their net-work wings, and all those small beetles that we see moving over the ground in summer, some having their cases bronze-like, and some of a fine green colour, and hosts of others, to say nothing of the foreign insects. Now some one may say, ‘“‘Oh! It’s all very well to say look how beautiful insects are! but you only point out the really pretty ones ; why all these brown things are not worth walking a yard to see.” These brown things, as the objecter calls them, may seem ugly to him, when he just casts a glance at them, but let him study them, let him take a microscope and examine them, and he will find them covered with most exquisitely fine feathers. ‘* Who loves not the gay butterfly, which flits. Before him in the ardent noon, arrayed In crimson, azure, emerald, and gold ; With more magnificence upon his wing— His little wing—than ever graced the robe Gorgeous, of royalty.” —Carrington. Then, again, it is always pleasant to watch the habits of these little creatures, by doing which, as has been remarked before, much good may be derived. Then as to the pleasures of insect hunting. Sometimes, it is true, it may be rather slow, but not more slow than fishing, in which so many delight, and it is quite as lively as birdnesting. The chief ways of ‘ catching’ in the daytime are, catching the perfect insects with insect or. butterfly nets, and catching the larve by beating and sweeping. Catching insects with the net is always pleasant work when there is anything flying, only sometimes a whole afternoon may be spent without catching a single specimen ; but the beginner must not

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be discouraged at such a failure as this ; he will not be the first person who has passed an afternoon in search of insects without finding one. It is pleasant work, I say, catching with the net, © to say nothing of the good it does the Entomologist, physically ; he is led out into the country, into the pure fresh air, away from the smoke of town, and then he makes use of the muscles of his legs in running after the butterflies and moths that he either arouses with his feet or sees flying. There is a butterfly! now then, off we go after it; here begins an exciting chase, now we strike with our net—have we caught it? no; there it is soaring among the topmost branches of the trees, quite out of reach. Or it may be that we can answer yes: so we ‘box’ it, and look out for another. The other ways of catching just named—beating and sweeping for larvee—are quite as interesting as the one just described, if not more so. For beating, a walking stick and an umbrella are the implements required ; the umbrella to spread under the tree, and the stick to beat the boughs in order to shake off the caterpillars ; also a tin box to put them into when caught. Then as to sweeping ; for this, a strong net is needed, (and a tin box as before), with which the low-growing plants, such as the heather, must be struck from right to left. Now we come to perhaps the most remunerative way of catching moths, namely, sugaring. ‘“Sugaring,” as the story goes, “originated with a village grocer of an Entomological turn of mind, who first observed that moths of many kinds flocked in the evening to an empty sugar-cask, which had been left outside his doorway.” (From an article on “ Baits for Butterflies and Moths,” by H. G. Knaggs, in the Country.) This process consists, now, in putting on trees with a brush, a small patch of some sweet substance, with some- thing strong-smelling in it, (as beer, vinegar, rum, &c.) To this, and it is far easier to do this than to roll a sugar-cask into the woods, numbers of insects are attracted—provided the locality and weather be favourable. As this is carried on at nightfall, a lantern must be taken by the collector, as well as his boxes. I will now conclude. I have had to abridge in several places, for limits are set to the length of my paper; but still, I hope that this sketch, short as it is, may lead some from their erroneous way of thinking about EnromoLoey.

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In writing this short essay, it is far from being the aim of its author to lay before the reader the masses of evidence revealed by modern scientific researches in support of what it is usual to term ‘“ Darwin’s Theory ” on the one hand ; nor yet to make any attempt at discussing the no less numerous objections that the slaves of tradition have thought it incumbent on them to advance on the other. The utmost that the limits of this paper will allow is to bring into prominence the leading features of that theory, to trace in some measure the descent of man by gradual de- velopments, and to note and endeavour to explain the organic and intellectual differences between man and his more immediate ascendants. ‘That this essay will pass unchallenged the writer cannot expect, but as the supporter of a theory which attacks the venorable traditions of ages, he will attempt to answer to the best of his ability, and to the somewhat limited extent that the rudimentary condition of science will permit, those objections conceived in a spirit of fairness, and which admit of a satisfactory reply. The careful observers of ancient thought cannot fail to have noticed the universal tendency to ascribe every phenomenon to the miraculous interposition of the Deity, and whether we consider the religion of the Greeks and the Romans, or that of the Hebrews and other nations believing in one God, we shall be struck by the same peculiarity. It will hardly be necessary to remind the classical reader of the manner in which the primitive Greeks accounted for the descent of man; or to reap up the story of Pandora, made by Vulcan of clay, and endowed by Venus with beauty, and by Minerva with knowledge ; or the no less interesting legend of “‘ Deucalion and Pyrrha,”’ who . peopled the world by casting stones over their shoulders—stories which are ridiculed by the enlightened nineteenth century as the myths of the benighted ages of Paganism. From this cursory glance at the theory entertained by so many at the present day, and which is known as the super- natural, we pass on to a slight sketch of that which occupies so large a space in the public eye, and which it is customary to style the natural theory. Science rejects the supernatural, and acknowledges only that sublime doctrine, “ Natura non agit per saltum,” whose consequences it follows out to their furthest extent, expressing as it does the whole pith of modern teaching. To this doctrine, to the principle that every result is the effect of a prolonged series of causes culminating in one grand produc- tion, the theory we now discuss is closely allied, and bears to it

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a relation as intimate as that of the child to its parent. That the conclusion to which we are led by the theory of evolution, as enunciated by Darwin in our own, and by Lamarck and Geoffroy St. Hilaire in the eighteenth century, will be repugnant to the feelings of many of my readers, I cannot doubt; but in scientific researches prejudice must be laid. aside, and the mind thrown open to the teachings of reason—the student ever remembering the exhortation of Horace, “ Si quid novisti rectius istis, candidus imperti ; Si non his utere mecum.”* Itis a difficult task to express in a few words the theory which has caused such a revolution in the world of science. But in a somewhat imperfect manner it may be said that in lieu of the former belief in the existence of species from an independent act of creation, we are asked to accept the theory, that starting from some rudimentary object, the whole animal and vegetable kingdom has been gradually developed, and that what we now know as species, are merely links in the chain connecting man with some such elementary form as the sponge and the monad. How long this process has been going on belongs to the realms of the unknown, but it is certain that the six thousand years of the historic period, compared with the millions of ages during which geology assures us our world has existed, are like a drop in the ocean ; from the same source, from the rocks that are ‘‘the only visible representation which we possess of what took place millions of years ago, we find that the complexness of organiza- tion becomes less and less marked, until at the earliest times we only meet with objects of the simplest structure.”{ Much specu- lation as to the nature of the earliest existing form has been advanced in recent controversies, but as yet the matter has not progressed beyond speculation, and nothing certain or definite is known. The opinion of Lamarckt is that the most rudimentary being was originated by spontaneous generation, that is to say by the combination of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. The will of the sublime Creator of all things,§ having endowed them with the power of modifying and perfecting themselves, so that we may consider the organic kingdom as a mighty evolution accomplished in a series of incalculable ages. This, however, I have said, is mere conjecture, and it is probable that this will remain one of the unsolved and unsolvable problems of science. But upon the manner of development, the laborious researches of such men as Lamarck, St. Hilaire, Darwin, and Spencer, have shed a flood of light; and the conclusions to * If you know any theory more true than this, freely impart it ; if not adopt this with me. + Vide ‘‘Professor Williamson on the Origin of Species,” Manchester

Examiner and Times, Saturday, Oct. 18th, 1873. + Tome ler, p. 214. § Tome ler, p. 74, and tome II, p. 57.

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which these celebrated naturalists have, without collusion, arrived, argues from their identity, strongly in favour of the truth of the theory. The two great agents that have been at work during the course of this development are, they say, evolution and natural selection. The province of the former is to create, that of the latter to select and perpetuate. From the influence of the elements, of air, water, heat, and of light, in short by evolution, men and strange beings have been constantly de- veloped from pre-existing forms. In an essay of proportions so modest as this, it would be impossible to enter at any length into the influence of media on animal life; but for a full discussion of this important subject, the reader is referred to the “ Vie de Lamarck,” in the ‘“‘ Revue des deux Mondes,” for March, 1873. (To be continued. )


13. What is the origin of the custom of making parkin on the 5th of November ?—L. E. L. 14. What is the meaning of the termination “ing”? as in Elm-ing.—H. A. 15. What is the meaning of the inn sign, “ Goat and com- passes ” ? 16. Who invented photography ? 17. How is glue prepared ? 18. When was cotton first imported into England ?—J. H. H.

We would remind our readers, according to the suggestion of ‘N,’ in our last, that the following Queries remain unanswered : In vol. I.—1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 24. In vol. IL—1, 3, 5, 7, 8.


9. “O yes” is from the Norman-French, “ oyez’’—listen ! (V. Angus’s Handbook of English Tongue, p. 23.)—J. H. H. Similar answers have been received from H. J. B. and T. E. A. 10. Good places for finding fresh water shells are :—I. On the right hand side of the New Almondbury Road, just before reach- ing the village, where there is a mill-dam, in which may be found

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Lymnea Stagnalis, Auricularia, and Limosa ; and I have been informed that there is a certain Planorbis. II. On the left hand side of the lane, which goes from Rawthorpe Lane, (Dalton,) a little past Rawthorpe Hall, there is a mill-dam in which are Lymnea Limosa and Auricularia. III. In the canal, Lymnea and Planorbis, &c. IV. In Greenhead Park pond, Lymnea and others.—E. B. H. Fresh water shells may be found in most of our ponds and clear water streams. A great many species may be found in the canal, access to which may be obtained by gaining permission from Mr. Greenwood, canal manager, or by entering the Huddersfield Naturalists’ Society.—E. P. 11. [We received a long answer to this query from A. H. H., for which we refer our readers to Chambers’ Encyclopedia ; we publish the recipe in Jabez Hughes’ book on Photography. I sound useful Portrait Collodion.” Pyroxyline (Gun- cotton), 12 to 16 grains; Ether, sp. gr. 730, 1 ounce; Alcohol, sp. gr. 810, 1 ounce: Iodide of Cadmium, 4 grains; Bromide of Cadmium, 2 grains; Iodide of Ammonium, 4 grains, This col- lodion will keep from two to six months. 12. The sign “ Swan with Two Necks,” is a corruption of the expression with two nicks.” In former times the swans on the Thames used to be marked according to their age, &ec., with nicks, so as to distinguish them from others of their tribe, in order that their owners might recognise them. —H. J. B. An answer to the same effect has been received from B. H. W. 2. T. E. A. has forwarded us the following addition to this query.—The words referred to were spoken by Chremes to Menclous.


Three essays were sent in to compete for the prizes. The judges had some little difficulty in determining the respective merits of two of these. Both these essays show that their authors have read up the subject, and each contains a large amount of very interesting matter in relation to Christmas and its festivities. The essay with the motto “Probus invidet hemini,” gives us a glimpse of the customs which obtained in “Merrie England” in the olden time at this season of the year, whilst the essayist who adopts the English motto, is care- ful to inform us on his part how our continental neighbours and American cousins celebrate the birth-time of our Lord. Although both these essays reflect great credit upon their authors as

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evidencing some little research and ability to deal with the sub- ject in hand, neither of them quite comes up to what an essay upon Christmas should be. There is about both a certain want of finish and an occasional indefiniteness of expression, which mars the otherwise good effect created by the interesting facts recorded by the writers. Under these circumstances, as neither of the essays can be said to be in its present state, “totus, teres atque rotundus,” which means exactly fit for publication as a round and polished whole, the donors of the prizes have thought that it might encourage the same boys and others to compete next time if, as the first prize can hardly be said to be won by either essay, the sum which was to have gone for the first. prize be added to that for the second, and two prizes of 3s. 9d. each be given instead of one. The two ‘old boys’ who give the prizes may perhaps at a future time offer another subject for competition, and they hope that the author of the third essay, with the motto ‘ Vincere certo,” will not be discouraged by his want of success on this occasion ; they feel sure if he will only apply with diligence and perseverance the talents which his present essay exhibits, that at some future day “‘ Vincere certo” will be certain to conquer. Extracts from the prize-essays will be given in the next number. J. W. JS. C.

We have been requested to print a list of the Football Matches to be played by the College Club this season, and therefore lay the following before our readers .— Dec. 6, Wesley College, Sheffield...... at Huddersfield

» 13, Bradford Juniors at Bradford Feb. 7, Chapel Allerton ....... ere at Huddersfield » 21, Bradford Juniors............... at Huddersfield » 28, at Huddersfield Mar. 7, 2nd Fifteen of Huddersfield Athletic F. Club 55 14, Chapel Allerton at Leeds

April 4, Wesley College at Sheffield


13. Square the words DRUM and FIFE. 14. Mon premier est contraire, Mon second dit le bréviaire. Et mon foué est un métal nécessaire.

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15. Transpositions. AEIOUBKNSR R=a town in Ireland. AIOBCM R=a town in Spain.

16. A., is a little boy, who is very fond of toffee. He goes into a shop, borrows as much as he had, and spends a penny. He goes into a second and borrows as much as he had when he left the first shop, and spends as much as he had before entering the first shop. He then goes into a third, and borrows as much as he had, and spends as much as he had when be left the first shop, and finds he has left, twice as much as he had at first. Find what he had at first. 7 17. Three parts of a cross, and a circle complete ; Perpendicular, two semi-circles to meet ; Triangle, standing upon two feet ; Two semi-circles, and a circle complete, Show an article much used, tho’ not very sweet.

18. Show by a different method from Euclid’s, how to draw a perpendicular to a straight line.

Solutions to Puzzle Pages in our last.

Received answers to— 7. From ¥F. W., G. H., J. W., G. W.S8,, E. B. H., E. W. 8. From the proposer. 9. From E. H., J. W., E. W., E. B. H., A. H. H. 10. From E. W., A. H. J. H. 11. From E. H., J. W., E. B. A, C., A. H. H. 12. From J. 8. 0., H. A, A. H. H., J... We are sorry we omitted the following, who solved Question 3— A.R. W., B. E. W. solved Question 4, and his name was by mistake overlooked.




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SOLUTION TO QUESTION 9. C Oo D H awal I A driati C R ac K L ahor E E xhibitio N S tar S SOLUTION TO QUESTION 10.

Let 7 x and 9 x represent the numbers in pounds, then 7x + 9x=2000 Therefore, 16 x = 2000 And, x= 720° = 125. Therefore, 7 x= £875 . And, 9 x— £1195 \ the numbers required. Or by Arithmetic :— A’s share = 77, of £2000 = £875 B’s share = 7%, of £2000= £1129 Proof, 15 of £2000 = £2000. SOLUTION TO QUESTION ll. B and A are sister and brother, B the sister is also E’s mother, A the brother is father to D, And hence the latter is cousin to E. If you think, Mr. Editor, this is the key, Please insert in your next, and oblige—J. 8. C.

We received this pretty solution, and also the following, which may assist in making the puzzle clear :— C




Let A B be a given finite straight line. From B draw any straight line B C, making with A Bany angle ABC. ‘From B C cut off any length B D, and from DC cut off D E=BD, (Euc. I. 3) and from E cut off EC=BD=DE. JomCA, and draw EF and DG parallel to C A (Euc. I. 31.) Then A B is trisected in F and G. For (by Euc. VI. 10) the parts A F, F G, and G B, are cut proportionally to the parts E C, D E and B D, but these parts are equal to one another by construction, therefore, also the parts A F, F G, G B, are equal to one another, and A B has been trisected.—Q. E. F.

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a A, gor _ us . +H 1 mw wie a a ee ‘is aon ee ee aie I

White to » play and mate in fourtee een moves.

PROBLEM VI.—By Mr. GRANT, Guascow. For Young Players. BLACK.

a 7 o 2 sats mane a Be = oe a aa a a i 7 . Wo “ie

WHITE. White to mate in half a move.


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WHITE. BLACK. 1 BtoK 4 1. K takes either P (a) 2. QtoQ8 orK B8(ch) 2. K moves 3. Q mates.

(a.) K takes B; then 2. Q to K 6 (ch) and Q mates next move. lf 1. R takes P ; then 2. Q takes R and Q mates next move.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM IV. 1. Q to K Kt 5 and mates next move.


The accompanying games have recently been played between Mr. E. Thorold, of Bath, one of our finest provincial amateurs, and Mr. A. Crosskill, the best player of the Hull Club; the first on even terms, and the other at the odds of Q Kt.

GAME I. Evans Gambit. WHITE. . BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. THOROLD. MR. CROSSKILL. Mr. Mr. CROSSKILL. 1PtcoK4 —° 1PtK4 12. Q takes Kt 12. P takes P 2 B38 2 KttoQB3 |18. KttakesP 13. KttoK B38 3. BtoQ B 4 3. BtoQ B 4 14. BtoQR3 (0) 14. PtoQ B4 4,.PtoQKt4 4. Btakes Kt P I 15. P takes P en 5. PtoQ B3 5. BtoQB4 passant 15. BtoK 8 6. Castles 6. P toQ 3 16.QtoQR4 16. P takes P 7. P to Q 4 7. P takes P 17. Q takes P (ch) 17. Kt to Q 2 8. P takes P 8. BtoQ Kt3 I 18. Kt takes Kt 18. B takes Kt 9. P toQ 5d 9. Kt to Q R 4 (a) 19. Rto K sq(ch) 10. Pto K & 10. Kt takes B and Black resigns, 11. QtoQR4(ch)11. B to Q 2 NOTES.

(a.) Since this game was played, Mr. Nash, of St. Neots, has, in a correspondence e, tried the effect of Qto K B 3 at this point. It is certainly somewhat strange that this defence should not have occurred to any of the authorities, and it furnishes another instance, if one were needed, of the inexhaustible resources of the .game. Mr. Lowenthal briefly analyses the position in the August number of the Chess Players’ Chronicle, and gives the following as the best method of continuing the attack :—

10. Kt 10. QtakesR 15. K Btks. P (ch)15. K to Bsq(best) 11.QtoQ 11.Q to K B 3/16. KttoK B5 16. KttoK B38 (the only move to} 17, Q to K 6 17. Kt to K sq avert the loss off 18 PtoK R4 18. Q toQ sq

the Queen. )

12. BtoQKt2 12. QtoK Kt3 I 19. B takes Kt 18. Ktto K R4 18. QtoKKt4(best)| yon ollows in

a few moves, 14. P takes P 14. Q B takes P (the best move to. secure a speedy victory.)

(b.) This completely paralyses Black’s position.

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WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. MR. CROSSKILL. Mr. THOROLD. MR. CROSSKILL. 1. P to K 4 1. P to K 4 10. PtoK 5 10. P takes P 2,.PtoKB4 2, BtoQ B4 11. P takes P 11. Q to K 2 3. KttoK B38 3. PtoQ3 12. B tks. P ch (6)12. K takes B 4,.PtoQ4(a) 4. P takes P 13. BtoK Kt5 13. PtoK B3 5. BtoQ 3 5. KttoK B38 |14.QtoKR4 14. P takes B 6. Castles 6. Castles 15. Q takes Kt (ch)15. K to Kt sq ‘7. PtoKR3 7. KttoQB3 I 16. Kt takes Kt P16. P to K Kt 8 (c) 8. PtoQR3 8. KttoK R4 |17. R takes R (ch) and mates next 9. Q to K sq 9. QtoK B3 move. (ad)

NOTES. (a.) This is an unusual move. P to Q B 3 is the book play. (b.) This is very bold play, but it turns out well. (c.) If 16. B to Q B 4, then 17. R takes B. 17. Rtakes R. 18. Q to R 7 (ch) and mates next move. (d.) A very smartly played game on White’s part.


As will be seen by the above list of names the College Chess Club is now an established fact. The formation of a chess club in connection with such an important Educational Institution has occasioned comment in various quarters, the Glasgow Herald of November 8th, in its review of our November part, stating that it “‘must afford Mr. Watkinson a very gratifying indication indeed of the influence this excellent little magazine has on the progress of the game in Huddersfield.” The club held its first meeting for play, at 6-30 p.m., on the 7th of November,* when between twenty and thirty of the pupils assembled in one of the class-rooms to do battle across the chequered board. New chessmen not having yet been purchased, a rather miscellaneous collection of the “‘ weapons of mimic warfare”

* The Preliminary Meeting was held on October 25th, not September, as stated in our last.

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was presented to the eye of the observer; ranging from the stately castles with flags floating from their summits, to the time- worn squares which from their appearance might have been in use at the time of the ancient Britons. It was a very interesting sight to see the earnestness evinced by the boys at their favourite pastime. Here, a thoughtful-looking lad was trying his skill against one of the Masters, the youngster, too, coming off victor ; there, a hot fight was going on across a board of most primitive structure, consisting of an oblong piece of wood ruled in squares, the colouring owing its blackness to a liberal use of ink ; while’ in a corner, a group might be seen poring over a problem from the College Magazine, or the Westminster Papers. The play on some of the boards was very creditable consider- ing the youth of the players ; the chief fault, as might have been expected, being a want of steadiness, which time only will remedy. A strict adherence to the rules also is a point requiring attention. It is much better to lose a game than to take back a move. The club meets at present weekly, on alternate Wednesdays and Fridays. :


The correct solution of Problem III. has been received from E. D., F. S., T. H., Huddersfield ; D. W. O., Glasgow; J. W. A., Brixton ; A. W., London ; and C. W. M. D., Norwich. The correct solution of Problem IV. has been received from E. D., F. S., T. H., R. L. K., Trial, G. H. S., Huddersfield; D. W. 0O., Glasgow ; J. W. A., Brixton; A. W., London ; and 0. W. M. D., Norwich. O. A. B. Jr., Dubuque.—On the 8th of November we posted to your address six copies of the October and November numbers of the H. C. M., which we hope have reached you. Thanks for the game, which shall appear shortly. We have written you at length by post, enclosing carte, as requested. D. W.0., GLAscow.—Many thanks for your contributions. The ‘‘Egg of Columbus” can evidently, as you point out, be ‘broken’ in fewer moves than the composer stated. The Recreationist for last month, we see, says it can be done the number of stipulated moves, and justly characterizes it as ‘‘rotten.” The four-move Problem by Mr. Mott admits of two solutions in addition to the composer’s, Examine K to Q 7 for White’s first move, followed by either Kt to K 8 or R 8. C. W. M. D., Norwicu. —We are glad to add your name to the list of our contributors. We have marked the two-mover for insertion in the February number. The January part will be published in advance, about the twentieth of this month. We have received the following exchanges :—The Chess Record (Phila- delphia), The Dubuque Journal, The English Mechanic, The Glasgow Weekly Herald, The Norvicensian, The Recreationist, and the Westminster Papers. *.* Solutions of Problems received by the twentieth of the month will be acknowledged in the following number. All communications for this department to be addressed to the Chess Editor of the Magazine, Fairfield, New North Road, Huddersfield.

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Puddersheld College Hlagusine.


“TELL you about how I spent my Christmas at Middlethorpe, my lad? Of course, I will,” said my uncle Dan, “T’ll tell you all about it with the greatest of pleasure ; though, to say truth,” con- tinued my uncle, “you must have heard all I have to tell fifty times already.” My uncle Dan was one of those kindly English gentlemen who, though always elderly, seem never to grow old. From my earliest infancy uncle Dan’s shining face had been amongst the sunny influences of my childhood. Far back as I could remember, uncle Dan had been an elderly, but not an old man. Now, at the time of which I am writing, he was still an. elderly, but not an old man. To my boyish fancy he did not seem one whit older than in the days when—almost before I could talk—I used to sit upon his knee, and pull his whiskers. When questioned about his age by some lady of inquiring mind, his answer was pleasantness itself; as, with his blandest smile, he replied that he was “Still on this side of sixty.” But plea- sant as was my uncle Dan’s manner in converse with grown folk, it was with us children that he was most thoroughly in his element. He would romp for hours with the noisiest of our tribe ; submit without a word to all manner of indignities ; allow his eyes to be bandaged as “‘hoodman-blind,” or listen patiently to the grossest of slanders heaped upon him as he sat on the “stool of repentance.” But, as a story-teller, he was unequalled. The wonders of the thousand-and-one nights, the marvellous legends of the Talmud, the folk-lore of our own county, found in him a loving and a faithful expositor. But the stories we children chiefly enjoyed were his delightful narratives of his own boyish experience, and especially his account of the Christmas he spent at Middlethorpe. was when your father and I were boys together, and at a boarding-school in the South of England,” began my uncle, ‘that we were invited, by your grandfather, to spend our Christmas at Middiethorpe. We came down as far as Cattleton by the York mail, and there we were met by old Tom, the caachman, with the dog cart. Tom had been a servant in your grandfather’s family from the time he was a boy in buttons, and his father and grandfather before him had all held service


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with ‘the Squire.’ Tom was charged to bring what light luggage we had with us, in the dog cart, and to leave the heavier trunks for the cart, which would call for them. Your father and I kept Tom’s conversational powers on the stretch, during the first ten miles of our drive, with questions as to the company expected, and the arrivals which had already taken place. ‘Yo see, sir,’ said Tom, ‘as ’ow we're expectin’ the young maister whoam and the young leddy likewise, an’ then yo’ see there’s young Maister Gledbu’n from the Hall, an’ there’s Maister Jones’ lad up to t’ Vicarage, and there’s Squire Nesham’s son up to Fresh- field ; but, to be sure, them’s noan a stayin’ in t’ house.’ To cut a long story short, it appeared from Tom’s circumlocutions that there was to be quite a large party at Middlethorpe Lodge, including, besides your mother and your uncle Jack, the two Miss Stuarts from Dunkeld, in Scotland, the two Master Nettle- tons from Leeds, the three young Glovers from Knaresborough, Master and Miss King from Shrewsbury,—all to stay in the house—besides young Jones, young Nesham, and young Gled- burn and his pretty little sister, who were to come for the great juvenile party. There, I had almost forgotten to name the prin- cipal attraction: the two Miss Wilsons from the next parish, who were to ride over the day before. By the time your father and I had reached the half-way house, where the horse was to bait, and which rejoiced, by the way, in the name of the ‘ Who'd ha’ Thought It,’ Inn, we had pretty well exhausted Tom’s informa- tion about the party, and during the latter half of our journey we were both comparatively quiet, not to say sleepy. It was dusk when we reached the Lodge, and as we entered the old hall, illuminated by the blazing fire at one end, and sundry oil lamps hanging from brackets on the walls, and as we saw the dancing, flickering .flame glancing from the glassy eyes of stags’ heads, which, with their huge antlers, looked down from the walls, or saw the gleaming from the bright barrels of fowling-pieces, and the sheaths of ancient swords and cutlasses, or reflected from the polished handles of silversmounted riding whips, it seemed, to our boyish fancy, as though we had been transported into the baronial hall of some of the rollicking warriors of the middle ages. And as your grandfather advanced, with stately cor- diality, to give us welcome, and as the yellow light fell upon his hoary locks and stalwart figure, and played with his glitter- ing shoe-buckles, we felt that blue coat, brass buttons, knee- breeches, silk stockings and all, there stood before us a true- born specimen of the ‘fine old English gentleman,’ even in those distant days so fast dying out. But, strong as was the romantic element in our youthful composition, our juvenile appetites were still stronger, even if we had not driven ten miles

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in the clear frosty air since our lunch at the ‘ Who'd ha’ Thought It.’ Charmed as we were with the picturesque antiquity of the hall and its furnishings, the odour which assailed our nostrils from the kitchen—and made our mouths water with its savoury fragrance—was yet to us more grateful still; and, by the time we had removed our haps, washed our hands, and taken our places in the dining-room, our sense of hunger was all that the most hospitable of hosts could possibly have desired. We were the last of the home party to arrive, and the introductions which had to be gone through, with all the formality of old- fashioned politeness, occupied at least ten minutes and, consi- dering the keenness of our appetites already, we should willingly have dispensed with much of the ceremony. The dinner— but, if I go on thus minutely,” said my uncle Dan, “TI shall not have done by midnight.” ‘*Go on! go on!” shouted all. “Well, suppose I go on to the next day,” said my uncle. “The next day, you know, was Christmas itself, and early in the morning we were awakened by the sound of voices singing the Christmas hymn, ‘Christians Awake.’ Then, after breakfast, we all dressed for church and paired off across the fields. The distance was not great, and on the way we overtook the Vicar and his family, and exchanged greetings. The parson was a fine old fellow, hale and hearty, with a genial smile on his benevolent face, as he shook hands with your grandfather and was introduced to us young folks. The graveyard was thronged with the parishioners, all anxious to wish the parson and one another ‘A merry Christmas! The inside of the church was one mass of green: the holly and its red berries, with the paler green of the mistletoe, mixed with branches of laurel, of bay, and even of the sombre yew. The font at the entrance was most tastefully decorated : the whole of the base was covered with the lily-like petals of the Christmas rose, and the basin itself was surrounded by wreaths of holly leaves, dotted with the scarlet fruit. The altar-screen, also, was most tastefully decorated with illuminated devices, set in frames of ivy. The church was comfortably filled by a fresh-faced and comfortable-looking congregation, who joined heartily in the responses. When the service was over we adjourned to the school-room, where a substantial repast had been provided, through the kindness of your grandfather and Mr. Gledburn, for all the old people of the parish who had passed the age of seventy, and who cared to apply for tickets. Besides thus dining entirely some fifty or sixty people, these good gentlemen had arranged that several huge plum-puddings should be cooked and distributed to all the villagers who should come for their share. So your uncle Jack,

E 3

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your mother, your father, Miss King, and myself, all went into the kitchen to help in serving out this delicacy. The room was filled with children bearing in their hands tin cans, soup tureens, and vessels of any kind, covered and uncovered, capable of holding plum-pudding. The schoolmaster’s wife and Mrs. Gled- burn were there, dealing out the pudding, and they soon enlisted us all as helpers, and great fun it was—though truth compels me to say that your uncle Jack’s mode of distribution was any- thing but fair, for he invariably gave the largest slices of pudding to the prettiest of the little girls who were waiting for it, quite irrespective of the comparative size of the several families they represented. But tv see your mother’s face glow as she filled the motley dishes with the Christmas fare was worth going ten miles for. Her bright blue eyes sparkled with delight as she stood on tiptoe filling the pots and cans which their eager bearers presented to her in quick succession. Very eager some of these pot-bearers were, to be sure. One little ygrey-eyed girl, I remember, dragging in one hand a little open-mouthed, chubby-faced boy of some four summers, and carrying in the other the dilapidated remains of what had once been a saucepan, and which uncle Jack had filled almost to the brim with the primest of pudding, was hurrying off with her prize to the hungry and expectant screamers at home, when, just as she got outside the school-room door, she was jostled by the entering crowd, shoved off the beaten track, and, putting her foot on a slide—which some very naughty boys had made the day before—down she came: saucepan, pudding, and all! She didn’t seem much hurt ; but, of course, she dropped her burden, and the metal, falling upon the ice, slid off to the other end of the play-ground, and then precipitated its contents upon a heap of snow. Great was the wailing from chubby-face and his little grey-eyed protector; and even the restitution of the truant saucepan, filled so full of pudding that the lid could by no means be prevailed upon to go on, would scarcely restore her equanimity to the unfortunate little messenger. When the last of the pudding had been dispatched, we set off again for the Lodge, where we had lunch, for as this was Christmas-Day we children were all to dine with the grown folks at five o’clock. The afternoon passed without any event more remarkable than the erection, at the end of the lawn, of a colossalsnow man. But at half-past four we turned in to prepare for dinner. As five o'clock struck we all trooped down into the great hall, which had been fitted up as a dining-room for the day. Your grand- father sat at the foot of the table, and at the head his sister, who was staying for some weeks at the Lodge. Bright was the smile of the dear old gentleman, as he looked upon the

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happy party seated round his hospitable board. When all were in their places he asked a blessing; and then, turning to the butler, who stood at his elbow waiting for the word, said : ‘ Now, Ben, the Boar’s-head.’ Straightway the smoking dish was borne in by the footman, and laid before the master ; while, at the other end, an enormous roast of beef received the joint attention of the butler and the goed lady who occupied the head of the table. There was ample choice, however, for the most fastidious, for turkey, and goose, and poultry, all found a place; and every available gentleman had something to carve. ‘Then came the pudding, huge as a mountain, studded with almonds, and rendered doubly inviting and altogether mysterious by the lambent blue flame which played about the dish ; and, when the old squire actually took up the flaming gravy in his spoon and poured the liquid fire over the top of the pudding, the excitement of us children reached its height and shewed itself by a breathless silence broken at length by a long-drawn sigh, as the spoon, which had been basting the sides and summit of the pudding with the burning brandy, suddenly dived into the heart of the edible mountain. And then the mince-pies—such mince-pies; why to this day it makes my mouth water even of them. And when every one of us had ‘ satisfied the desire of eating and drinking,’ as old Homer says, the tables were cleared away, and we had such a game of blindman’s buff. Dear old Mr. Graham, who lived by himself in an old house only a few hundred yards off, and who had for years eaten his Christmas dinner with your grandfather, was unanimously elected Hoodman the First; and, notwithstand- - ing all his protestations and sundry declarations that he was too old, too stiff, that he was lame of the gout, that he hadn’t a leg to stand upon, and so on, all of which he eventually belied, he was carried into the middle of the hall, and your mamma, mounted on a chair, tied round his devoted head an immense bandana handkerchief,—large enough to have blindfolded the King of Bashan,—and having solemnly declared that he could not for the life of him tell whether the lamps were burning or not, he was turned loose into the midst of the shrieking girls and mischievous boys. And didn’t he send confusion into their ranks? Was there anyone who thought himself secure in some snug corner? Presently he would find Mr. Graham fumbling at his coat collar, but by some strange fatality the blindman invariably guessed the wrong name, when he caught one of us boys. Nowhere was one safe. Did’nt your uncle Jack think he was secure of five seconds with pretty Miss King, and wasn’t Mr. Graham down upon them in less than half that time; and wasn’t it strange that Jack never could approach that sweet damsel, but immediately

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he was in jeopardy, and had to save himself by ignominious flight? My brother fared no better : no sooner did he approach your mother than a sudden rush, a few screams, and the disappearance of the young lady, warned him to look out for his own neck; but the hair-breadth escapes that charming little Polly Gledburn had, would altogether defy enumeration. This fair-haired beauty could find no refuge for the sole of her foot: go where she would her inveterate pursuer was certain to follow her, and her silvery laugh yet echoes in my ears as she yielded at last to the indefatigable pursuit of her elderly admirer. And who could help admiring Polly.- She was grace itself, lively and playful as a kitten, never without a smile, always ready to give her help where it was needed, and, withal, a born coquette. I verily do not believe she could help teasing one of her numberless admirers if her own happiness for life for ever depended upon it. And yet Polly married that Well, never mind! done cannot be undone! Let me see, where was I? Well, not to weary you, I will pass on at once to the grand juvenile night—the night of the party.” ‘Oh but, uncle, you must tell us about the two Miss Wilsons and the ponies,” shouted all the small fry at once. ‘*‘ Must I, indeed,” said my uncle. ‘Oh, indeed, you must,” we all replied. ‘‘ Well, if I must, I must,” said uncle Dan. “So, to begin: the day before the great party, your mother, your father, uncle Jack, Miss King, Polly Gledburn and myself, set out to meet the two Miss Wilsons, who were to ride their two little Shetland ponies over from the next parish. We had got as far as the top of the hill and were looking ahead to see if there were any signs of the At last your papa shouted out, ‘ Look, Dan! there they are at the bridge,’ and at the bridge sure enough they were, but how? The two young ladies were standing on the other side of the little wooden bridge, one of the ponies was on our side and a shepherd was leading the other over the slippery planks, when, while we were watching, the pony suddenly started, began to pull upon the rein, and, in a moment was floundering in the At this moment my uncle Dan’s narrative was suddenly interrupted by the entrance of a very small boy, with very dirty hands, and upon his face sundry streaks of ah even darker colour than the surrounding skin. This young gentleman, whom (on account of the very proper character of the College Magazine, and the strong objection which some of its readers have to the use of any naughty words) I shall not call a printer’s devil, was so energetic in his demands for copy that the present writer is, in consequence, most reluctantly obliged to leave unfinished—and omit by far the most interesting part of—the account of “* Uncle Dan’s Christmas.”

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I went home for the holidays last winter, as jolly and joyous as any who may chance to read this little episode of my short, but oh! not sweet existence, and I returned to College a blighted being. Tl tell you how it was. But first you must know who and what he is, who thus unsparingly tears open a recently healed wound for the benefit of you, from whom I wish to avert such an experience so terribly heart-rending as that which I experienced. I was ten years old then, and was about half-way up in the second class in the upper school, and a boarder. I live, or rather, I should say exist, for life has no pleasure for me now, about 20 miles from here, and am the youngest but ane of eight of us, and my brother Tom is the oldest, he is about 28. Well, I want this to be a warning to all who are going away these holidays to spend in festivity the time which will remind me of my early hopes and affections, so cruelly nipped in the bud. We always, at our house, on Christmas-Eve, had a party, quite miscellaneous, and so jolly, and it was at the one we had last year that my spirit was for ever crushed and overwhelmed. We had invited about twenty people, and amongst them were friends of mine, of Tom’s, of Cathy’s, of Minnie’s, in fact of all of us, and very well everything went off. But there was one there, who, in my opinion, surpassed all the rest in beauty and in agreeableness, and withal in education, an important point, by the bye, to me, who prided myself upon my classical educa- tion, by virtue of my whole year’s study in the first class at College. The name of this adorable creature was Angelina Evans, and certainly a more angelic or heavenly spirit was never enclosed in mortal mould. She was about twenty-one I should think—I hope she'll forgive me my rudeness in mentioning it ; and her eyes were like violets, in their deepness of colour and softness of expression, and her hair, oh! she had such hair. It was a beautiful auburn tint, that in summer gleamed like gold in the light of the sun, and in winter had such a beautiful warm glow that it was absolutely delightful to look upon. I daresay you will all have experienced, at one time or another, the sensation that overwhelmed me the moment she entered the room. I cannot describe it. My head swam, and I could hear my heart go pit-a-pat above all the shouting and laughing going on around me. I was over head and ears in love, no mistake about that, and I could not keep my eyes off her. I took her down to tea, and couldn’t eat a bit myself, in my anxiety that she should not miss anything that appeared to be best of its kind. I chose her the thinnest bread and butter, the crispest

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sponge-cake, and all the other delicacies that were supplied for our gratification, and did not grudge my own sacrifice in the least. In the games, I chose no one but her, and I have no doubt she was almost tired with the kisses I gave her, when- ever any kissing game gave me the chance of doing so. But there was one mean boy there, of whom I was quite jealous, though I know now that I had no need to be; there was a more formidable enemy in the field than he. We were playing at kiss-cushion, and he had the impudence to choose my Angel, as I delighted to call her, and the smacking kiss he gave her sent a pang of anguish right through my heart. I proved his cowardice there and then, and in a measure calmed my troubled spirit by challenging him to an immediate duel, which he “funked out” of, and I could see a smile of contempt on the lips of my enslaver, so I saw I had not much to fear from that quarter. With this exception, all was in my favour and my suit was coming on well; but, as the moment for popping the question drew nearer, anxiety as to how the sudden—but, I flattered myself, not unexpected—avowal of my love would be received overcame me. I tried several times to find a favourable opportu- nity for my purpose, but I could never make up my mind how to commence, before some one coming up destroyed the whole train of my thoughts, and drove away all power of uttering the wished-for words. At last, the yule log was brought in, and when it had got well lighted the lights were turned down, and we began roasting chestnuts, cracking jokes, etc., round the Christmas fire. Now was the moment to decide my fate. I persuaded my darling to leave the circle, under some trifling pretext or other. I brought her to the deep bay window, and there, in the gloom of the recess, I knelt down to pour forth the tale of my love in the tenderest accents I could summon. I immediately rose from my knees, for when I knelt I was not high enough to kiss her hand, which, in the trepidation of my mind, I nervously seized at the propermoment. I got up and then began with the petition which had kept my brain and heart hard at work for the -preceding half-hour. ‘“ Dearest,” I began, ‘‘you cannot have failed to perceive the assiduous attention which I have bestowed on you this evening. As soon as I saw you I felt my heart gradually slipping and melting like —I am afraid I used a not very appropriate simile—butter before the fire. You have in your own hands the power of shedding unutterable joy on the path of your devoted one, or of overwhelming him in the deepest despair. Iam yours to make or to mar; and, if you accept me, I will give you the love of a life-time.” I could not see what effect my burning words had produced ; but the heartless deceiver seized me in her arms and

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almost smothered me with kisses, every now and then pausing to ejaculate such exclamations as these: “Oh! you little duck,” or “Of course I will, love.” Her demonstrativeness rather took me by storm, but her obvious manifestations of delight assured me that my suit was accepted, and when, some time after I heard her tell ma that we were engaged lovers, I felt as if my heart would burst with excess of joy. Of what followed during the Christmas week I have not a very clear remembrance, but I suppose my happiness prevented the manifest preparations that were going on from striking particularly on my consciousness. I was at the height of my joy when, on New Year’s Day, I was informed that Angey was going to be married that day, and I was to be quick and get dressed for the wedding. I got into my best things in a frenzy of joy, and off we drove to the chapel. I wondered at Tom’s fine get up. Lavender tie, kids, and every- thing else; but I was soon to know what it meant, to my cost. When we got there we had to wait a few minutes for that odious Miss Evans, and I had to endure the mortification of seeing her the bride of another, and that other my own brother Tom. As soon as I could with decency leave the place, I rushed home, and, throwing myself upon my bed, gave vent to the bitterness of my feelings in tears and reproaches, and ever since I have bewailed my untimely experience of being crossed in love. When I returned to College all the masters, who had anything to do with me, noticed how worn-out and downcast I looked, but I never imparted the secret cause of it to anyone until now; and I should not now have laid bare to vulgar gaze the withering despair which preys on my vitals had I not been anxious to preserve my schoolfellows from a like fate, by warning them against being stricken with love at first sight during the holidays, no matter how sweetly the scheminy one should charm. There is one thing I am determined on, from which no inducement shall cause me to depart, and that 1s, never to marry. I am, indeed, A BLIGHTED BEING.

Since the above was inserted, we have received the following from the contributor :—

Dear Mr. Epiror, Please don’t insert what I gave you a short time since, for I have met with some one this Christmas-Eve ten times better than the faithless Angelina. It is her sister Geraldine ; and she has promised to marry me when we both grow up, and she has not retracted her promise yet, and I don’t think she will do. So I am no longer I A BLIGHTED BEING.



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In accordance with our promise made last month, we now give some extracts from the essays sent in to compete for the prizes.

The writer of the essay bearing the motto, “Probus invidet nemini,” is E. B. Hastings, and he says :— ‘‘The learned have been long at variance as to the precise day when Christ was born, but that which has been most generally received as the correct one is the 25th of December. Christmas has always been a joyful and festive season and the great time for all manner of games and fun. In the distant Tudor period it was the season of sports; people might do almost as they wished, and would go about playing the wildest and most crazy tricks imaginable. The king, nobles, courtiers, everyone, down even to the meanest beggar in the streets, then went a-mumming in masks representing the heads of goats, of stags, or of bulls, and sometimes dressed in skins after the manner of savages, and bearing no little resemblance to wild animals. In every parish a man was chosen called the ‘ Lord of Misrule,’ and he used to collect a large band of idle fellows, who, dressed in various bright colours and covered with ribbons, went about beating drums and blowing trumpets. Henry VIIL kept Christmas in the most magnificent style in his palace at Whitehall. The rooms were decked with flags and evergreens ; the huge yule-log was brought in with processions and amidst music, cheering, and rejoicing; it was lighted, and then a splendid banquet ensued, at which were most of the principal nobles of the land. ‘‘During the Commonwealth all Christmas observances were put down, under the severest penalties, by the Republicans, who thought it sinful to go mumming, and to indulge in the gay sports common at that season ; but, after the Restoration of the Stuarts to the throne, these Christmas sports were recommenced with redoubled vigour. They began, however, again to decline, and have continued gradually to die out, till scarcely any of the old customs and ways of rejoicing now remain. At present, evening parties almost alone constitute Christmas meetings. The wassail- bowl is almost forgotten ; it is only now and then that one is brought by the little children who go round singing Christmas carols at the door; whilst the yule-log, the ‘Lord of Misrule,’ and the sports and customs which were formerly indulged in at this season are things of the past. * * *”

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The other Prize Essay has for its motto— ‘Time brings Old Christmas in his hand— A hoary-headed sage— And smiles to see him still so young, So quickly come of age ;” and is by Edward Porritt, who says :— * * * “The Ancient Britons, Anglo-Saxons, Romans, Scandinavians, Greeks, and Egyptians, all held a great feast at Christmas-time, which was in no small degree similar to the Christmas festival of the present day. The yule-log was burnt, the mistletoe cut down by the Druids with great solemnity, whilst feasting and rejoicing went on throughout the whole land. “In this country, as well as in almost all parts of the civilised world, Christmas is looked forward to with joy by the great bulk of the people. It is the time that gladdens alike the heart of ‘The poor, the rich, the valiant, and the sage, And boasting youth, and narrative old age.’ The word Christmas seems to imply roast beef, plum-pudding, holidays, parties, and feastings. The in-door games played at this season are innumerable. The chief out-door game for boys is foot-ball. Skating is another favourite amusement; while sliding and snow-balling are so common that they need not be dwelt upon. Mumming was formerly practised to a much greater extent than at present. * * ‘In France, at Christmas-time, masses are held in great splendour in the churches and cathedrals. At the foundling hospital, in Lyons, the first child that is taken in, on Christmas- Eve, is treated with great kindness: a comfortable cradle and warm clothing being prepared beforehand, to contrast with the birth of our Lord, and to show that through Him the child was saved. : ‘Children, in Germany, play a very important part at Christmas. Special sermons are preached for them on Christmas- Eve; presents are interchanged ; while Christmas trees, very like our English ones, abound. often send the presents they intend for their children to some person, whom they call Knecht Rupert, and he, dressed up as Father Christmas is generally represented, comes to the door on Christmas-Day, stating that Jesus Christ has sent him to give presents to the good children, but for those who have been naughty he brings a rod. In Germany there is also a custom they call ‘Jumping into the New Year.’ A little before twelve on the 31st of December, each person in the room stands upon a chair, holding a glass of wine in his hand, and, as the clock strikes the hour of midnight, they jump down, tinkle their glasses together, and drink in the New Year.

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“In Italy, the Romish Church holds masses during the whole of Christmas week. Formal complimentary visits are paid and returned among all classes of people. In Rome itself, they have what are called ‘Child Preachings.’ fPulpits are erected in the streets near the public buildings, and from these little children deliver discourses to any one who may be inclined to listen. Much trouble is taken by the parents in preparing their children for these preachings.” Perhaps it may not be out of place if we add to the quota- tions from the two successful essays a short extract from the third paper, which shows, we think, on the part of its author, capabilities of better things :— “The year is closing, and Father Christmas joins us again to the delight of all, but, especially, of the young. The time for jovial sports and enjoyment has again arrived ; decorations commence, and evergreens, mistletoe, and holly, are brought in ; cordial greetings are exchanged, and everyone feels as though this were the happiest time of his life. Even the grey-headed grandfather—cross and grumpy from the infirmities of old age —smiles, as his young grandchild shows him some present gathered from the Christmas tree. Father Christmas is, indeed, welcomed by young and old. His snowy locks and frosty beard seem rather to add to, than take from, his beauty. He looks upon the children while at play, and radiant smiles fill his fine old face. But his pockets are the chief attraction to the young folks ; with crackers and sweetmeats, and all manner of presents are they filled. The young and he are friends. And as this season of joy and pleasure ends, the old year himself dies and the new one is welcomed It is only fair to add that in preparing these extracts for the press occasional liberties have been taken with the manuscripts of the authors; but, so far as possible, the alterations have been limited to the occasional omission of a word or a phrase. We hope the writers will continue their laudable efforts after literary success, and by constant practice secure to themselves an easy and graceful style. "This, we would remind them, can only be acquired by the greatest diligence and continual strivings after excellence. An easy and flowing style is not to be obtained by wishing for it. The greatest masters of our language have not become so without effort, but by careful, painful, and laborious work, and by never letting unrevised copy pass out of their hands. ‘*The heights by great men reached and kept Were not attained by sudden flight ;

But they, while their companions slept, Were toiling upward in the night.”’

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THs paper-chase took place on a Wednesday afternoon. We— the hares and hounds—went out of school, ate our dinner quickly, and then, after much cutting up of paper, &c., we went off to the starting place, which was opposite the school-house, and there we waited for the signal to start. Now, I will give a short account of the hares, and of the leaders of the hounds. The three hares were splendid runners, and had a fair amount of endurance and wind. S , a big, stout strapping farmer of the County of C—, and G--, other- wise called “sleepy,” on account of his having once fallen asleep in school and been aroused by the cane of the master. These hares were allowed twenty minutes start. The leaders of hounds were C—, famous in cricket and football, and in every athletic exercise—tall and strong, but of slight figure; and R , with a huge head and a pair of small legs; but notwithstanding these dusus nature, he had as much speed and wind as any of the party, and was a thoroughly good-natured fellow. But now to the chase. At first I had much difficulty to keep up; I noticed a boy of the name of W——, who was among the first, “pegging away” merrily, but when we had run a mile or two W. , poor fellow, was out of sight, far behind. After running a mile or two the scent led us off the highway into the grounds of the Earl of M , and then the chase assumed a more active and picturesque appearance: through beautiful woods, over hedges we went, and at last, by jumping down a high wall we got out of his lordship’s grounds, and went through green fields and woods at a good speed ; always, however, on forbidden ground. But we received a smart fright and hindrance for thus heedlessly disregarding the rights of property. We had just crossed a road, and were preparing to enter some fields, when we were saluted by a very rough, loud voice, which said, “You young varmint, what are you doing in my fields?” Very soon the owner of the said voice made his appearance. He was an obtuse-minded, obstinate, old farmer, with but one idea in his head—namely, that we should not cross his fields— and from this resolution neither threats, promises, nor anything else could drive him. As he was backed by a farmer-man, and we had several small in our pack, we sorrowfully went away. But our leader, C , was not so easily to be beaten ; he knew that the scent lay right across this obstinate farmer’s land, and he was determined to cross it. So, running round a short

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distance, we came to another part of the old fellow’s property, and first, C——, and then the rest of the pack entered, and all ran as fast as they could. To tell the truth, all—even C—_, “the bravest of the brave,”’—were somewhat afraid of our enemy ; and, therefore, we were all very glad when we saw that only two fields were between us and the high road ; but, at the same time, we heard a voice crying, stop. But, “ wonderful to relate,” this polite invitation only made us run the faster! And then a spirited race began, each doing his best to get out of the old tyrant’s power; but the farmer gained on us very quickly, and it was fortunate that we had only such a short distance to run to get out of his clutches. Now we were nearly all down to the hedge, and pushing and almost fighting ensued, for each wished to be over first, and nobody wished to taste the farmer’s whip. But that ferocious individual was now close behind! Down came his weapon, striking one unfortunate boy a hard whack on his shoulders! I was pushed aside many times, and in my turn, when the farmer came close behind—mindful only of self—I pushed a poor fellow aside, and escaped. We neither saw nor heard anything of that unfortunate boy, but we all thought that by this time the farmer’s whip and his back must be acquainted ; but the chase couldn’t be stopped, and we went on, leaving the boy to his fate. Poor A ! After this, the chase went on with vigour, and we came to the mouth of a tramway tunnel looking very dark indeed, full of mud and water, and about half-a-mile in length. But we all entered this hole—our brave leader, C , in front, and myself nearly upon his heels. C advised us, if we heard a tram coming, to throw ourselves on our faces; in which case, though we might have escaped being run over, we must inevitably have been drowned in mud and water. But we escaped both of these terrible alternatives, and soon emerged frem that den. By this time we had run seven or eight miles; the pace began to tell, and we came into splendid country scenes. I again fell in the rear; and, as we were trespassing through some fields, I noticed a sort of hollow, in which the scent disap- peared. Imagine my surprise when I saw a river in front of me! I was left behind with another fellow, so we crossed together, helping each other. I was very much “done up”—wet up to the thighs—and, therefore I wasn’t sorry when after pro- ceeding a mile or so C said he should go home, Indistinct visions of a good tea and comfortable bed floated before me; but my dreams were dispelled by our second leader, R , saying, “If two fellows will accompany me, I will follow up the chase,” and I resolved that I would see the last of it. Two

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others volunteered, and we four went on. After going three or four miles we came to a lonely, beautiful place—a steep hill, with thick woods on either side of it. The shades of evening now began to fall, we lost the scent, and were obliged to return homewards. And now came the most difficult part of the chase. It was very nearly dark; k kindly let me take hold of his arm, and we all four went as fast as we could homeward. How- ever I was dead beat, and several times it was absolutely necessary for me to rest by the roadside before I could go on ; but still we kept up the pace, and when we arrived at a village, three miles from home, we went into an inn and had some refreshment in a room in which there was a very good fire. By this means we were enabled to walk the remaining miles com- fortably, and when I got home, I had tea and went to bed. I may say that I felt the effects the next day.

A. 8S.


19. Whence arose the custom of “mumming,” which is carried on at this season of the year ?—J. H. H. 20. From what did the custom of eating plum-pudding at Christmas originate }—H. 21. Turkeys are comparatively a recent introduction into this country ; how, then, have they become so generally a Christmas dish 1—K. 22. Why is Santa Claus (St. Nicolas) connected with Christmas ? 23. When was Christmas-Day fixed to be the 25th of December ? 24. Can any of our readers furnish some particulars about the “Glastonbury Thorn,” which is said to have always been in flower on Christmas-Day ?


14. “ Ing,” in Saxon, signifies a pasture or meadow. (V. Imperial Dictionary. ) 15. “Goat and Compasses’—God encompasses us. (V. Angus’s Handbook of English Tongue.)—J. H. H. 16. I believe that photography is a development of the process invented by M. Daguerre and called after him.—J. H. H. 17. Glueis made of the skins, parings, &c., of animals such as oxen, calves, or sheep, by boiling them to a jelly. —(V. Imperial Dictionary, Article on Glue.)—J. H. H.

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18. I find the following paragraph on the subject in the Penny Cyclopedia (Article on Cotton) :—“ It is not until the middle of the seventeenth century that we find any distinct mention made of the cotton manufacture as being carried on in England ; although it has been shown by Mr. Baines that cotton wool was brought hither from the Levant, and manufactured in Manchester, at a somewhat earlier period.”—Ed. H. C. M. In the answers to Queries in our last, for ‘“ Menclous” read ‘* Menelaus.” N.B.—In our last Puzzle pages, question 15, for read ‘ Portugal.” *,* As this Number is being published before Christmas, we withhold the solutions of the Puzzles in the December Number, so as to give our readers plenty of time to solve them.


. 19. Square the words HARSH, AARON, and JOHN.

20. Dans les foréts, mon premier vit debout, On entend mon second, on avale mon Zout.

21. My first is a poet, renowned for his fame ; My second is water, though different in name ; My third is adhesive, and always applied To the far-famed pills, by my fourth supplied ;- A very large lake, near the States, is my fifth ; And a brave naval hero, you'll find in my sixth. My initials, you'll perceive, are exactly the same As my first, before mentioned as a poet of fame ; My finals, also, if properly traced, I think you will find in number six placed. B. L. 22. Give the names of seven of the United States, the initials of which give the name of another of them. 23. I am a dwelling place; behead me and I am a river in England ; again, and I mean usefulness ; transpose, and I mean to prosecute ; curtail and transpose, and I am a personal pronoun. T. L

24, Find five weights whose sum is 121 pounds, by means of which any intermediate whole number of pounds may be weighed.

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2" a _ as <a a ae A

gat —



White to play and mate in three mov

PROBLEM VIII.—By Mr. E. DYSON, Hon. Sec. of the Chess Club.

Ponts i jy iy i oe a8 2 ate xz a as oe oa a] ae

WHITE White to play a nd mate n three moves.

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The game below is taken from Staunton’s Chess Pravis, p. 110, being one of the games given to illustrate Petroff’s defence to the King’s Knight’s opening. Singular to relate, White could, at different stages of the game, have given check- mate in five, four, three, and two moves (twice) respectively. That all these should have been overlooked, not only by the players, but also by Mr. Staunton in preparing the game for publication, is remarkable in the extreme, and entitles the partie to take a well merited place among the “curiosities” of Chess. “D. W. O.,” (a member of the Glasgow Chess Club) who has discovered these variations, and kindly placed them at our service, has also empowered us to offer pocket editions of Moore’s Irish Melodies and Lalla Rookh as a prize to the pupil of the College who first sends in correct solutions to the Editor, for which we hereby offer him our best thanks.


WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. WALKER. AMATEUR. Mr. WALKER. AMATEUR. 1. P to K 4 1. Pto K 4 19. K RtoK sq 19. KKttoK B3 2KttoK B38 2 Ktt.KB3 |20.QtoK 6 20. K to B2 3. Kt takes P 3. P to Q 3 21. Q toQ 6 (ch) 21. K toQ Baq 4. KttakesK BP 4. K takes Kt 22. Kt to K 4 22. Kt takes Kt 5. Bto QB 4(ch) 5. Bto K 3 23. K R takes Kt 23. Kt to K B38 6. B takes B (ch) 6. K takes B 24.K RtoQ4 24. KttoQ4 7.PtoQ 4 7. KtoQ 2 25.PtoQB4 25. Kt takes K P 8. P to K 5 8. fo Kod. 26. Q to K 6 (ch) 26. K t0oQ B2 9. Castles 9. KttoK R4 I 27. KRtoQ7(ch) 27. KtoQ Kt3(a) 10. QtoK Kt4(ch)10. K to Q sq 28. PtoQ B5(ch) 28. K toQ R3 11. BtoK Kt5(ch)11. B to K 2 29. QtoQ B 4(ch) 29. P toQ Kt 4 12. KttoQB3 12. P takes P 30. P takes P en, 13. P takes P 13. B takes B passant (dis ch) 30. K takes P (3) 14, Q takes B(ch) 14. K toQ Bsq_ I 31. QtoQ Kt3(ch) 31. K toQ R83 (c) 15. QtoK B5(ch) 15. Q Kt toQ2 I 32. QtoQ Kt7(ch) 32. K toQ R 4 (d) 16.QRtoQsq 16.PtoQB3 33. PtoQ Kt4(ch) 33. K toQ R5 17. PtoK 6 17. Q Kt to K B 3 I 34. QtoQR6(ch) 34. KtakesQKtP - 18. PtoK7 (dis ch) 18. Q Kt to Q 2 (e) (a) White to play and mate in five moves. (b 99 > » four __,, (c) 9 ” ” three ,, (d) 9 9 9 two ” (e) 9 99 ” two ”

Amusingly enough, after move 34 of Black in the Prazis, it is added, “And White mates in three moves ;” while a footnote innocently says, ‘Mate was actually given in four moves, but it can be done in three.” / The italics are not ours.

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Tue College Chess Club has now got into fair working order. New chessmen and boards have been purchased, and the meetings continue to be well attended. A tournament was commenced on the 21st of November between the following members:—A. H. Haigh, J. R. Haigh, R. L. Knaggs, J. H. Lister, J. Pratt, T. Smith, G. H. Sykes, and P. Tattersfield. Each player has to contest one game with all the rest, and he who wins most games carries off the prize, a set of chessmen given by the President of the club.


(From Tomlinson’s Chess-Player’s Annual, 1856. )


Horace defines a picture as “a poem without words,” A recorded game of chess is a story in symbols, relating in cypher the struggle of two intellects; a story with a real plot, a beginning, a middle, and an end, in which the harmonies of time and place are scrupulously observed ; the fickleness of fortune is illustrated ; the smiles of the prosperous ; the struggles of adversity ; the change that comes over the two; the plans suggested by one, spoiled by the tactics of the other—the lures, the wiles, the fierce onset, the final victory! An hour’s history of two minds is well told in a game of chess.


A man who no longer gets admiration from old friends seeks new ones, who admire until they know him as well as the old ones. The vain man has not this resource at Chess. The chess-board is a true touchstone: on its rigid plane the weak shrinks into nothingness before the strong, the pretender loses all his borrowed plumes, speech goes for nothing, and action is the only test of skill. CONCEIT. A fine player conceited with his own skill is like a beautiful woman who uses rouge: the conceit and the rouge are not only unnecessary, but they injure what they would improve.

BOOK KNOWLEDGE, A man with much book knowledge and but little creative talent in Chess, is like a talkative man with a large memory and a small understanding. He is always quoting authors, but seldom in the right place.

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WE have selected a number of two-move problems from various sources to amuse our young friends during the holidays, and we have pleasure in offering a chess-board as a prize to the member of the College Chess Club who succeeds in solving the most of them ; solutions received up to the 20th of January. We shall publish the names of the composers, &c., along with the key-moves, in our February part.

No. 1.—White.—K at Q 6; Q at K B 3; Rat QB 2. Black.—K at Q 5.

No. 2..—White.—K at K 5; Qat Q 4; Bat QR5; Kt at K R7; PatQR4. Black.—K at K sq; Ps at K B 2 and Q 2.

No. 3.—White.—K atQR6;Q at K Rsq;RatQR8;BatKB6. Black.—K at K R sq; Q at K Kt 2; Rat K Kt sq; P at K R.2.

No. 4,.—White.—K at K 4; Q at Q Kt 5; Bat Q 4. Black.—K at K 3; Ps at K B 2, K Kt 3, and Q B 2.

No. 5.—White.—K at K sq; Qat K 5; Bat K R2; Ktat K Kt 4; Ps at K Kt 2 and Q 4. Black.—K at K R8; Bat K B 8; Ps at K R 5 and 6, K 7, and Q 4.

No. 6.—White.—K at Q R sq; Q at Q B 8; Bs at K R5 and |. KB2; KtatK B3; P at K 2. Black.—K at Q 8; P at Q 7.

No. 7.—White.—K at Q 7; Q at Q Rsq; Rat QR4; Kts at K Kt sq and Q 3; Psat K Kt 4and Q Kt 3. Black.—K at Q 4; Bat K R7; Kts at Qsq and Q Kt 4; Psat K Kt 4 and Q 3.

No. 8.-White.—K at K Bsq; Qat K Kt8; Rat K Kt6; Bat K 2; Q K B 3, K 5, Q 5, Q Kt 4, and QR 6. Black.—K at Q Bat Q B 3; Ps at K B68, K 6, Q 2, Q B 2, Q Kt 2, and Q R 2.

No. 9.—White—K at K 6; Q at QR 3; Rat K 3; Kts at K Kt sq and K Kt 4; Bat K B6;P at K B 8. Black.—K at K Kt 6; Bat Q Ktsq; Pat K Kt 7.

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Hudderstiela College Waguzine.



you want a story of some sort, my lads,” said Uncle Dan, “you want a story, do you; you young rogues?’ ‘“ Yes, uncle, and it must be true and wonderful, and about something you have seen,” said little Charlie. ‘¢ And it must have a real live fairy in it,” said Nellie. ‘And it must be something we have never heard before,” said little Charlie. children,” said my uncle, “‘as it would puzzle an (Edipus to comply with all your requests, I must be content to do the best I can, and I will at any rate leave the old beaten track and tell you something I have not told you before. But it shall not be a story about anything I have done, and I shall leave you to find out whether there is a real live fairy in it, my sweet Nell. It is about a little creature which lives in the garden, and which has the power of spinning a wondrous little thread, or rather I should say a tiny cable, made up of several thousand finer threads closely wound together. The end of this slender cable she glues to the branch or leaf of some tree or shrub, and then, darting through the air, swings herself to a distant point, and there securely fastening her manifold cord, she sets out again on a similar expedition ; until having made fast her boundary lines, she proceeds to arrange a series of converging rays and concentric circles, with mathematical precision, and to form that wondrous structure which is at once the admiration of the poet and philosopher, the ” ‘Oh, I know, I know, a cobweb, a cobweb,” cried Nelly, not waiting for my uncle to finish his sentence. ‘‘ Yes, a cobweb, dear,” continued my uncle, “ but you know, Charlie,” he went on, ‘the spider does not study Euclid to find out how to describe a circle in a given triangle, nor does she learn Mechanics, Tom, to calculate what amount of strain her slender thread will bear. Neither does she greatly improve by experience ; her web of to- day is little if at all different from the one she made last week. You know something, Charlie, about the habits of the spider,


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how she hides herself in some dark corner, watching for her prey, and how, when some unlucky insect becomes hopelessly entangled in the meshes of her net, she comes quickly out, and, enveloping her victim in fresh coils of her silken fetters, binds him tighter and tighter, and then gradually bites him to death.” “But, uncle,” said Tom, ‘how can a small spider bite to death an insect perhaps bigger than itself ?” Tom,” said uncle Dan, “you see the spider is provided with some very powerful jaws, called mandibles, and these man- dibles, which are curved in and sharp at the point, have in each a little hole pierced quite close to the end, and through this little hole comes out the poison formed by some small glands inside the spider’s mouth, and this poison enters the body of the fly when the spider bites him, and that is how this little creature kills her prey.” “Do all spiders have cobwebs?” asked Charlie. ** No, love, all spiders do not make cobwebs like those you all know so well. Some spiders, for instance, make nests for themselves.” ‘“‘ Nests! uncle,” cried Nellie; “ what, nests up in the trees like birds ?” “Not exactly that either,” said my uncle. ‘ There area great many spiders in the south of Europe who make little. burrows in the ground, and line the inside of these homes with silk of their own spinning, and some of them make a door to their house with a proper hinge, and make it so as only to open outwards, and when the spider is at and holding to the door, it is very difficult for any of her enemies to get in.” ‘‘ But supposing, uncle, that one of these enemies did get in?” said Charlie. “ Well then, he would gobble up Mrs. Spider, and go off to look for her brothers and sisters. The spider has a great many relations in the south of Europe. On the shores of the Mediterra- nean, for instance, Tom, there are thirty-six different species of Trap-door Spider, so that you see if you intend to add a collection of spiders to your collection of insects, there will be a field open for you.” “ But, uncle,” said Charlie, ‘does the enemy often break through the trap-door and gobble her up ?” should scarcely think so, Charlie,” said my uncle, “ and yet there must be danger of it, for we find that some spiders take the precaution of having another trap-door a little way down the tube or burrow which forms the nest, so that, if one outwork is forced by the foe, there still remains a further fortification behind. But this is not all, for there are spiders, who not only

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have a double set of doors, but who make also another passage or burrow at an angle to the main one. There is one spider in particular (there may be more, but of that I am not sure) there is one spider, I say, in particular, who makes such a second passage just behind the inner door, so that when this inner door, which opens inwards, falls down, it completely conceals the mouth of the second passage. Now, when Mrs. Spider finds that she can no longer hold her front door against her enemy, she retreats to her inner citadel, and holds hard by her second door as long as she can. But if her enemy outside is very hungry and sufficiently strong he will tire her out, and then she quietly slips into her second burrow, and letting go the door the intruder enters to find the nest full of nothing but emptiness, though all the time his prey is quite close to him, concealed only by the falling back of the trap-door.” ‘Isn't it funny,” said Nellie, ‘I never should have thought a spider could be so clever.” ‘“‘ But, uncle,” said Tom, “ when are you going to show us your microscope as you promised ?” “Did I promise?’ said my uncle, “ well, if I promised, of course I am bound to perform, though I had no recollection of having done so, but your memory is doubtless better than mine. Suppose then, that as we are talking of the spider, I show you @ preparation I have made of a foot.” ‘Qh, do, uncle, do!” shouted a chorus of voices. My Uncle Dan accordingly took out his microscope, and, having very deliberately cleaned the glasses and adjusted the mirror so as to have a good light, he took from a small black box a flat piece of glass about three inches long, and with a ring of black varnish near the middle, when, having placed this beneath the object glass of his microscope, and carefully arranged the focus, he allowed us children to look in by turns, and, if it had not been uncle Dan himself who had told us that it was really a spider's foot we had been looking at, I should scarcely have believed it. What we saw looked more like a collection of combs than like any foot I ever saw before. But as it is quite impossible for me to make any one understand what it was really like by a description in words, I have thought it better to make a pen and-ink sketch for the College Magazine, and for this purpose Uncle Dan, who takes a great interest in the said magazine, and who is a regular brick, has allowed me the use of his camera lucida, so that the drawing, if not quite according to the rules of art, is at least tolerably correct in its proportions, and as this is my first attempt at drawing for the lithographer, and as moreover I havn’t begun to take drawing lessons yet, I hope the readers of the magazine will not be too severely critical.

Fr 3 °

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As every one who reads this can see the sketch by turning back a page, I may just repeat what Uncle Dan told me about the preparation. He pointed out that there are three combs in the claw, two above—-seen one behind the other,—and the third in the centre of the field, of which only the tip can be seen at all distinctly. A few of the bristles or hairs, which cover the whole leg, have been left, and are seen in my drawing, and one of them has been broken back and lies across the others. In the microscope, with the actual claw, the two larger combs can, by altering the focus, be brought out alternately with greater distinctness, so that you can see the teeth of the comb behind through the semi-transparent comb in front of it, and when you bring the latter into focus, the one behind fades away like a picture in the dissolving views. In my drawing I cannot of course represent this, and must be content to compromise the matter, by bringing out the comb in front, and showing the back of the more distant comb, and by shading, indicate where its teeth end. But if any of my readers would like to see the thing ‘itself, I shall be happy to introduce them to my uncle, and he will be glad to let them have a peep through the glass. Uncle Dan showed us also the foot.of a blue-bottle, but as the College Magazine cannot afford two lithographs at present, I shall not be able to show my readers the wonderful cushions and the curious claws of the fly, but must content myself with having repeated


THE DESCENT OF MAN. (Continued from page 46.)

Ir may not be out of place here, to instance some few of the most striking phenomena, illustrating the changes which plants and animals undergo, with a change in the circumstances of their existence. The action of water on vegetables is very evident. Lamarck cites the aquatic ranun- culus. In this plant, those leaves under the surface of water are finely divided and quasi-capillary; those growing above the surface are rounded and lobate. But the influence of water on the organism of animals is truly marvellous. Thus the tadpole of the frog breathes like a fish, by means of gills ; but according as the feet develop, and the tail vanishes, the lungs appear, the gills are lost, and the animal formerly

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aquatic is now amphibious. A similar phenomenon is to be observed in tritons, which, during early life living in water, breathe through gills, but when at a more advanced stage they desert the water for the land, their gills disappear and are replaced by lungs,—whilst, if the triton is compelled to confine itself to its original element, this change is not effected. Light exercises over the organ of sight a strange and powerful influence. In darkness, the eyes of animals become atrophied ; in the light they are perfected, and improve from exercise ; and many instances might be mentioned of animals blind from confinement in darkness, whose co-geners are in full enjoyment of sight. But we are compelled to pass from this interesting subject, to one no less so—the influence of natural selection, and the part it has played in the drama of the universe. We have seen new forms, or rather modifications of pre-existing forms, spring into being from the agency of evolution; and we have now to examine how these forms are perpetuated in a more advanced and perfect condition. At the very earliest stages of animal life, the demand for the necessaries of life must have always exceeded the supply, and a struggle for existence must have perpetually agitated the members of the same and different tribes. From this struggle arose a result, the effect of which . in improving and exalting the members of the animal kingdom can scarcely be exaggerated—the survival of the fittest and the strong, the death of the feeble and the impotent. To this per- petual struggle, which called for the exertion and the consequent development of every aggressive and defensive faculty in the individual, we may ascribe the continual ascent of the so-called species in the animal scale, in preference to a retrograde movement. The necessity of existence felt, the call for exertion to obtain the means of subsistence—these are the agencies by which Nature has effected the grand evolution of which the results are so wonderful, and which at this very moment is continuing. This evolution is manifested in the series of animals, the remains of which are preserved to us by geological beds. The older contain only the remains of invertebrates and fish ; reptiles, birds, and mammifers appear successively in their Zoologic order, and lastly man concludes this ascending series. All mythologies,” says Charles Martins, ‘have foreseen its continuation in their imaginations of angels, of beings more - perfect than man, intermediate between man and his Creator.” Nor do I see why such a view should shock the religious sen- timents of any of my readers, for as a celebrated author and divine writes to Dr. Darwin, “I have gradually learnt to see that it is just as noble a conception of the Deity to believe

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that He created a few original forms capable of self-development into other and needful forms, as to believe that He required a fresh act of creation to supply the voids caused by the action of His laws. ” The Editor regrets to say that in consequence of indisposition and pressing business engagements, the author finds it impossible to devote to this subject the time and attention which its importance merits. The above is a short sketch of Darwin’s theory of the Descent of Man, as understood by the author, and it was his intention in further papers to point out the strong resemblance to be noted in the physical and intellectual qualities of the man and the ape—his next of kin in the animal chain. He will, however, be glad if some one more able would complete his task.

BOYS—AND BOYS. (By «a Lover or Boys.)

I am going to tell you something of a jolly old sailor I met with on board a merchant ship on a voyage from India. This sailor was an old man-of-war’s-man, and was a bit of a character. He had seen service, and he liked “ to fight his - battles o’er again,” to the amusement of his shipmates. Tell old Johnson of some fearful storm you had encountered on a former voyage ; the old sailor was ready with his story of some far more wonderful adventure, which cast yours quite into the shade. You never could “ out Johnson, Johnson,” or get him to confess that any peril equalled what he had seen. Once, however, he was a bit—just a little bit—non-plussed: During the voyage of which I write, we encountered a hurricane off the Isle of France,—and to those boys who may not have been in a storm at sea, I would like to describe what I saw,—and I would begin by telling you it baffles description. I have often seen in pictures the sea in fearful commotion ; but no picture ever came up to what I saw in that hurricane with my own eyes. The waves were mountains high, indeed it needed some courage to look at them, and when the ship was at the bottom of a wave, as she shudderingly tried to rise, you felt a sinking at heart, and you said to yourself, “It is impossible the ship can breast that mountain ; we must perish !” Oh, boys, it was an awful time,—never, never to be forgotten by those who witnessed it. The captain ordered our guns to be thrown overboard, to lighten the vessel. The water casks followed. Our boat was washed away, and the sides of the ship also. The man at the helm was lashed to the wheel; while one after another of our fine crew became disabled by accident.

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One of the officers at this fearful time asked old Johnson, wondering what he would say, “ Well, Johnson, have you seen anything worse than this ?” ‘¢T wouldn’t wish to see it blow harder, sir,” was the reply, and it was truly a wonderful admission for the old sailor to make. One of Johnson’s peculiarities was his contempt for boys. ‘“‘ Boys,” he would growl, “ boys ; there are no boys now-a-days. In my time, boys were boys ; but there are no boys now.” And ° if the old boy shouted to Tom or Jim to haul taut some rope ; the poor fellow, do it as smartly as he could, always got the discouraging growl—about boys. Now Ido not know what wonderful qualities the boys of old Johnson’s time possessed, or whether the old man had a craze about boys not heing boys, but I should like to ask a question or two as to the character of the boys of the present time, and whether they really are boys. Well, then, let me ask ‘“‘ When is a boy—a boy ?” To be a genuine boy, he must be a fine active fellow; brave as a lion ; and above doing a mean action; kind to every one ; and especially kind to little boys and dumb animals. I can see the true boy, with his fine eye flashing, as he sees a boy—who is not a boy—throw a stone at a poor lame dog, with intent to cripple him still more. I can hear him cry, “ Let the poor creature alone, you coward ; no brave boy would hit a lame cur.” Yes, the genuine boy will be the friend of the friendless and the helpless, and turn away from cruelty in any shape. I cannot draw a picture of the ‘“ no-boy,’—the sneaking idler, whom no one loves. No; I let such alone: but hurrah! for our brave generous boys! they will grow up noble men. And so we conclude, there are boys—and boys.


THe Essay with THE Motto, “ NoTHING GREAT IS LIGHTLY WON,” &C.

Tue study of insects is one of the most pleasing pastimes that a boy can pursue. It is not only interesting, but instructive ; for it is unquestionably more important that every one should be acquainted with the works of Creation, than with literary works ; whilst, from a religious point of view, we find it stated, in a well known authority (Kirby and Spence’s Entomology), that ‘no other study affords a fairer opportunity of leading the youthful

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mind by a natural and pleasing path to the great truths of religion, and of impressing it with the most lively ideas of the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Creator.” One is surprised to find that a great many persons object to this study. Insects, say these objectors, are trifling and unim- portant objects ; whilst the study of them is a waste of time and talents ; and again, the Entomologist is, they assert, cruel and unfeeling. In answer to the first objection, we find it recorded in history, that some of the ablest men that have ever lived have looked upon insects, not as trifling and unimportant, but as quite the reverse. We find that Moses (Levit. chap. xI., verses 20-22), and Solomon (1 Kings, chap iv., verse 33), must have had some knowledge of the insect world. Pliny, the Roman, and Aristotle, the Greek, were not only great philosophers, but also the fathers of Natural History. So that if these great men did not think the study of insects a waste of time, neither should we. Many persons think that the Entomologist is cruel, because he has to take the lives of some of the insects that he studies ; yet they do not think it cruel to destroy life to add to the supply of food or clothing. Consider for instance, the number of lives that have to be destroyed to make a jar of potted shrimps, or the number of seals that must be killed (40,000 in March, 1872, only), in order to supply ladies with the seal-skin jackets, in which they take so much pride and pleasure. Yet these same persons seem to think it cruel that the insect collector should kill—in com- parison—so few insects, in order to add to the supply of mental food. Men in our day think themselves very far advanced in the arts of civilization, yet they forget that insects have done almost the same works, on a smaller scale, ever since the world was created. Long before Sir Mark Isambard Brunel thought of constructing a tunnel under the Thames, the white ant had excavated tunnels,—in comparison with the size of the insect,— twelve times greater than Brunel’s. The diving-bell and air pump are thought to be very wonderful achievements on the part of man, yet the diving spider lives in a bell constructed on the same principle as ours, but much more ingeniously contrived. Or for another instance, we may take the wonderful coral insect. This creature, although in diameter only 3,},, part of an inch, can raise up, in a comparatively short time, islands, which in time become covered with vegetation. Throughout the whole groups of the Polynesian and Australian islands, there is hardly a league of sea unoccupied by these coral-reefs or islands. Great pleasure may be derived from insects, especially from the capture of them. How enjoyable is it, on a warm summer’s evening, to wander over hill and dale, by the side of rippling

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streams, or along the shady wood, net in hand, awaiting those winged insects which, unlike ourselves, prefer the gloom of evening, and the dark of night, to the brightness of the day, for their short flitting lives! Or what can be more delightful, on a fine afternoon, than to take a stroll over the moors, for there you find ‘** Amongst heath’s delicious bells, Insects in green and gold arrayed.” It is very wonderfu}] to see the many ways in which the caterpillars of some of our insects are preserved from being de- stroyed by the birds. Some feed only during the night, when the birds are at rest, and burrow into the ground during the day. Others, although they stop on their food-plant in the day-time, yet they are so much the colour of a piece of the bark of the tree, and so motionless, that it sometimes needs sharp eyes to detect them. There is a very wonderful and also very rare kind of caterpillar (L. Arion) that is so much like its food-plant when young, that it is very difficult to see it at all without the aid of a magnifying glass. If God thus preserves insects from being devoured by the larger classes of the animal kingdom, it is evident that He created them to serve some other purpose, and as He says that He made man to have dominion “ over all the ‘earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth,” we may therefore infer that insects are intended for our pleasure and our instruction.


In connection with the Science and Art department of the Com- mittee of Council on Education there are 130 Schools of Art in the United Kingdom. To the headmasters of these Schools 60 prizes are awarded annually, ranging from £50 to £10, according to the success of the respective schools as tested by examination. It must be gratifying to all persons connected with the Huddersfield College to know that Mr. Stopford, our Art master, has taken the highest bonus, his school being first in

the kingdom,

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The following article appeared a year or two ago in the Francisco Overland Monthly. It was written by an old pupil of the College, whose father was for many years a prominent member of the Council.. We have been specially requested to reproduce it in our pages, and as it will doubt- less be new to all our subscribers, we have pleasure in making it an excep- tion to our usual rule respecting original contributions. Nortainc is now left to attest the importance and strength of the once formidable fortifications of Cochin, on the Malabar coast, save a few scattered piles of moss-grown ruins, and the earth-works of its ramparts. Its frowning battlements and threat- ening towers were razed to the ground years ago, to prevent it becoming again a stronghold for the freebooter by sea, or the filibuster by land. The old watch-tower, whence ships are sig- nalled, still stands within the fortress, a monument of its past history ; but hundreds of bats and flying-foxes flit about its mouldering walls, and noxious reptiles infest its nooks and crevices. Adjoining this tower, and connected with it in early times, were the judicial and inquisitorial courts—the former of which surpassed the Star Chamber in the cruelty of its decrees, and the latter rivalled its sister institution at Goa in the infliction of punishment and torture. To the extraordinary circumstance I am about to narrate, and to the fact that in Cochin I contracted the first serious illness of my life, I attribute the intense feeling of loathing (I can call it nothing else) that I have ever since entertained toward the place, and which the lapse of years has not effaced. Its whitewashed houses, glittering in the everlasting glare of a tropical sun, line streets rank with vegetation, in which a human being is rarely seen. The oppressive solitude and dreary aspect of the place remind you, as you traverse it, of wanderings in the City of the Tombs. True, crowds of beggars, young and old, are always to be met with. They prefer to congregate around your dwelling, imploring charity in every note of the gamut, and exhibiting on themselves maladies incidental to a country where diseases are unusually prolific. Men and women, with legs swollen to the size of their bodies from elephantiasis ; lepers, with unmistakable signs of their dreadful affliction upon them ; the palsied, shivering like a man in an ague-fit, and nodding their heads like a Chinese mandarin ; the halt, the maimed, and the blind—all are here to join the general chorus, and to scramble for any small coin that may be scattered among them. In the motley assemblage may be seen young and graceful Malabar women, in their tattered, but picturesque costumes, with large gold ear-rings, and small hoops of gold hanging from the cartilage

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of the nose. They, too, are beggars—for what reason, it is hard to say, in a place where a native will live well for five cents a day. To escape from these unpleasant scenes, you drive or ride along the road that runs by the sea-beach, anxious to inhale the fresh ocean air; but you are poisoned by noxious fumes that salute you from fires kindled at the water’s edge, where the mortal remains of sundry defunct Tamils are passing into ashes, previous to interment, while the unclean kite, which has possibly gorged on many a fat Parsee, hovers heavily around, with the hope of obtaining a further share of human carrion. In one of these deserted streets, in the year 1845, I had the misfortune to choose my residence. It was built of solid stone, the walls being four feet in thickness ; the house and grounds were large, and the apartments lofty and spacious. The ground- floor was composed of cavernous-looking rooms, called godowna, from which daylight was excluded, save when the doors were opened, and which consequently were dank and disagreeable. Above these, on the first story, were the dwelling-rooms, three of which opened into an extensive hall. <A corridor communi- cated with a large veranda, at the back of the house, the steps from which led to the compound, or inclosed space below, which was planted with fruit trees, and bound in by high walls. The commodious room that I chose for a bed-chamber, overlooked the compound and the steps ascending therefrom, while one door opened into the hall, and another into the passage spoken of as leading on to tha veranda. The house was far too large for me, but I looked rather to quantity than quality; and congratulated myself on having made a good bargain, as the rental monthly was very moderate indeed. No sooner had I comfortably established myself in my new quarters, than I determined to see company. A detachment of the 12th Regiment, N.J., were at that time stationed in the fort, and each officer, like myself, secured such quarters as he thought fit, from the numerous empty mansions to be found within the fort. Frequent inter- change of visits was established among the bachelors, who availed themselves of each other’s quarters, and as my establish- ment was opened on a somewhat grander scale than usual, it was, conseqnently, proportionally patronised by the subs of the regiment, who were delighted to lounge away their idle hours where they were sure to meet some company. I did not always sleep in the house, as occasionally I had to visit stations in the interior, but when I did remain at home, I was in the habit of permitting my servants to leave at about ten or eleven o'clock ; they never exceeded half-past eleven, with- out coming to make their salaams, previous to taking their de- parture. I thought nothing of this for some time, and let it

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pass without comment, until, on two or three occasions, after requesting their prolonged attendance, I found that they had not obeyed my orders to stay, but had vanished, without beat of drum or their accustomed salaam, When taxed with their deser- tions, on the following morning, I was both surprised and grieved to learn from them that they were each and severally labouring under severe family afflictions: one expected his mother to die that night ; another, his child ; and another, his wife : and hence the cause of his absence. As a tender-hearted man, I could not blame them; but when I found this sort of thing an oft- told tale, I discovered that I had been imposed upon—that they, one and all, had lied, with the object of escaping to their own homes. I accordingly dismissed them and hired others, who served me in the same way. I could not get any of them to stay past midnight ; so I was left alone of nights in the desolate ouse. After my guests had retired I generally went to bed at once, leaving both windows and doors wide open ; and, for some time, the thought that I was the only person in the house scarcely occurred to me, and I soon fell asleep, waking up only when my servants returned the following morning. But latterly I had become restless and uneasy. I found myself lying awake nightly, without any degree of somnolency stealing over me, and my thoughts reverted to the solitariness of my position and the unaccountable refusal of my menials to remain in the house.

(To be continued. )


25. What is the origin of the custom of sending valentines on the 14th of February H. H. I 26. Whence is the custom of eating pan-cakes on Shrove Tuesday ? I 27. From what is the word February derived ?—C. B. 28. Why should February have a less number of days than the other months ?—H. M. 29. It is said that at the theatre when the actor first spoke the words, quoted Query 2, Vol. IL, the whole house rose as one man to show their appreciation of the beauty of the passage, Can any of your readers refer to the theatre and date 1—W. H. 30. What is the derivation and meaning of ‘“ William ?”

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24, (Vol. I.) 1200 A.D., appears to be the earliest date at which the use of firearms can be fixed.—A. H. H. . 16. Photography has been a growing discovery. Various investigations have been made with respect to it from time to time. Scheele seems to have been the first person who made any important experiments concerning it—A. H. H. 24. We take the following information about the Glaston- bury thorn, from a paper on the hawthorn, in the Country.— ‘‘ Tradition tells us that the ‘ Glastonbury thorn’ sprang from the staff of Joseph of Arimathewa, who came to England, and placed it in the ground, and on waking, found it grown into a tree, covered with white blossoms. A story which, by the way, recals to us one of the tales of the brothers Grimm, of which it may be a localised version. Be that as it may, it seems certain that the first Christian church in England was built upon the spot where the thorn is said to have stood ; and that the tree to which the legend was attached, or a descendant of it, remained a wonder to many generations. It was reported to bud on Christmas Eve, to be in full flower on Christmas morning, and withered the same night ; and without any belief in this rapid transition, we may fairly suppose that about Christmas time the tree was in blossom. Such an occurrence is, by no means, isolated. We have seen in the park at High Wycombe, a small hawthorn, which every year produced buds in December, and in 1869, put forth fragrant fully expanded blossoms at the end of that month. Our Glastonbury thorn, however, had a reputation extending beyond England. Pieces of it were exported by Bristol merchants to foreign lands, and much prized. Nor must it be supposed that this belief in the marvel was confined to the dark ages. Queen Anne, as well as many of the nobility . of her time, bought slips of the tree at a high price ; and pil- grimages were made to it as late as the beginning of the 18th century. One of the two trunks was cut down by a puritan in the time of Elizabeth, and the other in the reign of Charles I., but a slip was secured and inherited the peculiarity of the parent, which is shared by two old hawthorns, doubtless descendants, still standing within the precincts of Glastonbury Abbey. At the time of the introduction of the ‘new style,’ the Glastonbury thorn obtained great popular importance from the fact that it remained firm to its old custom, and came into leaf or flower on ‘old Christmas-day.’”

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We read in the London Evening Post for January, 1753, that ‘‘a vast concourse of people attended the noted thorn on Christmas-day—new style ; but there was no appearance of its blowing, which made them all watch it narrowly till the 5th of January, Christmas-day—old style, when it blowed as usual.” It is said “that people were sent from various parts of the country to consult the tree, and the support which it gave to the popular prejudice against the alteration of the calendar, was very considerable.”


25. Square the words LEAVE and GOOD.


A Conservative friend of the Editor’s proposes the following puzzle :—“ I should be my /irst, if I had my second, to throw at my whole.” 27. DIAMOND PUZZLE. A consonant, a river in Switzerland, the plural of the name of a tree, to make from nothing, an English battle, one who dreams, to colour slightly, a card in a pack, a vowel. The central letters read downwards, name an English B. H. 28. IT am a word of 14 letters,— My 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, is a point of the compass ; My 8, 9, 12, 10, is an animal ;

My 11, 2, 4, is destiny ; My 10, 5, 2, 1, 9, is a river of France ; My 14, 6, 13, 12, is a river of Europe ;

My 14, 6, 7, 8, is unable to speak ; and My whole is a county of England. 29. Show how to draw the figure called ‘“ pentalpha.” 30.

From the Cambridge Local Exam. J unior Algebra paper, 1873. Sum the series—4, ¢, 2, to 33 terms.

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Solutions to Puzzle Pages in our last.

Answers received to— 19. From J. H. H. 21. From E. B. H. 22. From EK. B. H., 23. From E. B. H., 24, From the proposer.


A. H.H., H.A., J... A. H. H.



House, Ouse, use, sue, us.


The numbers of pounds are, 1, 3, 3?, 3°, 34, or 1, 3, 9, 27, 81. By these weights it will be found that any whole number of pounds between 1 and 121, may be weighed. e.g. To weigh 83 pounds ; in the scale opposite the one in which is the substance to be weighed, put 81 and 3 pounds, and in the other 1 pound, thus making 83 ; and similarly for other weights.

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Solutions to Puzzle Pages


Received answers to 18. From S. H.8., G. R., E. W. H. A, B. A, FL. K., F. H.S., G.H., E. W., J. H, F. E. B. J. W. 14. From E. B. H., W. H. H. 15. From 8S. H. S., E. W. H. A, BE. B. H., B.H., BE. A.S., G. H., 16. From E. W., J. H. H., H. H., F. H. J., A. H. . 17. From 8. H. S., E. W. H. A., E. B. H., W. H. H., B. H., P. T., J.H.H., E. W., F. H.J., J. W., A. R.Wr., A. H. H. 18. From J. H. H., E. B. H., A. H. H.


SOLUTION TO QUESTION 15. Burrisokane, in Ireland. Coimbra, in Portugal. SOLUTION TO QUESTION 16,

Let x = what he set out with in pence ; then, 2x—1 = what he had when he left 1st shop,

and 2(2x—1)—x = 9 2nd ,, and 2 { 2(2x—1)—* l_(x—l)= ,, 3rd_,, or, = » 3rd; Therefore, an = 2x or, 2x =3 (in pence) Therefore, = 3d. or 13d.=what he set out with. SOLUTION TO QUESTION 17. TOBACCO.


Let A B be the given line, it is required to draw a perpen- dicular to A B, from any point C without A B. From C draw C E to meet A B, in any point E. Bisect C E. in F. [Euc. 1, 10.] From F as centre, with the radius F C, draw the arc CD , cutting D. Join CD, and it will be the per- pendicular required. Proof.—Then since C D E is a semicircle, and the angle, C D Eis in it ; therefore C D E is a right angle. [Euc. m1, 31.] Therefore, a straight line, © D has been drawn perpendicular to A B by a different method from Euclid’s. [v. Euc. 1, 12.]— Q. E. F.

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CHESS. PROBLEM IX.—By Mr. C. W. M. DALE, Norwica.


= 7. 2 ws ; ee a - m2 2m 2 a ne = a aa



WHITE. White to o play and mate in two mov



Or Ae 4 77 La Vd, eo


oe ee I

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

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1. Kt at Kt 3 to Q R 5 (ch) 1 K to R eq 2. Kt to Q Kt 6 (ch) 2. Kt takes Kt (best) 8. P to K R 8, becoming a Q, (ch) 3. Kt interposes (best) 4. Q takes Kt (ch) 4. Q takes Q 5. K to K 3 (dis ch) ' 5. K to R 2 6. K to K 4 (dis ch) 6. K to R sq 7. K to Q 4 (dis ch) 7. K to R 2 8. K to Q 5 (dis ch) 8. K to R sq 9. K to Q B 5 (dis ch) 9. K to R 2 10. K to Q B 6 (dis ch) 10. BtoK B7 11. B takes B (ch) 11. K to R sq 12. K to Q Kt 6 (dis ch) 12. Bto K Kt 7 13. B takes B (ch) 18. Q interposes (ch) 14. B takes Q (mate)


White is in the act of castling, and has only moved his King ; he completes the move by bringing his Rook to K B sq, announcing mate. (Mr. Grant wishes us to state that this is not an original problem of his own, but a re-setting of a position by Mr. S. Loyd, page 401, of ‘* American Chess Nuts.’’)


1. Kt to B 6 (dis ch) 1. B takes R 2. K to K 4 2, Any move 3. Kt or R mates accordingly. SOLUTION OF PROBLEM VIII. 1. KttoK B2 1. B takes Kt 2. B to Q sq and mates next move.

There are other variations.


(a) 1. Q to K 8 (ch) 1. K to R 3 or 4 (best) eee eS 2. K to Kt 3 3. P to B 5 (ch) 8. K to Kt 4 4. R takes P (ch) 4. K to B 5 5. Q to B 8 (mate) (b) 1. Q to Kt 4 (ch) 1. K to R 8 2. Either R to Q 3 2. Q to Q sq 8. R to Q R 8 (ch) 3. Q interposes 4. R takes Q (mate) (ce) 1.6QRtoQ 4 1. Q to Q sq 2. Q R to R 4 (ch) 2. Q interposes 8. Q to Kt 7 (mate) (q) toQ 8 1. Any move 2. R to Q R 3 (mate) (e) 1. QRto QB sq 1. Any move to B 4 or K R to Kt 7 (mate)

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SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS on page 74. As these are all two-movers, we need only give the first move in each.

1. Qto K R32. Dubuque Journal ; G. E. Carpenter. 2. Qto K 3. La Strategie ; A. Demasure. 3. B to Q R sq. English Mechanic ; G. C. Heywood. 4. Bto K B 6. Glasgow Star; Dr. Frazer. 5. Q to Q 6. Glasgow Herald ; J. H. Finlinson. 6. Qto K B 5. English Mechanic ; G. E. Barbier. 7 Qto KR 8&. ” A. C. Pearson. 8 R to Q 6. Field; J. Gocher. 9 Q

to K 7. » F. Healey.


have been for some' little time past various indications of the increasing popularity of our noble game. As one of the signs of progress, we are gratified to notice that the remarkable success attached to the inter-University chess contest of last year seems to have stirred up the attention of some of our colleges, who have placed the mental gymnastic of chess in the list of sports commonly practised in our public schools. A chess club in connection with the City of London College, containing about fifty members, with Mr. R. Whittington, M.A., as president, and Mr. Charles B. Lindsey as secretary, has been in existence for some time, and holds its meetings at Sussex Hall, Leaden- hall-street. It numbers amongst its members some strong amateurs, who are at the same time members of the City of London Chess Club, and are still holding their own amongst the combatants in the great handicap tournament which is now going on at the latter club. The Huddersfield College AfLagazine, which devotes an ably-conducted column to chess, announces that a regular chess club has been formed amongst the masters and pupils of the Huddersfield College, with Mr John Watkinson as president, and Messrs W. J. C. Miller, B.A., and J. French as vice-presidents. At the beginning of last month they held their first meeting—a very enthusiastic but rather primitive one, if we are to judge by the circumstance that sume of the players had to contest their games on chess boards of their own make, coloured with ink.- It is, however, gratifying to notice that some of the masters of the college found their masters in the game amongst their own pupils. From a second report of the above quoted Magazine we learn that already new chess boards have been bought, and that a tournament is going on amongst the youthful members, with the following entrances: Messrs A. H. Haigh, J. R. Haigh, R. L. Knaggs, J. H. Lister, J. Pratt, T. Smith, G. H. Sykes, and P. Tattersfield. The conditions are that each player has to contest one game with the rest, and the winner of the most games will carry off the prize, a set of chessmen, given by

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the president of the club, Mr. J. Watkinson. We have also received the first number of the Felstedian, the organ of the Felsted Grammar School, containing a chess column, which con- sists entirely of contributions from the members of that school. —The Field, January 3rd, 1874.


The following is an extract from an interesting article on Mendelssohn, in Macmillan for January, by Ferdinand Hiller. At the time spoken of, 1831-2, Mendelssohn was resident in Paris :— A large part of his time was devoted to chess; he was a capital player, and his usual antagonists, Michael Beer, the poet, a brother of Meyerbeer’s, and Dr. Hermann Franck, only occasionally succeeded in beating him. Franck would not allow that he was inferior, and upon this Mendelssohn invented a phrase which he relentlessly repeated after every victory : ‘“‘ We play quite equally well—gquite equally,—only I play a very little better.”


The correct solution of Problem V. has been received from D. W. O., Glasgow ; and J. H. F., Newcastle-on-Tyne. The correct solution of Problem VI. has been received from numerous correspondents, The correct solution of Problem VII. has been received from D. W. 0O., and J. J., Glasgow ; A. Wood, London; J. W. A., Brixton ; and E. D., Huddersfield. The correct solution of Problem VIII. has been received from D. W. O., and J. J., Glasgow ; A. Wood, London; and J. W. A., Brixton. The solutions of the problems in the game on page 72 were first sent in by R. L. Knaggs, who is consequently entitled to the prize offered. J. Pratt carries off the chess-board, having solved all the two-movers on page 74, except No. 9. R. L. Knaggs has ‘‘cracked” all the nuts except Nos. 2 and 7, and A. H. Haigh all except Nos. 5and9. D. W. O., and J. J., Glasgow, are correct in all. : J. W. A., Brixton. We are glad that positions VII. and VIII. in our last number pleased such a good judge of problems; others of our corres- pondents have expressed themselves in similar terms to yourself. A. We shall be glad to receive the solutions of any problems in our pages from you. We do not think that any but present or former upils of the College will be admitted to the College Chess Club. We, however, print a portion of your communication, with the latter part of which we agree én toto. I A. C. says: ‘*I think it is a pity that none but those who either go or have gone to College can join the College Chess Club; because I am debarred from joining on account of my parents not having had the good judgment to send me to that admirable institution.” O. A. B., Jr., Dubuque. We have sent you two complete copies of our first volume, as requested. No. 1, Vol. I., is now quite out of print. We will try to send you a few games before long.

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Hundersheld College Magusine.



THE ordinary route from Geneva to Chamouni lies up what, in Yorkshire phraseology, may appropriately enough be called Arvedale. The glacier-fed river that flows through this long mountain-valley is joined on the right bank, about four miles above Bonneville and some twenty miles from its own confluence with the Rhone, by a tributary stream, the Giffre, which brings to the Arve the waters that pour down on all sides from the mountains that enclose the romantic valley of Sixt. This valley cannot be better characterized, in brief, than by the expression used by Goethe to describe Chamouni : it is, in truth, a Cup to the Giffre, whose sides are the mountains. To this valley, in company with two friends, (whom I shall call E. and N.) I betook myself to spend a quiet week in the summer of 1872. Our desire was to find some pleasant retreat amidst characteristic Swiss scenery, and as free As possible from that crowd of tourists which makes many districts of the of Europe” during the season pretty much like the neighbourhood of Llandudno or Scarborough. Sixt was mentioned to us as a place most nearly satisfying our require- ments, being described in one Guide-Book as “highly romantic but little known,” and in another as a valley deserving ‘“ much more attention than it has yet received,” and being moreover *“‘ recommended to all lovers of the picturesque as one of the finest in Savoy.” To Sixt accordingly we went, a party of four women,—my friends E. and N., myself, and E’s maid Fanny. Starting from London for Paris on the morning of Thursday, July 11th, we went forward the next day to Dijon, and on Saturday at midnight arrived in Geneva, where we remained till Thursday, July 18th, at the Hotel de la Métropole. During our stay in this birthplace of Calvinism (or rather, remembering Froude’s famous address, let us say of modern Calvinism), we made several interesting excursions. One was to the junction of the Rhone and Arve, which, from its singular appearance, is well worth a visit. Having two years before seen it from a tongue of land between the two rivers, we this time went to look at it from a country house called the Chatellaine. The


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Arve, now bringing down its maximum of the debris from Mont Blanc, looked almost like liquid mud ; while the “waters of the arrowy Rhone,” having deposited all their sediment in the Lake of Geneva, presented that clear pellucid blue which physicists tell us is the natural colour of pure water ; and, as far as we could see, the two streams flowed on side by side without commingling with each other. To believe, however, what the Genevese told us, that the rivers so ran on unmixed for five miles, would require almost as much faith as that of the old lady who, when asked if she really believed that the whale literally swallowed Jonah, replied, unhesitatingly, “Yes ; and if I had been told on the same authority that Jonah swallowed the whale, I should have believed that too !” Another day we sailed up the lake to Chillon, visiting the grand old feudal castle,—built a thousand years ago, with the water washing its base, at the edge of a precipice where ‘* A thousand feet in depth below The massy waters meet and flow,—” which, apart from its beauty of situation, must always be interesting from its historic and poetical associations. Here we saw the Hall of the Knights, the feudal bedrooms, the dungeons hewn out of the solid rock, and, in one of these, the pillar to which Bonnivard was said to have been chained for seven years, until, in the words of the poet (Byron) whose name we saw cut in deep letters on the pillar, along with the subsequent ones of Dickens and others,— ‘‘Until his very steps have left a trace, Worn, as if the cold pavement were a sod.” There was also pointed out to us the spiral staircase of three steps (known as the “‘oubliette,” the passage into oblivion) from which the unhappy prisoners, stepping on as they thought to a fourth step in the descent to their dungeon, were precipated to a depth of eighty feet into the lake below. The castle is now used as a magazine for military stores. To what uses may the relics of the past be appropriated! As Hamlet says— ‘* Imperial Ceesar, dead and turned to clay, Might stop a hole to keep the wind away.” In returning to Geneva we walked first to Montreux, a pretty village situated on a hill above the lake, and thence on to Clarens,—Byron’s “ Birthplace of deep love,”—which commands a fine view of the lake and of the opposite shore. Here we took the steamer back to Geneva, and at sunset had a clear view of Mont Blanc, which is sixty miles distant, and is said to be distinctly visible not more than sixty times a year.

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On the morning of Thursday, July 18th, we left Geneva by diligence at 11 for the valley of Sixt. We had the coupé to ourselves, and the only other passengers were country folk apparently returning from shopping or marketing at Geneva,—a talkative, good-humoured, healthy-looking lot of people,—who dropped off at their homes as we went along, leaving us at last quite alone. Our route was for the first four miles along the road to Chamouni, but we turned to the left at Annemasse, on the French frontier, where we had to show our passports, and then passed away from Arvedale behind the range of mountains that forms its eastern boundary. A further drive of eight miles through a pleasant fertile district brought us to St. Jeoire,* a pretty village nestling under the Méle, which rises to the height of nearly six thousand feet between this village on the north, and Bonneville in Arvedale on the south. Here we stopped an hour and had luncheon. Starting from St. Jeoire with three fresh horses, we soon found our way narrowing to a sort of gorge, and, passing by a road cut in the rock, descended into the valley of the Giffre, along which, on the right bank of the river, the rest of our route lay. Down so far as the Mole the Giffre flows nearly parallel to the Arve,— that is to say, speaking approximately, in a north westerly direction,—but at the eastern base of the mountain it turns sharply off, almost at right angles to its former course, and, bursting through a gap in the ridge that separates it from Arvedale, flows nearly due south to pour its turbid waters into the Arve. The valley of the Giffre, from the point where we entered it, presented some rich and pleasing scenery. Cornfields and orchards lay thickly studding the lower grounds; and the higher slopes were adorned with a profusion of luxuriant foliage of forest trees of all kinds, with mountain-pastures and farm- steads dotted about here and there among them. In some places eur road was agreeably fringed with apple, pear, and walnut trees. A seven miles’ ride from St. Jeoire, amidst such scenery, brought us to the little town of Tanninges, where the only other road into the valley,—which comes from Cluses, in Arvedale,—joins the one along which we were going. Soon after leaving Tanninges we had our first view of the Buet, a glorious snow-crowned mountain, which towers aloft to a height of more than 10,000 feet, the veritable monarch of all the . grand mountains that stand at the head of the valley of Sixt.

“Of the saint from whom the village takes its name, or what he was canonized for, I have not the faintest idea. Perhaps the able Editor of the department for Notes and Queries in the Magazine may be able to throw some light on his history.

g 3

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Seven miles further on we came to Samoens, a town of more pretentious character, boasting of a square, and in it a linden tree, which the inhabitants regard with almost pious veneration. Near Samoens, but on the opposite side of the valley, there is a fine waterfall, 700 feet high, the cascade of the Nant Dant; and from the same side as the town, mountain-paths lead over the Col de Jourplane to Morzine, and thence down the Dranse to Thonon on the Lake of Geneva, and also over the Col de Golése and the Col de Coux to Champéry, and thence by the Val D’Illier to Monthey in the valley of the Rhone. Here the diligence stops, unless there are passengers for Sixt, and to-day there were none but ourselves ; so we rested a little while, and then went on with two of the same three horses for the remaining four miles of, the journey. From Samoens we found the scenery increasingly beautiful, the valley being still _ tnore contracted, the hills on each side covered with the greenest verdure, and the Giffre brawling along pleasantly below us in a ravine overhung with beech trees. Just before reaching Sixt we ascended a hill (Les Tines) that stretchés across the whole valley, and through which the Giffre has worn for itself a deep and narrow channel,—just as the Aar has done through the Kirchet (the cherry-tree hill) between Imhof and Meyringen,—leaving behind what had probably been, in both cases, the bed of a lake. Descending the hill of Les Tines, on the other side, we at once entered the valley of Sixt, and after a few minutes’ drive, arrived at the village about five o'clock. Although Sixt is less than a quarter of the size of Tanninges or Samoens, we saw that it could, nevertheless, like the latter town, boast of its square, with a splendid linden tree standing in the middle of it; and here; when we came to our journey’s end, the people were standing about in groups, chaffering and disposing of the remains of what had been for them, no doubt, a busy market. Crossing the square, the diligence drew up at the door of the only inn the village contained,—a long, quaint, old, rambling building, that had formerly been a convent, and now bore the high-sounding name of the Hotel du Fer 4a Cheval. Along the whole length of the one habitable story ran a vaulted corridor, on the right of which were the bedrooms and the dining-room, and on the left, windows looking out into the churchyard, with its little church surmounted by a wooden spire crowned with a gilded weather- cock. Below were the kitchens and the village alehouse, and above, a story not.only disused, but, we were told, never even looked into ; but wherein, amidst the strange noises heard overhead in the dim watches of the night, one might imagine the ghosts of the former inhabitants were disporting themselves

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amongst their old haunts. At the end of the first corridor, a second ran off at right angles, with deep embrasured windows on the left, opening up the valley and commanding a fine view of the Pic de Tinneverges, a noble snow-capped mountain, nearly 10,000 feet high, which apparently closed in the valley. There were very few visitors at the Hotel during our stay, and not a single English person ;—one or two Germans, a French lady and her husband, who came over the mountains and left the next morning for Chamouni, and a French artist, who had often made Sixt his favourite resort, and who daily added to his portfolio sketches of scenes unequalled elsewhere ; . these were all. It was a quiet, out-of-the-world place, where one could be content to bask in the exceeding beauty of the scenery, and drink in therefrom those draughts of tranquil enjoyment which a famous Alpine climber has recently declared that cotemporaneous increase of width and wisdom” induces him to think better than even the delights of scaling the almost inaccessible mountain-peaks. We were fortunate enough to secure the best situated bedrooms, two connected ones in the corner of the hotel at the entrance of the first corridor. The one which N. and I occupied had two windows in front looking over the little square and down the valley of the Giffre towards Samoens, and a third at the side looking on to the mountains in the direction of Chamouni. The only drawbacks to our perfect enjoyment were the flies and the fleas, which were certainly both numerous and active, and the latter of which had probably descended by an unbroken line of ancestry from the days of the good old monks, with their hair shirts and their infrequent ablutions. Of the scenery in whose very midst we were thus happily situated, some idea may be gathered from the following brief description. The valley of Sixt is V-shaped, with the apex at its entrance, and, diverging far away amongst the mountains, two deep lateral valleys, through which flow two glacier-fed rivers that unite a little below the village, and there form the Giffre, somewhat in the same way as the stream that comes down from Buckstones, and that which flows through the picturesque valley of Wessenden, unite at Marsden to form our own river Colne. Of these two Giffre-branches, the one on the right towards Chamouni,—the ‘“ Haut,” or Upper Giffre.—comes down from the very heart of the Buet, and curves in a general north westerly direction through a lovely valley called the Vallée des Fonds, sweeping past the eastern base of one of the most beautifully formed peaks to be found in the whole of Switzer- land. This peak, the Pointe de Salles, formed the most prominent object from our windows, and we were never weary

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of watching the glories of its manifold and changing hues in the glow of sunset, at dusk, at moonrise, and in the full light of mid-day. The “ Bas,” or Lower Giffre, is the stream on the right bank of which the hotel is situated, and the rippling of whose waters made very soothing music all night long. It flows down from the glacier of Mont Rouan, a mountain to the left of the Pic de Tinneverges, then crosses, at the base of the latter peak, the mouth of a magnificent amphitheatre of precipices more than a thousand feet high,— called from its shape the Fer 4 Cheval,—down whose sides pour silvery cascades from the glaciers above, and in whose midst lie ‘* Crags, knolls, and mounds, confusedly hurl’d The fragments of an earlier world,-—” and finally runs through the valley in a general south westerly direction to unite with the Higher Giffre. But of our rambles about these lovely valleys and their surrounding heights, and of our walk therefrom over the mountains to Chamouni, I must reserve an account for some future paper. Meantime, in bringing this to a close, I would remark that in our leisurely explorations hereabouts, we found everywhere scenery of the highest and most diversified love- liness. Deep river-beds adorned with beeches ; pleasant walks by murmuring brooks or through shady pine forests ; valleys of picturesque forms,—in one place carpeted with wild flowers, enriched with luscious strawberries, and clothed with rich and luxuriant foliage,—in another, girt in by precipitous rocks of variegated colours and most fantastic contortions of strata, with here and there a patch of greensward nestling in their nooks and recesses; while from some higher “‘Coign of Vantage” we can see glaciers, cascades, snow-capped peaks, and, towering above all, the majestic form of the Buet ; such are a few of the aspects of the scenery in and about the valley of Sixt. And nowhere have I ever looked on such lovely moonlight effects. Our own hill-country comes out grandly -in the mellowing moonlight, as any one must have admitted who had walked, as I did with my husband one night last autumn, in the un- clouded light of the full harvest moon, from Marsden over Deer Hill, Blackmoor, and Crosland Moor, to Huddersfield. And N. and I had previously thought that nothing could equal the moonlight scenes we had together beheld at Nice and Mentone. But those at Sixt surpassed all. The forms and groupings of the mountains, and the romantic configurations of the valleys, seem to render this Cup to the Giffre peculiarly susceptible to the heightening beauty of clear moon- light. Owing to the depth of the valley, and the height and closeness of its sides, it was late before the moon rose from

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behind the mountains that had long been gilded by its rays ; but when at length it did rise, the whole valley and its moun- tains seemed bathed in liquid silver, which brought out in strong relief all its more prominent beauties. Looking at these scenes, as we did long and often from the windows of the hotel, I thought of the famous moonlight simile from the Iliad, which had frequently been repeated to me in various translations from Chapman’s down to Tennyson’s, and of which, as no inappropriate close to my paper, I here subjoin the exquisitely musical lines of Pope’s version, which, if true anywhere, are especially so in the valley of Sixt :— ‘* As when the moon, refulgent lamp of night ! O’er heaven’s pure azure spreads her sacred light, When not a breath disturbs the deep serene, And not a cloud o’ercasts the solemn scene ; Around her throne the vivid planets roll, And stars unnumber’d gild the glowing pole, O’er the dark trees a yellower verdure shed, And tip with silver every mountain’s head ; Then shine the vales, the rocks in prospect rise, A flood of glory bursts from all the skies.”



THE tradition to which the Devil’s Bridge owes its name is, perhaps, one of the most curious of all Swiss legends. It runs as follows :— The Reuss, which flows in a hollow about sixty feet deep, between perpendicular rocks, intercepted all communication between the inhabitants of Cornera and those of Geschenen, that is to say, between the Grisons and the people of Uri. This stoppage caused such inconvenience to the two neighbouring cantons, that they called together their ablest architects, and, by public subscriptions, several bridges were built across the chasm, but none were ever strong enough to resist for more than a year the frequent storms, the swelling of the waters, and the fall of the avalanches. A last attempt of this kind had been made towards the end of the fourteenth century, and as the winter was nearly over, it was thought that this time the bridge would withstand all attacks ; but alas! one morning there came a messenger to the Mayor of Geschenen informing him that the passage was once more interrupted. “It is only the Devil,” cried the Mayor, “who can build us a bridge that will stand.”

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Scarcely had he uttered these words, when a servant announced his Satanic Majesty. ‘Show him in,” said the Mayor. The servant retired, and. there entered a man of thirty-five or thirty-six, dressed in the German fashion, with tight red trousers, and a black doublet lined with bright red silk. Upon his head was a black cap, surmounted by a large red feather, which, by its waving, presented a very graceful appearance. As to his shoes, anticipating the fashion, he had them rounded at the ends, as they were worn a hundred years later, towards the middle of the reign of Louis XII. ; and a large spur like a game-cock’s, which grew out of his leg, seemed intended to uree his steed when he travelled on horseback. After the usual compliments, the Mayor took a seat in one arm-chair, and the Devil in another : the Mayor put his feet on the andirons, while his companion, quite naturally, put his on the embers. “Well, my good friend,” said Satan, “ you are, it seems, in need of my services ?” “T assure you, sir,” replied the Mayor, “ your help would not be altogether useless to us.” “ About this cursed bridge, is it not? Well.” must have one.” “Oh you must, must you?” laughed Satan. ‘Come now, make us a bridge, there’s a good Devil,” said the Mayor, after a moment’s silence. “Exactly what I came to offer.” “Then the only point to arrange is—is about——about :” The Mayor hesitated. “ About the price,” continued Satan, looking at the speaker with a singularly malicious expression. ‘“‘ Yes,” replied the Mayor, feeling that they had now touched the most difficult part of the bargain. ‘¢ Oh,” continued Satan, rocking himself in his chair, and sharpening his crooked nails with the Mayor's penknife ; “I will come to reasonable terms on this point.” ‘Well, that reassures me,” said the Mayor; “the last bridge cost us sixty golden marks ; we will double that sum for the new one, but we can afford no more.’ “ What do I want with your gold?” replied Satan: “TI can make it whenever I wish. Look here.” He took a red-hot coal from the middle of the fire ; just as if he had taken a burnt raisin from a tray of snapdragons. “ Hold out your hand,” said he to the Mayor. The latter hesitated a little. be afraid,” continued the Devil: and he put into the palm of the Magistrate a lump of the purest gold, which was as cool as if it had just come out of the mine.

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The Mayor turned it over and over in every possible way, and then offered to give it him back. “No, No, keep it,” replied Satan, placing one of his legs over the other with a consequential air. ‘¢ suppose then,” said the Mayor, putting the nugget into his purse, “that if you can make money so easily, you probably wish to be paid some other way: but, as I don’t know what will suit you, I must ask you to name the conditions yourself.” Satan reflected for a moment, and then said :—“I require, as my own, the soul of the first living being that shall pass over the bridge.” “ Let it be so,” said the Mayor. “Write down the agreement,” continued Satan. “You write it also.” The Mayor took pen, ink, and paper, and prepared to write. Five minutes after, a regular and duplicate deed was signed by Satan in his own name, and by the Mayor, in the name and on behalf of his canton. The Devil pledged himself formally, by this act, to build, in the night, a bridge firm enough to last five hundred years ; and the Mayor, on his part, promised, as payment for this bridge, the soul of the first living being whom chance or necessity should constrain to cross the Reuss over the Devil’s highway. The next day, at dawn, the bridge was built. Soon the Mayor set out to Geschenen to see if the Devil had fulfilled his promise. He saw the bridge, and found that it was strong and. well built ; and, at the other end was Satan, seated on a stone, awaiting the price of his nocturnal labour. “You see that I am a man of my word,” said the Devil. “‘ And so am I,” answered the Mayor. “Why, my dear Curtius,” rejoined the other in astonish- ment, “you are surely not going to sacrifice yourself for the safety of the people under your charge ; are you ?” * Not exactly that either,” continued the Mayor, laying down, at the end of the bridge, a bag, which he had brought on his shoulder, and immediately beginning to untie the strings. “What then?” asked Satan, trying to guess what would take place. “ Prrrrrrooooou !” exclaimed the Mayor. Whereupon a dog, with a frying-pan tied to his tail, ran out of the bag, much frightened, and, crossing the bridge, ran howling to the feet of “ the wicked one. “Ah!” said the Mayor, “there is your soul, it is running away ; do run after it, my lord.” Satan was furious; he had expected a human soul, and he was compelled to content himself with that of a dog.

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It was enough to make him consign himself to perdition, if that had not been done long ago. However, as he claimed to - be a good sort of a fellow, he feigned to think the trick a clever one, and pretended to laugh at it as long as the Mayor was there ; but no sooner had the worthy Magistrate turned his back, than Satan began to try with might and main to destroy the bridge which he had built. He had, however, performed the work so conscientiously, that he bent his claws, and broke his teeth without being able to move even the smallest stone in the substantial bridge. ‘‘T was certainly a great fool,” he muttered ; and with this reflection, he put his hands into his pockets, and descended the banks of the Reuss, looking right and left, as a lover of nature might do. He had not, however, renounced his project of vengeance. What he was seeking was a rock of suitable weight, which he might transport to the mountain that overhung the valley, and let fall, from the height of five hundred feet, upon the bridge, in paying for the making of which, the Mayor of Geschenen had deceived him. He had not gone three leagues when he found what he had been looking for. It was a grand rock, as big as one of the towers of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame. Satan lifted it from the ground as easily as a child would a turnip, put it on his shoulder, and, taking the path which led to the top of the mountain, went on his way rejoicing, lolling out his very tongue for sheer delight, and exulting in anticipa- tion of the grief the worthy Mayor would feel when he should, the next day, find his bridge destroyed. When he had gone a league, Satan thought he could distinguish on the bridge, a large concourse of people. He placed his rock on the ground, and, standing upon it, distinctly saw the clergy of Geschenen in procession, with crosses and unfolded banners at their head. They had come to bless the Satanic work, and to dedicate the Devil’s Bridge to God. Satan saw plainly that he could now do no harm; he descended sadly, and, meeting a poor cow, which could not help itself, drew it along by the tail, and threw it down a precipice. As for the Mayor of Geschenen, he never heard anything more of the infernal architect ; the first time he opened his purse, however, he burnt his fingers badly,—it was with the lump of gold that had once more beome a live coal. But the bridge lasted five hundred years, as the Devil had promised it should—(From Alexandre Dumas’s Impressions de Voyage.)

A. H.

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A REMINISCENCE OF TRAVANCORE. (Continued from page 86. )

Hap I been aware that they would not have done so for untold gold, or had I heard of the superstition that attached itself to the place, my ideas might indeed have wandered in more gloomy channels than they did, and my repugnance to being alone consider- ably increased. As it was, I found myself disturbed by two circumstances for which I was unable to account, but which, at the time, caused me no uneasiness, until their constant repetition in those sleepless hours began to disturb my nervous system. These were: a sound coming from a deep well that stood in my compound beneath my bed-room window, as though the chain were uncoiled from the winch above it ; and the sound of a voice—a very plaintive one—singing, as it were, a lullaby to an infant. I tried in vain to fix the locality of the latter. It sounded sometimes nearer, and again, more remote, assuming at times tones of an unutterable anguish. It could not proceed from any of the houses adjoining mine, as I had ascertained that they were all uninhabited. Once I imagined it to come from the empty suzte of apartments beyond the large hall; then from the hall itself ; and so impressed was I with this idea that I sprung out of bed; but the voice receded and was lost in the distance, and I thought myself mistaken in its proximity. It had now become a perfect incubus to me—an irrepressible nuisance, that kept me not only awake, but positively waiting till I heard it— for I felt that I could not sleep till then. Again the chain of the well would rattle, and I heard what I suspected to be the footsteps of my servants, who might not yet have left ; or those of some intruder, who chose this unseemly hour to avail himself of an opportunity to obtain a supply of water. I resolved to assure myself on this point on the next occasion, when I went to my window and demanded, in Tamil, who was there? No answer came to me from the sepulchral darkness below ; upon which I threatened whoever it was, in language more emphatic than polite, with sundry pains and penalties on a repetition of the intrusion. I went to bed, but sprung out of it again on hearing the chain again uncoiled and a number of footsteps below. Rushing along the corridor and into the verandah, in my panjama, I quickly descended the steps into the compound, resolved to punish summarily the wretch who thus insisted on disturbing my repose. But all was still as death, and I saw nothing. I went to the massive door at the entrance, but it was closed ; yet I had heard no indications of exit in that direction.

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I peered into the darkness and groped about the shrubbery, to discover if any one were concealed there, but in vain: nothing evinced the presence of an intruder; the chain of the well was rolled up, and the heavy lid lay over the mouth. An indescri- bable feeling of dread now, for the first time, came over me, which I was powerless to resist ; and I retired precipitately to my dormitory, closed my windows and doors, and tried to compose myself to sleep, but the vague and undefined emotions I laboured under were not to be repressed ; and again I heard the dirgelike wail I have before referred to, more mournful and unearthly than ever. I was consoled, however, by the reflection that I should not be another night alone in the house, as a son of Judge K had written to me to say that he would accept my invitation to stop with me a fortnight, and we had agreed to read Hindoostanee together, preliminary to passing the examination which was close at hand. A chamber had been already fitted up beyond the hall for his reception, and I was glad to welcome him on his arrival, before noon. I said nothing to him with reference to my experiences, knowing that I should be laughed at for my fears ; and indeed, for my own part, I began to feel heartily ashamed of them myself, and indignant, withal, that I had been imposed on, either by my servants or by an outsider. Having worked myself up to this frame of mind, I determined to probe the matter to the bottom on the coming night. The evening was resolutely devoted, by K and myself, to study ; and at ten o'clock he retired to his room, somewhat fatigued with the morning’s travel.

(To be continued. )


31. What is the most probable derivation of the following local names :—Quarmby, Salendine Nook, Cote Royd, Pule Hill, Golcar, Lindley, Denby Dale ? 32, What is Gutta-Percha ? 33. What is Indian Ink +—J. H. H. 34. What celebrated men have been born in the West Riding of Yorkshire +—AvSsTRALIAN. 35. Why do we say “ Lord’s day” with the sign of the genitive, but “ Lady-day ” without it -—H. 36. In the report of Mr. Barker’s Bible Class, I observe that Mr. H. M. Shaw is called a “ Synodsman ;” is this word the same as ‘“Sidesman?” and if not, what does it mean? [The word is not given in the Imperial Dict. |—Lxcror,

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A. R. Wr. asks in what part of the Bible does David speak of “a giant being refreshed with wine,” as a speaker at one of the College Debating Society Meetings is reported to have said? It is to be found in the Church Prayer Book version of the 66th verse of the 78th Psalm.

24, The following verses are the conclusion of an old poem, printed by Richard Pynson, A.D. 1520. It is entitled “ The Lyfe of Joseph’ of .Armathia.”

Great meruaylles men may se at Glastenbury, I One of a walnot tree that there dooth stande, In the holy grounde called the semetory, Harde by the place where Kynge Arthur was founde. South fro Josephs chapell it is walled in rounde, It bereth no leaues till the day of Saynt Barnabe ; And then that tree, that standeth in the grounde, Spreadeth his leaues as fayre as any other tree.

Thre hawthornes also, that groweth in werall (i.e. Weary-all-hill) Do burge and bere grene leaues at Christmas As fresshe as other in May, whan the nightyngale Wrestes out her notes musycall as pure as glas ; Of all wodes and forestes she is the chefe chauntres. In wynter to synge if it were her nature, In werall she myght haue a playne place, On those hawthornes to shewe her notes clere.

Lo, lordes, what Jhesu dooth in January, Whan the great colde cometh to grounde ; He maketh the hauthorne to sprynge full fresshely, Where as it pleaseth hym, his grace is founde ; He may loose all thing that is bounde. Thankes be giuen to hym that in heuen sytteth, That floryssheth his werkes so on the grounde, And in Glastenbury, Quia mirabilia fecit. ACHILLE,

25. “It was a very old notion alluded to by Shakspeare, that on this day birds begin to couple. Hence, perhaps, arose the custom of sending on this day letters containing professions of love and affection.” (From the Imperial Dictionary, article on Valentine’s Day.)

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27. ‘From the Latin Februaurtus, which is said to be named from februo, I purify by sacrifice, and thus to signify the month of purification, as the people were in this month purified by sacrifices and oblations. The word februo is said to be a Sabine word, connected with ferveo, to boil, as boiling was used in purifications.” (From the Imperial Dict., article on February.) An answer containing part of the above information was received from H. F.; while A. M. says that February is either from the Latin Februus, the name of Pluto, or from Februz, a feast held by the Romans in behalf of the manes of the dead. 30. of old, a German had slain a Roman, the gilt helmet of the Roman was placed upon the head of the con- queror, who was thence known as gild-helme. The name became in French, Guildhaume, and in Latin and English, Gulielmus and William.” (Angus’s Handbook of the English tongue.) A. M. says, however, that William is derived from the Saxon Wiili, many, and Whelm, a helmet, and signifies a protector.


31. Square the words STEAM and YEAR. 32

Adieu mon tout, si mon dernier Te porte & couper mon premier. 33. GEOGRAPHICAL PUZZLE. A town in Spain, A river in Cumberland, A district of Africa, A mountain in Arabia, A town in the United States, A state in America, A river in Russia, and A range of mountains in India. The initials give a disciple of Socrates, and the finals one of this disciple’s best known works.—J. 8. C. 34. (From the Cambridge Local Exam. Junior Algebra Paper for 1873.) Sum the series, 4 2 +2+ d&c., to 5 terms.

After Tom has won 10 marbles from Jack, he has six more than Jack ; between them they have 40: find how many each had at first. 36. Show how to draw a quartrefoil.

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Answers received to— 25. From E. B. H., J. H. H.

26. From E. B. H., E. W., JH, A B.B, P.S., J. W., A. H. H. 27. From H. E. M., F. B. H., J. H. H., F. E.R, P.S., J. W. 28. From G. D.S., G. E. P., E.G. C., E. B. H., J. H. ., E. W., A.M, ABB, LER, OL, PS, J. W., A. H. H 29. From J. H. H. 30. From J. H. H.,C. L., A. H. H. SOLUTION TO QUESTION 20. Bois-son. SOLUTION TO QUESTION 25. LEAVE GOOD ELLEN OTTO ALONE OTTO VENOM DOOM ENEMY


MD Oro arnt p> et te By b> mr Pn Ee 42min PW Qn b>

In the above Question 27, on page 88 in our last number, for “‘to make from nothing,” read “ makes from nothing.” SOLUTION TO QUESTION 28.

Northumberland, Items :—North, Bear, Lot, Rhone, Duna, Dumb.

SOLUTION TO QUESTION 29. Draw a regular pentagon (by Euc. IV. 11.) Join each angular point with the two ends of the side of the pentagon respectively opposite to them. Then the figure which is drawn within the pentagon will be the figure required, viz., the pentalpha. SOLUTION TO QUESTION 30. Let a=the Ist term of the series =4 ; b=the common differ- ence = 4 ; and =the number of terms = 33; then we have

p=) 20+ (n— 1b } = 38/2 38,6 99,

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==, ook ZY a an be 3 we "a ey =




“Y 4 Vid yy White to play and mate in three moves,


oe” wa oa ea a |_ eam mem Cw A in aoe U3 VY wee

WHITE, White to play and mate in two moves.

oe om an

NEwport, Mon.

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THE LATE SHERIFF BELL. Born, 1805. Diep, January 7TH, 1874.

In the recent death of Henry Glassford Bell, Scottish Chess has lost one of its strongest pillars. When his life comes to be written much will have to be said about him as a great lawyer ; as a patron of Art ; as a fine critic of poetry, himself no mean poet ; while his friendship with such men as Professor Wilson and Professor Nichol ; Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd; and many others of the leading spirits of that period, will show how wide and varied were his tastes and sympathies. But it is as a lover of Chess that we have to do with him in this place, and even here we shall soon leave him to speak for himself in his own way. In the year 1850, Sheriff Bell, then well known to be highly skilled in the game, was invited to become the President of the Glasgow Chess Club. He readily consented to this request, and principally by his exertions the Club at once took the highest rank among similar institutions of the kind in Scotland. At the annual meeting of the club in 1851, when returning thanks to the members for electing him to the Presidency, he gave an eloquent address which will well bear reproduction, and from which we extract the following judicious remarks :

**Chess is a game that teaches, more than any other that I am acquainted with, the necessity of sustained attention—which teaches circumspection— which teaches forethought—which teaches calculation—indeed, I believe it may be said truly, that he who can calculate most deeply—who can look farthest before him—is the man who will be the most successful chess- player. Now, it cannot be denied, that any game which so exercises the intellectual faculties is a game entitled to great respect, and if only treated as an amusement—as an intellectual pastime for our hours of leisure—I say it is a pastime in which any man may spend those hours of leisure safely and improvingly. It further appears to me, that if we look a little more broadly at the game of chess, we shall find in it a good deal of practical morality—we shall find in it something analogous to what is taught us by the events of life; and we shall find in it a counterpart, as it were, of what is going on in the world around us. Take one or two simple illustrations which have occurred to me frequently in my study of chess. We all know that there is nothing more important for a young man than a good start in life—a good beginning as he enters upon the active business of life. If he makes a false start in life, he will find it exceedingly difficult to retrace or recover his steps, and ten to one but his chances of ultimate success are materially diminished. Now, in the same way in the game of chess, the more one is acquainted with it, the more he must be satisfied that the first ten, fifteen, or twenty moves are about the most important in the whole game. A young player does not often think of this ; he fancies that the real battle does not begin till he gets into the heat and middle of the game. This is a total error; the game begins from

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the first move, and those who start well may lay a foundation which it will be very difficult for their adversaries to overcome. Again, we all know that in the business of life mistakes are often made by attempting things which are beyond our power; without having sufficient means at our command—without having sufficient friends behind to back us—we aim at large projects and we fail in our aim, and even sometimes make ourselves ridiculous. In the same way in chess, a young player will often, before he has got his forces sufficiently at his command—before he is able to make proper use of his strength—aim at some sudden coup, and not having strength to go on with it is sure to be foiled ; whereas the skilful and experienced player restrains his ardour and does not attempt to make his grand attack until he has fully developed his game, and feels that he has all his forces completely at hiscommand. One other remark I have to make—and I am sure these are observations which have occurred to yourselves more forcibly than they have often done tome. The remark I have to make is this— that we often find there are persons of sanguine, and, at the same time, even of studious character and disposition, who are apt to be unduly disheartened by a little misfortune. Some mischance throws them back on themselves and enfeebles their after efforts. How often we see in chess, if a player of such a disposition be led into a slight mistake, the error becomes fatal ; whereas, if having made, as most chess-players will make, in the course of a long and laborious game, an error, and thus given our adversary a temporary advantage, we, instead of being disheartened, do but resolutely determine within our own secret hearts only to exert ourselves the more deter- minedly, how often do we see that our adversary, buoyed up by a temporary advantage, relying too much upon the advantages of the moment, falls in his turn into the same error, and that we, by calmly bearing up against our misfortune, may yet regain the fortunes of the day. There are many other chess moralities, if 1 may so call them, which must have occurred to you all, and which are exceedingly useful, and well calculated to shew the intellectual, and, I do not think it too much to add, the moral nature of the game of chess.”’

We heartily commend these well-chosen words to all young players who read these pages. We wish them to look at the game of Chess as something more than a mere game, and as capable of teaching many qualities of mind and heart which will in after years do them good service in the “ battle of life.”

Sheriff Bell continued to take a lively interest in the game to the close of his life. For many years he was the champion of the Glasgow Club, and second to no player in the West of Scotland.

The Glasgow Herald, in a long and able sketch of his Chess career, gives the following estimate of him :—

‘‘ Sheriff Bell was more a defensive than an attacking player. He seldom attempted brilliant combinations, but any combinations attempted against him were pretty certain to be keenly analysed, seen through, and steadily met—generally to the discomfiture of his daring but rash assailant.”

We are sorry that so few of his games appear to have been preserved. We have searched in vain for a specimen of his play, but have been unable to find a single partie.

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We close our imperfect article by a sonnet, entitled “Chess,” the composition of the lamented Sheriff.

Friend! not Napoleon, when at Austerlitz He played for empire and a deathless name, Met a more sharp encounter of bold wits Than they have done who prize this peerless game ; For, doubt not that the heart may beat as high, Within the precincts of a quiet room, As when steeds neigh and banners flout the sky On hostile plains, where angry monarchs fume. The goodly armies on these ordered squares March, counter-march, advance, deploy, retreat— Some fall prepared, and some at unawares, At outposts some, more in the battle’s heat, Until the soul, with hope of glory fed, Thrills to the conqueror’s cry, ‘ The King is

CHESS APHORISMS. (From Tomlinson’s Chess-Player's Annual, 1856. )


FULLER says, ‘“ Choose such pleasures as recreate much and cost little.” Chess is one of these, unless pursued too ardently, and then it costs—too much time.


A fixed purpose wisely conceived and steadily carried out marks the great player: he analyses and combines, and never condescends to trick, artifice, and stratagem.


The penetration of a great mind discerns clearly the motives of other minds, and conceals its own until it thinks fit to reveal them. This forms part of the strength of a great chess-player.


The correct solution of Problem IX. has been received from D. W. O., Glasgow ; and J. P., Undercliffe. D. W. 0., Glasgow. Your solution of No. X. was quite sound, although not the author’s. Be kind enough to look at it again, with the alterations notified on page 114. ° J. E. Carpenter, New York. Your solution of Mr. Townsend’s fourteen- mover is correct, and very neatly summarised. Many thanks for your valuable contributions. The three-mover we publish this month; the two-mover, we believe, is now quite perfect ; but we hold it back, at your request, until we hear from you again. A. W., London. In Problem IX. you overlook that the B checks in taking Kt. Respecting No. X. see reply to D. W. O.

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SOLUTION OF PROBLEM IX. WHITE. BLACK. 1. Q to Q B 4, and mates next move. PROBLEM X.

This problem, as it stands, admits of a solution not contemplated by the author. Ifthe Q be transferred to K Kt 2, and a Blk P placed at Q 5, Mr. Pierce informs us the position will then be correct. With this emenda- tion we again submit it to our readers.

Cambridge Boral Examinations.


SENIORS. SzconD Crass (Honours). E. Woodhead (distinguished in English). THIRD Cass. J. H. Hastings. I F. H. James.

Pass. H. Appleton.

JUNIORS. First Crass (Honours). J. H. Lister (distinguished in English). SECOND Cuass. E. B. Hastings (distinguished in English). R. L. Knaggs (distinguished in Religious Knowledge). J. F. Kriiger.

THIRD A. H. Haigh (distinguished in Religious Knowledge.) T. E. Atkinson. I J. W. Hattersley. Pass, H. J. Brooke (distinguished in Chemistry). F. Anderton. F. A. Brooke. A. B. Burrows. W. B. Cumming. G. E. Dixon. B. Hall. F. E. Rookledge. P. Tattersfield. B. H. S. Walker.

J. F. Weiss, formerly a pupil at Huddersfield College, obtained a second class in Honours amongst the Seniors, at the Cambridge Local Exam., and a mark of distinction for Latin. E. J. Bruce, formerly a pupil at Huddersfield College, has recently passed the Matriculation Examination of University of London, and was placed in the first division.

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Huddersteld College Mlagazine.


Wuat I am about to relate is no myth or fancy of a vivid imagination, but a real episode in the life of a good-natured, simple-hearted bachelor uncle of mine, who is a subscriber to our Magazine. He will, no doubt, see this, and understand of whom I am writing, but I trust to his good sense not on that account to discontinue his subscription. In a certain number of. the Rigston Examiner, there appeared under the head of Public Notices the following Advertisement :— I ‘““If Mr. Cheerible Easigo will call at our offices, Ramsbotham Street, Rigston, on the Ist of April, 1873, he will hear of something very much to his advantage.” Now, I and four more conspirators, namely, my sister Polly, aged thirteen, my cousins Walter and Herbert, and an intimate friend Tom Noble, who lived in the third house in our terrace, had, a week before the first, held a long, bantering conversation with uncle Cheery, as we irreverently dubbed him ; Cheery being pleasanter to say than Cheerible. In the course of this conversation, my uncle told us that he had never yet been made an April fool, and he also expressed his conviction that he would never be taken in on the first. Here the subject was allowed to drop, but only to be taken up again as soon as uncle left the room. Then Polly, who was brim-full of mischief, proposed that we should conspire together to make his prediction untrue. You can imagine what secret meetings were held in the summer- house at the bottom of the garden, and what learned consulta- tions and deliberations there were amongst us for some time. But on the first day nothing came of it, and we seemed to be no nearer the accomplishment of our designs at the end than we were at the beginning. Nevertheless, we continued plotting and planning, and at last, not being able to hit on any expedient, we took papa into our councils, in order that his experience and ingenuity might assist us in the conspiracy. The result of this addition to our numbers was the advertisement quoted above. I My uncle rose on the day in question at the usual hour, and, running his eye over the Hxaminer’s columns, according


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to his custom, was surprised to see his name brought into publicity in such a manner. He had forgotten all about our conversation and his remark, and, not thinking at all about April fools, set to, cogitating and thinking, puzzling his brain to find out from whom the communication he was going to receive could possibly come. But he could not make it out, however he tried, so he set out to the station, in a blissful state of uncertainty, to catch the train to Rigston. Of course you all know that Rigston is about eight miles from Colfax, where my uncle lives. To Rigston, accordingly, he went in per- fect good faith, never expecting any hoax at all. On his way he had to undergo the usual cut and dry small jokes about looking round to see whether there was not a piece of paper on his coat tail button, and he flattered himself that he had resisted all inducements, and had not been made an April fool, even when a precocious small boy tried to convince him that the tail of his coat was on fire. Dear old soul! He never dreamt that all the time he was being victimised to a still greater extent ; and even those delicate hints as to what day it was which he received on his way to the station, failed to awaken him from his state of unsuspecting innocence. He arrived in due time at Rigston, and wended his way to Ramsbotham Street, where, on his producing proofs which convinced the editor of the Examiner that he was the Mr. Cheerible Easigo of the advertisement, he had placed in his hands a bulky- looking note, containing a card and a written communication. The card bore the following inscription :—“ William Scrapin, leather currier, 2, Boston Court, Colne Lane, Puleden.” The accompanying communication was to the following effect :—

‘* Dear Ser, ‘*T have just reseeved some very fine skins as a consinement to you, which I hope you wil come to the abuv adress on the first of April, 1868, to see about them bein removed to some conveeneant place, gettin in my way in my small shop, which I have not rume to swing a kat in consekens of them. Hopin you wil come soon, to meet me where I hav sed abuy, at eleven a.m., and beleeve me to remane your umble, obedeant servent, WILtiaM ScraPIin, Leather currier and mill-strap maker. Manufacturers and the trade supplied on easy terms.”

“ Bless me!” exclaimed the amiable little man, on reading the above, “I was not aware of any consignment of skins, and I never heard of William Scrapin before. But I suppose the good man will expect me, and I must not disappoint him and cause him to lose time by not being punctual.” Then looking at his watch, ‘Upon my word, it’s three minutes to ten, and the train to Puleden starts at 10 a.m. precisely.” He thereupon

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hastened to the railway station, and, booking in such a hurry as to leave his change, he got into the train just as it was moving off; then, with a sigh of relief, he began to mop the perspiration from his rosy face, and shining bald head, with his immense pocket-handkerchief, for he was not accustomed to such exertion as he had been compelled to make in order to catch the train. When he had got a little cooler, he began to map out his course of action. He determined not to encumber himself with the skins, but to dispose of them to the currier, even if he had to do so at a sacrifice. Whilst he was thus cogitating, the train drew up at Puleden at ten minutes to eleven, so he got out and set forth on his search for No. 2, Boston Court, Colne Lane. He went towards the lower part of the town, where he conjectured his destination would lie. Not finding it so soon as he expected, he applied to a passing workman to direct him, but the man, saying that he “was a stranger in those pairts himsel,” passed on. He next asked another man for No. 2, Boston Court, and was much astonished at the strange behaviour of his non-informant (if I may be allowed to coin a word), who burst out laughing in his face, and went away, holding his sides, as if it were the best joke in the world. But still uncle Cheery persevered, asking all sorts of people to direct him, and receiving just as various answers. One would make a significant gesture by elevating his right thumb over his left shoulder. Another would tap his forehead in a pitying manner; whilst a third would blurt out “April fool” right in his face; and several impudent boys even had the “cheek” to raise the right hand until the tip of his thumb rested against the end of the nose, and then extend the fingers of that hand until the little finger almost touched the anxious inquirer’s face (for my uncle stood only five feet five in his boots.) After about an hour’s search, it occurred to him to ask a policeman, That official did not know of such a court, but advised him to enquire at the post office. He acted upon the suggestion, and at five minutes to twelve he got there and asked for No. 2, Boston Court. He was gravely informed that there was no such place in Puleden, and as he passed the window he saw all the clerks indulging in a hearty roar of laughter. He cogitated for some time, and then the church clock pealed out the hour of noon. Then suddenly he recollected himself, saw that he was the victim of a heartless hoax, and that he was the most complete April fool that could well be imagined. He returned to the railway station in a fume of indignation, for it dawned upon him that the advertisement was a “flam,” William Scrapin a mythical personage, who existed only on the card, whilst the consignment of skins was as unreal as a “castle in the air.” He had to wait until 12-55 H 3

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before there was a tram to Rigston; and there he had to remain another hour before he could proceed to the town from which he had started in the morning in such a state of joyful expectation. He got back to his rooms at three p.m. precisely, to find that the chops he had ordered for dinner at one o'clock were perfectly dried up with being placed near the fire to keep warm, and that his bottled porter had lost its head with being drawn so long. He made the best of a bad job, however; and after dining, he came straight to our house to tell papa of his wander- ings, and drink a glass of Madeira. But he had only just shewn his face in the garden, when he was saluted with loud cries of ‘‘ April fool, April fool,” and he had to run and take refuge in the house. He there learnt, for his further edification, that a relation, lately returned from some distant part of the world, had made his appearance that morning for the express purpose of seeing him, and had been compelled to return without doing so. On hearing this his face grew so long, and he looked so deeply grieved, that my heart misgave me, and I wished the design had not been put into execution. But “there’s no good in crying over spilt milk,” says the proverb ; and I have only to express my contrition here to feel assured that dear old uncle Cheery will readily forgive his mischievous nephew, B. O. B


In every direction around Sixt lies a mass of mountains ranging from six to ten thousand feet in height, which must be crossed somewhere by any one who would leave the valley by any other way than the single narrow road by which we entered it.* In a north easterly direction this mountain-boundary is pierced to some distance by the lateral valley worn out by the waters of the Lower Giffre ; and to the leisurely exploration of this valley we devoted the first day (Friday, July 19th, 1872) of our stay in Sixt. From the windows of the second corridor of the hotel the Pic de Tinneverges looked almost close at hand ; but hearing that it was a good four miles’ walk to get to the Fer & Cheval, which lies at the base of the Peak, and as E. and N. at that time were unequal to much walking, we hired the clumsy country vehicle called a char to take us as far as possible on our way. The weather was unclouded, and the scenery shone out resplendent in all its loveliness. The valley contains an

* See my paper entitled ‘‘ A visit to the valley of Sixt,” pp. 97-100 of this volume of the Magazine. y mh FP

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abundance of wood and wild flowers—both of which are, indeed, to be found everywhere around Sixt,—and we gathered and regaled ourselves with the wild strawberries that grow there in great profusion and luxuriance. All along our route we had the music of the brawling Lower Giffre, whose banks were close on our right hand, as we made our slow progress over the some- what rough road. Before us, gradually growing nearer and nearer—like some desired goal towards which we eagerly longed to press forward,— stood the noble Pic de Tinneverges, its beautiful snow-crown sparkling like myriads of gems in the brilliant sunlight, and apparently quite barring our further advance in that direction. Arrived at its base we had before us that magnificent amphitheatre of Cliffs (the Fer 4 Cheval) to which I referred in my former paper. It was a scene perfectly unique in its sublimity. Over the tops of these stupendous precipices were pouring down, from the snow and glaciers above, cascades of all forms and sizes,—some miniature Staubbachs scattering silvery dust to the faintest passing breeze,—others rushing in one mad tumultuous leap sheer down a thousand feet on the rocks below. The music made by these falling waters was very pleasant, blended and returned as it was in echo from the heights around. Over this ridge two mountain-paths lead by Salvent and the Trient valley to Vernayaz in the valley of the Rhone; one mounting the steep rocks of the Téte Noire, about the middle of the Fer a Cheval, and the other crossing, at the end farthest from Sixt, a slight depression called the Col de Tinneverges. These passes are said to be but little frequented, and far from easy, as we could well believe when looking at the difficulties which must necessarily beset their commencement. From the Fer 4 Cheval we saw that the valley of the Lower Giffre was not, as it had all along seemed to us, closed in by the Pic de Tinneverges, but that it opened to the left into a narrower and wilder dell, most appropriately called the Fond de la Combe; and into this farther recess, after long and earnest enjoyment of the sublime scenery at its entrance, we now proceeded. Here, however, all our party had to walk, as the path was too rugged for riding with any degree of comfort. Indeed, we had great difficulty in persuading our charioteer to venture thus far ; and it was only after repeated promises of a long rest and an addi- tional “ pour boire” on our part, and many invocations of the saints on his, that he at length consented to take E. and N. a mile or so more, and thus fairly land them in the Fond de la Combe. Then, taking out his horse, he left it to graze, and acted as our guide to the end of the valley. It was a wild treeless ravine, closed in by lofty walls of mountains, especially on its

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southern side, where, in the recesses amidst the bare precipitous rocks, were dotted about here and there charming little patches of greensward, which looked all the lovelier for their bleak and barren surroundings. Although many of these miniature meadows appeared to us utterly inaccessible, even to the sure foot of a chamois, yet we were told that there is scarcely a single one of them that is not reached every year for the sake of its grass crop, which is cut and rolled in bundles from the cliffs to furnish fodder for the cattle in winter. And not un- frequently too, the haymaker slips from his perilous perch, and is dashed to pieces on the rocks below. Not far from the entrance to the Fer 4 Cheval, on a mound commanding the best general view of the amphitheatre, stands a rude stone chapel, the sad memorial of the hamlet of Entre-deux-Nants, which stood here till the beginning of the 17th century, when it was completely overwhelmed by a landslip, and its inhabitants, to the number of nearly two hundred, buried in the ruins. Such are some of the perils to which the dwellers amongst the Alps are subject ! The upper end of the Fond de la Combe is completely shut in by Mont Rouan, a mountain capped by a sharp Aiguille nearly as high as the Pic de Tinneverges, down whose sides flow glaciers that supply the greater part of the waters of the Lower Giffre. Amongst these glaciers perished a very famous Alpine guide, Jacques Balmat, who has been called the hero of Mont Blanc, and the hardiest and most indomitable mountaineer that ever lived. From the head of the Fond de la Combe a mountain-pass leads over the Col de Sagéroux to Champéry, in the valley of the Illier, and down this path came two gentle- men on the very day that we were in the valley. On our return, to our no little regret, we, by a few minutes, missed seeing a chamois. A French artist, whom we had passed on our way, sketching near the Fer 4 Cheval, and whom, when we came back, we found still there, told us that a fine chamois had just bounded, within a very short distance of him, into the brushwood beyond, and was thus speedily lost to sight. We at length returned to the hotel, after several hours most delightfully spent amongst scenes of whose grandeur and beauty I have been able to give but a very inadequate description,— with the fragrance of wild flowers around us, and the sun above glinting in the pine-tree tops, reflected in rainbow hues from streamlets and waterfalls, and pouring a flood of radiance on the glaciers and the snow-clad summits of those ‘*‘ Mountains, that like giants stand, To sentinel enchanted land.”

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Of our further rambles about Sixt, though in no wise inferior to this, I shall content myself with a briefer outline. The next day (Saturday) we started about ten o’clock for a walk to some waterfalls that lay on the other side of the valley of the Higher Giffre. Walking through the hamlet of Maisonneuve and the village of Salvagny (the glittering spire of whose church forms a prominent object from every height around), then crossing the bed of an impetuous mountain-torrent that flows in on the right bank of the Higher Giffre, and soon after passing over the Giffre itself, we wound slowly upa pine wood, with pleasant scenes meeting us at every turn. On our right lay a peak called the Pointe des Marmozetts, and on our left the magnificent Pointe de Salles, which formed a conspicuous object during the greater part of our walk, and seemed from each fresh point of view to develop new forms of grandeur and beauty. After about two hours’ pleasant walking we came to the cascade of the Rouget, which is usually considered the finest waterfall in a district preeminently celebrated for waterfalls. The Rouget is certainly a most beautiful cascade, and the effect is enhanced by the exceeding picturesqueness of its situation. On this day there was more than its usual quantity of water-rushing and foaming down the rocks, and throwing a drenching shower of spray far and near, which made us quickly cross the little bridge in front. We then continued our walk to the second fall, which is a considerable distance higher up, and bears the most beautifully poetical name, “ La Pleureuse,” that ever waterfall could possibly have. The walk to it from the Rouget was rather difficult, on account of the huge boulders that lay thickly strewn over the way; but ten times the amount of fatigue that we had to undergo would have been amply repaid by a sight of this exquisitely graceful cascade. The full effect cannot be perceived till we get close to the fall, then it is seen that there are two distinct streams, which unite as they fall. The one on the left flows gently and noiselessly over a series of smooth strata of rock that slope downwards ; the other, which meets the first in mid-air, resembles a delicate lace curtain gently wafted through the air, and is certainly much more graceful in appearance than the famous Staubbach fall in the valley of Lauterbrunnen. This beautiful waterfall richly de- serves the admirably descriptive name it bears,—a name that is a poem in itself—for it is indeed La Pleureuse, the gentle weeping waterfall. On the Monday we had a pleasant ramble over an eminence that lies between the valleys of the two Giffres, and which, from the corn-plots for the people into which its lower slopes

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are laid out, takes the name of the Grenier du Commune. Above these corn-fields lie mountain-pastures with soft and delicious greensward ; and here we sat down to enjoy the glorious view spread out everywhere around us, and spend an hour in worshipping the mountains. Over Les Tines we could see all down the valley along which we had come,—past Tan- ninges and Samoens,—on the previous Thursday ; then on one side of us we had the valley of the Lower Giffre, with which we had become familiar on the Friday, with the Pic de Tinne- verges and the Aiguille du Mont Rouan and its glaciers all most clearly visible; and on the other side there were the Pointe de Salles, and other peaks, forests, and cascades in- numerable. It was a lovely scene. After sitting here for some time, I left E. and N., and walked two miles higher up, to get some milk conveyed to them from a little outlying farm, which our guide assured us we should find at the summit. Here, too, I enjoyed a still wider prospect. We remained on the hill till the cool of the evening, and then walked slowly down into the valley below. On Wednesday we retraced our steps towards Samoens, but a threatening thunderstorm constrained us to return, after which we were compelled to remain indoors for the greater part of the day ; still we had a never-to-be-forgotten view of the valley under one of its grandest and sublimest aspects. The deep gloom of the gathering clouds made almost night in the day- time,—a darkness, that in its profound quiet and solemn awe, might, as it were, be felt ; and when at last the crash came, then, for several hours, ‘“‘ Far along, From peak to peak, the rattling crags among, Leaps the live thunder! Not from one lone cloud, But every mountain now hath found a tongue. And Buet answers, through her misty shroud, Back to the joyous Alps, who call to her aloud !” The next morning, at three o’clock, we left this lovely valley, and had a glorious mountain walk from Sixt to Chamouni, of which I hope to give a brief account in some future number of the Huddersfield College Magazine.


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A LITTLE to the west of the town of Devonport lies a park belonging to the Earl of Mount Edgecumbe, which is one of the finest spots in that loveliest of English counties, Devonshire. Of Mount Edgecumbe one enthusiastic admirer declares that it “has the beauties of all other places added to peculiar beauties of its own”; and even the prosaic writer of a business-like local guide-book has been inspired by its loveliness to assert, in most unwonted terms of rapture, that “for the splendour of its prospects, for the variety of its surface, and for its groves and tasteful gardens, it has long and justly been the pride of the whole county.” When the Spanish Armada sailed up the channel to that sea-fight which has been aptly designated “ Britain’s Salamis,’—wherein the sailors of Devonshire fought 80 bravely and so well,—it is said that the Admiral cast longing looks of admiration on Mount Edgecumbe, and resolved that, in the anticipated conquest and division of the kingdom, he would claim and obtain this lovely spot as his own portion. The first question that visitors to Devonport usually ask is, “Where is Mount Edgecumbe?” Imagine yourself such a visitor, that you have arrived at Devonport, and that you ask where you have to go to see this renowned place. You will be told to go down to Mount Wise or Mutton Cove. When you are there you get into a boat and have a pleasant row across to the opposite side: for Mount Edgecumbe, though a part of Devonshire, is not on the Devonport side of that fine sheet of water, the Hamoaze, but on the Cornish side. You have to pay a penny for this row, and the boatman lands you on the beach below Mount Edgecumbe. You then go up the beach and enter Mount Edgecumbe by an iron gate. The first sight that meets your eye is the Earl’s house, which is a fine old Baronial Hall, with a splendid avenue of trees leading up to it. When you have viewed this building, you turn a little to the left, if you would like a walk round by Barn Pool, a beautiful and much frequented bathing place. Go on a little further and you will come to a strong little fort, mounted with six sixteen-ton guns, which commands the entrance to the harbour. Then strike into the wood, and you will see innumerable glens, with rabbits skipping about in them, and now and then a stray deer, also pheasants, partridges, and turkeys, all running wild. After you have gone a good way through the wood, you suddenly come upon an open space of ground, with what appeared at a little distance to be an old Castle standing in it. The ruin is what we may call an artificial one, having in reality been built as it

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now is only a few years ago. You go up the hill to the sham castle, climb the winding staircase, and when you reach the top you are rewarded by a magnificent view. On one side is the river Tamar, with the Royal Albert bridge in the distance ; on another the harbour with the breakwater and its lighthouse ; and on another the town of Devonport. When you have seen all this you have the choice of three ways by which to descend, viz. the deer park, the laurel-walk with the red house, and the wood. If you take the first you will see several herds of black, red, and spotted deer, and also a beautiful lodge for the game- keeper. If you take the second, which [ think the best, you see a walk wide enough for a carriage drive, bordered on either side with laurels that make a wall of about ten feet high, and are kept in perfect order. One of the laurels is the highest in the three kingdoms. This walk is about three quarters of a mile long, and there are here and there throughout it little summer- houses into which you may retreat in case of a shower. When you have gone about half way to the end of this walk you may, by ascending a steep foot-path, come suddenly upon the Red House. It is built on the side of a hill, and commands a fine view of the breakwater, the lighthouse, and all the ships passing and repassing in the sound. One of the chief attractions of this charming park is to be found in its grand old trees, amongst which are some splendid specimens of the cedar of Lebanon, the finest red cedar in England, the cork tree, and others interesting all lovers of trees. impossible even to enumerate, much less to describe, all the beauties of Mount Edgecumbe ; I should fill the whole Magazine if I did. It is unequalled as a resort for lovers, and for pic-nics and rural pleasure parties of all kinds. I cannot close this article without expressing a hope that before long some of the readers of this Magazine will be able to see and enjoy for themselves the beauties of the renowned Mount Edgecumbe. PEeRcy STOocK.

A REMINISCENCE OF TRAVANCORE. (Continued from page 106. )

I waD previously explored the godowns I have before. mentioned as being under the dwelling apartments ; and, when my servants left, I locked the front door, then went into my room, where I smoked a cheroot, and read for a time. Taking up a heavily loaded riding-whip, I now proceeded along the passage and verandah, and descended into the compound. My first steps

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were directed towards the entrance, which, in compliance with my orders, had been securely bolted. I looked up towards the lofty walls to wonder whether ingress could occur in that quarter, and finally stationed myself behind an impervious citron-tree, whence I could command a view of the place, as far as the darkness of the night would permit; and I fully made up my mind to wreak my vengeance on the first trespasser I could lay hands on. It was past eleven o’clock when I took up this position; and I began to find time hang heavily on my hands, as I waited in anxious expectation of séeing somebody. But no one came; and a certain degree of the previous night’s panic again stole over me, as I fancied, every now and then, that I saw a human object stealing stealthily about, or crawling along the ground. This proved only the result of overstrained expectation, such as any one may have experienced when seeking for a stray horse in the forest or on a wide plain, when every distant object appears to assume the form of the lost animal. I, however, felt a sensation of relief in knowing that another besides myself was in the building ; though, immediately after, I taxed myself with cowardice for seeking to derive consolation from such a source. A full half-hour-must thus have passed, during which I often reverted to the strange voice of lamentation—or what- ever it was—above, and wondered whether it would disturb as it had done me. My thoughts were becoming oppressive, and I became tired of waiting. I was thinking of relinquishing the quest, and was just preparing to do so, when I suddenly became aware of footsteps approaching the head of the stairs on the verandah above me. It seemed as though several persons were carrying a heavy weight, with slow and measured tread ; and as I failed entirely to account for such extraordinary sounds, an overpowering degree of terror mastered me, and rooted me to the place of my concealment. I endea- voured tp reason with myself on the absurdity of my fears ; but the attempt was useless, for a dread of the supernatural had seized on me, and, in my affright, I took deeper refuge under the cover of the citron-tree, as I heard the footsteps moving down into the compound, with heavy and muffled tread— tramp, tramp. I heard them cross toward the well; but the blackness of darkness was upon and around me, and I saw nothing. I tried to shout, with the hope of alarming K up-stairs ; but I could not do so—my tongue cleaved to the roof of my mouth. I was petrified with fear, as I recognized the rattle of the chain, and its accompanying sounds, that had helped to disturb me on previous occasions ; and these were ~ succeeded by a heavy thud, as that of a falling body against a

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wall. Then all was silence. I feared to come forth for a time. A sense of the supernatural was still strong upon me, and the apprehension of witnessing some horrible vision, in connexion with what I had heard, held me back. I listened intently ; but the silence continued unbroken. Was it possible that a gang of ruffians had surreptitiously entered the house, in spite of all my precautions? Had they killed K t—and was that his body that they were conveying to the well? This idea at once put to flight all others. My blood boiled ; I clutched my riding-whip convulsively, and winding the thong round my wrist for action, with a loud yell I burst from my cover into the open space, ready to encounter man or devil.

(To be continued ).

to Ghueries.

14. By W. J. C. MILLER.

In the names of places, ing is almost always a patronymic,—much like Mac in Scotch, O’ in Irish, and Ap in Welsh,—and indicates that the place was either the settlement of a tribe who exercised a common trade or handicraft and took therefrom a common family-name, or the colony of a clan who claimed to be descended from a common progenitor, or who were the followers of some chieftain by whose name they were all designated. In Old or First English,—commonly miscalled Anglo-Saxon ,— Ida wes Eopping is the ordinary expression for [da was Eoppa’s son. Thus these early conquerors or colonists took the common name of some leader or ancestor, and called their settlement the home, the farm, the clearing, the hill, the dale, the inclosure, the town, &c., of his children. The syllable ing is, in fact, the most important Old English root that enters into place-names. In the counties of Essex, Sussex, and Kent, names containing this root are very numerous ; it is said to occur even more frequently in Norfolk and Suffolk ; and nearly 3000 altogether are to be found in the whole of England. It usually enters as a medial syllable, with all sorts of terminations ; as in Paddington, Billingham, Billingsley, Billingsgate, Billinghurst, Bellinger, Redlingthorpe, Redlingfield, Berning- toft, Irmingland, Bolingbroke, Basingstoke, Hemingby, Gamlingay, Dal- linghoo, Wetheringsett, Illingworth, &c. Many of these are supposed to be colonies sent out from those parent settlements wherein ing enters without any suffix. For instance, the HARLINGS have their exploits recounted in the Traveller's Song, which is considered the earliest Old English poem that has come down to us ; and their family-name is preserved in the two arent -settlements of Harling in Norfolk and Harling in Kent, and also in their two colonies of Harlington in Bedfordshire and Harlington in Middlesex. Again, the HasTINas, called ‘‘the noblest race of the Goths,” have their name perpetuated at Hastings in Sussex and Hastingleigh in Kent. I In Yorkshire, we have the ScyLpinos giving their name to Skelding, the ManninGs to Manningham, the Eorines to Erringden, the ADELINGS to Addingham, the GiLLs to Gilling, the MILLINGs to Millington, the (a widely distributed clan) to Billingham, and, besides several others, the Wapinoes to Waddington.

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It is interesting, by the aid of such roots in place-names, to be able to trace settlements by the same family in districts widely remote from each other, and sometimes even in different countries. Thus the clan of the MERRINGS, Meyrings, or Maurings,—the name is spelt in various ways— appear to have settled at Merring in Nottinghamshire, at Merrington in Durham, at Marengo near Milan, the scene of one of Napoleon's most brilliant victories, and at Meyringen, one of the most picturesque villages in Switzerland. And in a fortnight’s walking tour which I once had in the country districts of France lying between Boulogne, Calais, and St. Omer, I was struck with the remarkable family-likeness (if I may so call it) of the place-names to those with which I had long been familiar in our own country. There are, in this district, more than a hundred names con- taining the patronymic ing, and nearly the whole of these occur somewhere in England, and many on the coast opposite to Boulogne and Calais.

26. By A. H. Haieu.

Formerly, after shriving, the faithful were allowed to indulge in festive amusements, on the eve of entering upon Lent; the eating of pancakes now represents these festive banquets. [To the foregoing answer we may add the following quotation from Hales :—‘‘ Eating, drinking, merry-making,—what else, I beseech you, was the whole life of this man here, but in a manner, a perpetual shroving?” Brewer, however, in his Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, under the word ‘‘ Pancake,” remarks that ‘‘ it was originally to be eaten after dinner, to stay the stomachs of those who went to be shriven.” EpirTor. ]


Gutta-Percha is a gum that exudes from certain trees which abound in the Malay Peninsula and the islands adjoining. Botanists class them among the Sapotaceous Group, whose sap circulates between the bark and the wood. Gutta percha is procured by tapping the trees, when the sap runs out, without, apparently, injuring the wood. It is obtained in the state of a milky-looking juice, which hardens on exposure to the air. [H. APPLETON adds that Gutta-Percha was first introduced into England in 1843, by Dr. Montgomerie.


Indian Ink is made of fine lamp black and animal glue, with perfume added according to the taste of the manufacturer. It came originally from China and the East Indies. An ink inferior to this may be made of ivory- black and charcoal-black. (To this H. APPLETON adds, that some suppose - it to be procured by the Chinese from the cuttle-fish, which carries a bag containing a dark inky fluid ; and it is then perfumed with musk. Ep.]

34. By J. H. Hastrnes.

1. Henry Briggs, the inventor of common logarithms, was born at Halifax in 1556, and died Savilian professor at Oxford, in 1630. 2. The Savilian professorships were founded by Sir Henry Savile, Kt., who was born at Bradley, in the Parish of Halifax, in 1549. He was tutor to Queen Elizabeth, and Provost of Eton, where he published, in 1612, an edition of which Hallam praises very highly. He died at Eton, in 1622. I 3. John Tillotson, who succeeded Sancroft, in 1691, to the See of Canterbury, was born at Haugh-end, near Sowerby Bridge. The church of Sowerby contains a statue of Tillotson.

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4, Lady Anne Clifford, who restored several churches (¢.g. Skipton), ‘‘repayr’d” Barden tower, built two hospitals, ‘‘ erected monuments to the memory of Spenser and Daniel, the latter of whom had been her tutor,” was born in Skipton Castle in the year 1589, and died in 1675. She was the daughter of George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, an eminent naval officer in the reign of Elizabeth, of whom he was a great favorite. 5. John Metcalf, commonly called Blind Jack, born at Knares- borough in 1717, was a famous road-maker and bridge-builder. He died in 1810. [We shall be glad to have many further answers to this interesting Query about the Worthies of the West Riding. If each life is sent on a separate paper, we can number them as we have done above, and insert, in each number of the Magazine, as many lives as we can find room for. Ep. }


‘* Lord’s day”’ is the same as ‘‘the day of our Lord ;” and “ Lady- dey is equivalent to the day of our Lady;” in the one case custom has ed that we retain the genitive form, in the other not. Custom some- times over-rides grammatical rules.

Wee G@ueris.

37. By J. H. Hastines.

In Tennyson’s recent welcome to the Princess Marie Alexandrowna, the following lines occur :—

‘* Yet thine own land has bowed to Tartar hordes, Since English Harold gave its throne a wife.”

What are the historical references herein contained ?

38. By N’IMporTE. What is the derivation of the Yorkshire word laiking ?

39. By A. H. Haieu. What is the origin of kissing under the mistletoe at Christmas ?

40. By H. J. Brooke. Whence is the legend of the four-leaved shamrock derived, viz., that if any person finds one, he may change himself to anything he pleases ? 41. By T. T. WILKINSON. What is known of the true nature of the zodiacal light ?

42. By W. J. C. MILuEr.

In walking one day over Buckstones to Manchester, and turning aside through by-lanes to avoid the unpleasant town of Oldham, I came toa place called Boggart-Hole Clough, which, I was there told, derived its i r name from an interesting legend or story, but what it was my informant could not say. Can any reader of the Magazine supply the legend ? 43. By H. APPLETON.

What is the origin, derivation, and history of backgammon ?

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Solutions to Wujzles.


32. By C. Fevaty; H. E. M., COU-RAGE. : 38. By J. 8. Cameron; J. W., H. E. M. X I M EN A


34. By C. Lister; G.G.S., H. A, J. H. _1,1,8, 9,27 16,2, 36, 54 81_ 211 ae

35. I. By H. Aprieton; C. L., J. H., G. G.S.

Let « and 40-2 be Tom’s and Jack’s nos. at first, then 7+10 and 30 —x are Tom’s and Jack’s nos, at last ; therefore, x+10=36 ; whence Hence Tom’s and Jack’s nos. at first are 13 and 27.

II. By W. J. C.

Since Tom, at last, had 6 more than Jack, it follows that Tom must then have had 3 more than half the whole number, and Jack 3 less than the half; that is to say, Tom had then 23, and Jack 17; therefore, at first, Tom must have had 13, and Jack 27. (N.B.—It is far better to solve such questions as this by common Arithmetic, without having recourse to A\gebra, which is quite unnecessary. )


37. DIAMOND PUZZLE, sy Harriette E. MILuEr.

My first is the end of all time; in connexion with my second there has of late been much discussion in the scientific world ; my third is a great comfort in cold weather ; my fourth transports us in imagination amongst Alpine heights ; my fifth is what mathematicians often have to do; - my sixth is a great general who received his death-wound in battle, and was buried on the field of victory ; my seventh is a science of the highest order ; my eighth is often much dreaded by travellers ; about my ninth there is nothing more to say ; my tenth delights in sweet sounds ; and my eleventh possesses the valuable power of turning one sovereign into many.

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Ra Ra Ra Es Et In Ram Ram Ram I I

89. By C. LISTER.

I am a word of 11 letters: my 11, 1, 7, 10, 3, 4, 1, 6 is the name of a Cape in North America ; my 2, 1, 7, 11 is the name of an English Watering place ; my 5 is the name of a picturesque river in England ; my 8, 11, 9, 7, 3 is acolour ; and my whole is a Watering place in the West of England.


My first stands for what there is most of in Switzerland ; My second is a place visited for the grape-cure in Switzerland ; My third is a celebrated lady who once lived in Switzerland ; My fourth is a romantic spot on Lake Geneva, in Switzerland ; My fifth is a place of great resort in Switzerland ; My sixth is on the shores of the grandest lake in Switzerland ; My seventh is one of the loftiest mountains in Switzerland ; My eighth is a village at the foot of the Mischabel, in Switzerland ; My ninth is required in spelling the name of Switzerland.

41. (From the Cambridge Correspondence Class Paper for Ladies, dated 14th February, 1874).—If ‘05 per cent. of marriages are severed by the divorce court, and if 1 per cent. of unhappy marriages lead to an application for divorce, and if 10 per cent. of the applications are suc- cessful, what ratio do the unhappy marriages bear to the happy ones ?


Take the head of a fish, and the heart of an ace, With one-fourth of whatever is mean and base ; To these add a title of highest degree, And the meanest and basest of mortals you'll see.


Je suis de figure petite, Rien n’est plus importun que moi, Difficilement on m'évite ; Mais mon nom fait honneur dans la bouche du roi.

44, By E. GEerrrupe CLIFFE.

Take a famous mountain peak ; a castle in the south of England ; a town in Argyleshire ; a town of Mexico; a city of China; a Watering place near a well-known headland ; an island in the Grecian Archipelago ; an island in the river St. Lawrence ; a city of Syria ; and an island in the Indian Ocean :—their initials will give the name of a village wherein lived one of our most famous poets, and also the ‘‘ Prince of English letter- writers.”

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8G. aime “eg gis ea J aaa of Aan I

WHITE. White to play and mate in three mov



a el amr ek i (oe

ln woe

White to play a nd mate n four moves.

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REVIEW.—CHESS PROBLEMS. By James Prerce, M.A., anp W. T. PIErce.

Tus book, which has been already alluded to several times in our columns, and which includes several problems published originally in our pages, has recently made its appearance. It is a handsome volume of 380 pages, no less than 80 of these being taken up by the solutions alone. The diagrams, 302 in number, are beautifully printed in large, clearly-cut type ; and a more agreeable silent companion for the fireside or railway-journey—we speak, of course, to chess-players—can scarcely be imagined. In comparing this with the other collections by English composers, we should give the palm to Healey for original genius of the highest order; to “J. B., of Bridport,” for unvarying excellence and finish; to the Pierces for variety of artifice. There is a charming freshness about their productions, and if, occasionally, we find an old favourite in a new dress, there is so great a difference in the style that it may almost be called a new creation. Our limited space forbids any attempt at an elaborate analysis of the book ; we must content ourselves, therefore, with giving a few specimens of its contents.

No. 8.—By James Prerce, M.A., IN TWO MOVES.

White.—K at Q Kt7; Rat K 3; Bat K sq; Kts at K B 6 and Q 6; Ps at K R 5 and 6, and K 5. Black.—K at K 2.

No. 16.—By W. T. Pierce, IN TWO MOVES. White.—K at K B6; QatK B5; RatQB3; KtatQ 5. Black.—K at Q 5; Kt at Q6; Ps at K B 2, QB 4 and 5.

No. 57.—By Jamus M.A., IN THREE MOVES.

White.—K at Q B 2; Rs at Q Kt 2 and QR2; Bat K BQ; P at QB 5. Black.—K at QRsq; Rat K R2; Kt at K Rsq; PatQR2.

No. 125.—By W. T. Prercs, IN THREE MOVES.

White.—K at K B sq; Rs at K B6 and K 5; Bat K Kt7; Ps at K Kt 3, Q B 4, and Q Kt 2. Black.—K at Q 5.

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No. I. Tae DusugvE CHEss JOURNAL.*

WE commence this month a series of articles in which we shall pass under review the various periodicals which exchange with the Huddersfield College Magazine on account of its Chess department, and we cannot do better than begin with the one which travels the greatest distance, and has “The Dubuque Chess Journal” at the head of its pages. This publication is certainly unique of its kind, and for the combination of all sorts of qualities—and oddities—a large amount of country might be traversed before its equal could be found. We confess with sorrow we have not yet seen a copy of the “ Nordisk Skaktidende,” nor yet of the “ Hawaiian,” which latter hails from the Sandwich Islands; but we should be inclined to back our Dubuque friend against both of these recent additions to Chess literature, notwithstanding the promising character of their cognomens. We cannot, however, reconcile ourselves to Mr. Brownson’s system of notation. O—o for Castling on the King’s side, o—o—o for ditto on the Queen’s side, x for takes, and + for check, we can swallow with a slight effort, but S for Kt sticks in our throat and will not give itself the chance of digesting in our editorial stomach. We have tried to convert the heretic to the orthodox faith in this matter, and from a letter lately received, we are not without faint hopes of success. Under date of February 6th, Mr. Brownson says, “‘ You can not offend me by disliking my S notation. I hold that every man has the right to use and like, or eschew and dislike, any notation he pleases ; as I have the advantage of having tried each more than ten years, it is not so strange that I] use my preference. Please always say what you please ; I like you for it, it is like having an opponent make a good move; though it loses me the game, the strength and beauty of the move I can admire.” He then continues, ‘“ My son, the printer, has gone to school, and the Journal will hereafter be printed by a steam printing-house here, and I can make them print Kt instead of S.” Mr. Brownson evidently thinks he has more power over a steam- engine than over his own son ; that lad must have a strong will ; we should not wonder if he developed some day into the President of the States! In the last October part of the “Dubuque,” nize pages are occupied in defending the use of “Springer” instead of “ Knight,” so that what little space has

* Published by O. A. Brownson, Jun., P.O. Box 2157, Dubuque, Towa, at 1s. a number, postage free to Great Britain.

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been gained by printing S for Kt is, we should think, more than absorbed by this one article. One correspondent wrote that he could not bear the word Springer, because he “once knew a woman named Springer, that was hung for murdering her husband!” Mr. Brownson replies ;—‘ Mr. H.’s objection is nothing to us. I never knew a woman named Springer that was hung for murdering her husband—on the contrary, the only family by the name of Springer, with whom I ever had any acquaintance, was a very respectable family in Sullivan County, Missouri.” (To be continued. )


WHITE. BLACK. 1. Q takes Kt 1. P takes Q (a) 2. Kt to Q 6 2. BtoB 8 3. K takes P 38. Any move 4. R mates. (a) 1. Rto R 2 2. Q to Q 8 2. Rto Kt 2 8. Kt to Q 6 (disch) 3. K to R 2 4. R takes R (mate). SOLUTION OF PROBLEM XI. 1. Q to Q sq 1. K to K 6 (a) 2. Kt to Q 3 2. P takes Kt or K to K 5

3. Q mates. (a) If 1. K to K 4, then 2. Q to Q 7, and mates next move. SOLUTION OF PROBLEM XII. 1. B to Q 4, and mates next move.


The correct solution of Problem X. has been received from D. W. 0O., Glasgow. e correct solution of Problem XI. has been received from J. H. F., Newcastle-on-Tyne ; J. W., Leeds; D. W. O., and J. J., Glasgow ; J. W.A., and A. W., London. This problem was transferred from our columns into the English Mechanic of March 27th. The correct solution of Problem XII. has been received from J. H. F., Newcastle-on-Tyne ; J. W., Leeds; D. W. 0., and J. J., Glasgow ; J. W. A., and A. W., London; and B. O., Plymouth. A. W. B., London. We are glad to hear of the interest you take in our Chess department. We fear we cannot be of much use to you in giving advice on the composition of problems. We never constructed one our- selves, but a careful study of stratagems by masters of the art is no doubt one of the chief essentials of success. We would willingly offer a prize for original problems, open to present and former pupils of the College, if we thought we should meet with any response. . Greenwood, Sutton Mill) Your four-mover is marked for insertion next month. *.* The annual match at Chess between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge was played on the 27th ulto. at the rooms of the City of London Chess Club. Cambridge was victorious. We shall give full details 2 mon

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Huddersteld College Magazine.


BETWEEN Sixt and Chamouni lie two ranges of mountains,— the Bréven, well known to all who visit Chamouni, and, nearer to Sixt, the Chaine des Fys, whose easternmost peak is the Pointe de Salles, and westernmost the Aiguille de Varens, near St. Martin in Arvedale. Through the valley that separates these two nearly parallel ranges flows the river Dioza, which joins the Arve a little above Servoz; and over a slight depression in the ridge connecting the Chaine des Fys with the Buet, called the Col d’Anterne, and thence over the Col de Bréven, is carried the mountain-path that leads from Sixt to Chamouni. By this route we resolved to make our way to ‘Chamouni when the time came for us to bid adieu to the peaceful and lovely valley wherein we had enjoyed such a pleasant week’s visit.* This mountain-path was, we had been assured, a very romantic and beautiful one in itself, and afforded, moreover, one of the finest views anywhere to be obtained of Mont Blanc and its surrounding peaks and aiguilles. The only road by which we could have gone to Chamouni was a circuitous route of about 50 miles round by Tanninges and Cluses ; and by this way E. had arranged that her maid should travel to convey our luggage and secure rooms for us on our arrival. We started at half-past three o’clock in the morning,—E. and N. on mules, and I on foot,—taking with us two pleasant and intelligent guides, who also acted as muleteers. The moon shone brightly as we began our journey, which, at the outset, lay along the northern side of the Vallée des Fonds, with the Higher Giffre brawling far below us on our right hand. The ascent was at first very gradual, along pine-covered mountain- slopes ; and for two hours we went on without emerging from these quiet and shady walks. The freshness of the morning air was truly delicious, impregnated as it was with the faint but exquisite perfume from the pine trees and the thick carpet of ferns, mosses, and wild flowers, that lay spread out beneath them ; so that as we inhaled the invigorating draughts they produced an exhilaration which made me enjoy to the full what some’ enthusiastic pedestrian has called ‘“ the physical

* Described on pp. 97-100, 118-122 of this volume of the Magazine. I

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delights of existence.” The moonlight shimmering amongst the tops of the pines cast flickering shadows across our path, and, at intervals, through some wider rift in the trees, we saw the mountain-tops tipped with the glories of the sun’s first rays. Involuntarily there came into my mind that rapturous burst of poetry in which Scott describes the Trosachs, and I could not but think the last few lines especially applicable here :— ‘*‘ Highest of all, where white peaks glanced, Where glist’ning streamers waved and danced, The wanderer’s eye could barely view The summer heaven’s delicious blue ; So wondrous wild, the whole might seem The scenery of a fairy dream.” Even after the peaks and valleys were bathed in sunlight we still pursued our pine-shaded mountain-path. By and by we crossed the head of the valley, passing close behind the “ Kagle’s Nest,” the picturesque residence of Mr. Alfred Wills ; and at last, about nine o’clock, we reached our first halting place, though still above an hour’s walk from the Col d’Anterne. Here we rested for half an hour, and, seated on the grass, gladly partook of a second breakfast of hard-boiled eggs, bread, butter, cheese, and vin ordinaire, with which we had been provided before leaving Sixt. After thus refreshing ourselves, and enjoying the glorious view above, around, and below us, we again went on our way, which was now becoming much steeper, and more fatiguing from the increasing heat. At length we reached a ridge which we hoped was the eagerly-looked-for Col; but we found we had still another effort to make before that could be gained. Here, however, we had a momentary but charming glimpse of Mont Blanc in the distance, though we could only just see its extreme summit. On our right lay the Pointe des Salles, which had been a conspicuous object, every moment increasing in beauty, during the whole of our ascent ; on our left stretched away the entire range of the Buet ; and before us was the bleak and barren Col. Between this and the ridge on which we stood lay a verdant valley, dotted all over with cattle innumerable, making delightful music with their tinkling bells ; while on the further side of the valley lay, sleeping in sweetest sunshine, the pretty little Lac d’Anterne. This lake, one of the deepest and clearest in the Alps, collects, as in a basin, the waters of the pretty valley in which it lies, and discharges them into the Higher Giffre, over precipitous walls of rock, by a series of picturesque waterfalls known as the Cascades de la Joubas. We descended into the valley, crossed it, and had some rather hard climbing in mounting its other side, where, on ‘his burning summer’s day, I had the pleasant variety of wading

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for fully ten minutes over my boot-tops in snow. At last, and in a@ moment, there burst upon us what would have been an ample reward for any amount of labour and fatigue. We came upon an opening in the ridge of hills, and there, spread out be- fore us in all its grandeur and glory, lay the most beautiful and sublime scene that I have ever beheld,—a perfect amphitheatre of mountain-peaks and glaciers, with Mont Blanc the summit and centre of all. The sky was quite clear and cloudless, its deep blue, in striking contrast with the white peaks, seeming almost unreal in its loveliness. The distant peaks looked not like things of earth, but pure, refined, ethereal, like parts of the far off heavens,—such, [ thought, as might have been the vision of the Celestial City which the wondrous dreamer saw from the summits of the Delectable Mountains. It is impossible for language to do justice to the perfect repose and tranquillity, the grandeur, sublimity and majesty of the scene before us. I could but gaze in speechless wonder, awe and worship, realizing, more fully than ever I did before, what it is to “‘ Look through Nature up to Nature’s God.” We stood on a little hillock perfectly blue with the loveliest Forget-me-nots that I have ever seen, which seemed pleadingly to say to us “Dinna Forget.” But who, I thought, could ever forget such a scene? I Standing here at an elevation of 7000 feet, we found the cold almost intense, and were glad to make use of all the wraps that we had, at our guide’s suggestion, brought with us. Yet even thus it was with the utmost regret, and after many a fond parting look, that we left the spot where we had enjoyed this grand and glorious scene. Mont Blanc was, however, still before us, and the coolness of the air made walking very agreeable. We descended into the valley of the Dioza, and on arriving at the Chalets of Arvelais, near the bottom of the valley, we again gave the mules an hour’s rest, and also refreshed ourselves with the rest of our provisions and some delicious milk which we obtained at the Chalets, but which we had to convey to some distance from the dirty huts before we could drink it with any enjoyment. Here our guides fell into so sound a sleep that we had great difficulty in arousing them ; indeed when we set out they were not quite awake, but remained a long way behind, thereby making us fear that they would again drop off to sleep and leave us to go on by ourselves. Soon after leaving Arvelais we crossed the Dioza, and then began to ascend the Bréven, which rises a thousand feet above the Col d’Anterne. This we mounted in a direction almost perpendicular to the ridge, thus shortening the distance but making the walking much more difficult. Indeed the path was so steep and narrow, and the heat so intense, that it required

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the greatest exertion on my part to walk up at all ; and E. and N., who were some distance ahead, seemed as if they must ultimately fall back over their mules’ tails, or else they and their mules come rolling together down the mountain. For some distance our narrow path was pleasantly fringed with large and lofty bushes of briar-roses and other shrubs, which often met overhead and compelled E. and N. to keep stooping to their mules’ necks in order to avoid being caught, like Absalom, by the hair of their heads. Towards the summit the ascent became still more difficult, the path being amongst huge boulders, and three times I had to wade through deep patches of snow. To increase our difficulties, E’s mule turned restive and finally threw her off, happily however with no further inconvenience than a temporary feeling of faintness. Our fatigue and momentary anxiety were however again amply rewarded. A sudden break or gap in the ridge gave us a second glorious view, not so extensive and ethereal as that from the Col d’Anterne, but a nearer and more distinct one of the entire range of Mont Blanc, extending from the Col de Balme to the Col de Vosa. Here we saw to the greatest advan- tage the steeple-like form of the Aiguille de Dru, the grander mass of the Aiguille Verte, the Mer de Glace, and the ‘Monarch of Mountains” with the glaciers that flow slowly down its sides ; while far away below us lay the valley of Chamouni, the Arve meandering through it like a silver thread, and the little village dwindled almost to a speck in the far distance. We found snow and ice in abundance, which we mixed with wine and thus made for ourselves a cool and refreshing beverage. Our descent was now far too steep for riding on mules ; thus until we arrived at Planpra E. and N. had to walk ; but happily our route was in the shade. We had therefrom to traverse a series of zigzag paths that seemed never ending in their monotony, but the beautiful scene before us enabled us to bear with equanimity even this trial to our fortitude. We gathered many lovely flowers here and there on our way, but though we carefully placed them in the guide’s knap- sacks to preserve them from the scorching heat of the sun, we found to our great regret that when we arrived at our journey’s end it was impossible to distinguish one flower from another, all colour being entirely gone from them. This was especially disappointing, as we had several beautiful specimens of the Alpine rose, whose bright colour, amidst its green foliage, makes it look so much richer than our own wild rose ; we had also some of the Forget-me-nots that grew so luxuriantly on the hillock at the top of the Col d’Anterne, and which we would gladly have retained as a pretty memento. At length,

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after an arduous day of thirteen hours’ good walking, we arrived at Chamouni; my companions being, I think, more fatigued with their mule-ride than I by my walk. Even now as I write, every incident of that day’s pleasures rises distinctly in my memory, and before my mind’s eye every scene seems clearly pictured. A finer mountain-walk it would, I think, be difficult to find anywhere. Almost every kind of interest of landscape seemed to be therein combined. Wild flowers, ferns, and mosses lay scattered in the utmost profusion all along the first part of our walk, around and under trees of greater size, numbers, and varieties of species than are, it is said, to be met with in any other part of Switzerland. Then in most striking contrast with this, and with the quiet pastoral beauty of the valley around the Lac d’Anterne, stood out the Col d’Anterne, the bleakest and ruggedest spot that could possibly be imagined ; though even here there was the little hillock clothed with Forget-me-nots blooming in modest beauty in the very midst of this sublimity of desolation. Hereabouts, moreover, have been found, in great abundance and perfection, fossils of ferns and such like plants, and teeth and bones of the hippopotamus and other animals, valuable records of the flora and fauna of ages long gone by. Switzerland is full of associations connected with the revelations of Geology, which strikingly contrast the present with the long past aspect of many well known districts of the country. It has been well remarked that ‘‘ Tourists of hasty habits know nothing whatever of the attractions asso- ciated with the subterranean science of Switzerland, and nothing of the paleontological studies connected therewith ; yet these add inexhaustible interest to the country quite apart from the allied branches of research in the lithology and mineralogy of the Alps. It is indeed remarkable that this romantic region, wherein for many thousands of years no human voice was heard and no human footprints seen ; wherein resounded only the drone of beetles, the hum of swarming insects, and the harsh cries of great and small vertebrates; wherein for long ages strange plants and trees, arborescent ferns, and bamboo-like reeds stood erect out of still lakes and silent swamps, and there perished and formed the materials for thick beds of black slaty rocks and carbonaceous strata ; it is indeed remarkable that upon these very places, and over the relics of an incalculably ancient world, there stand to-day populous villages, busy prosperous towns and cities, the railroad, the manufactory, and the hotel. Those lakes that were once ice-fields are now deep in water, bordered with villas and towns, and ploughed daily by steamboats freighted with the men and women of all civilized nations. Mountains of buried life are ascended by crowds of visitors ; and a railroad runs up and down the inclines of an agglomeration of old sea-shore rocks. In fine, man has arrived ; and he only of all living creatures of the long-past geological epochs is qualified to disinter, observe, and reason about them. Endowed with faculties totally distinct from, and superior to the living beings which preceded him, he patiently labours in interpreting the past, and out of neglected stones and gravel beds, and mire


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and slates, and rocks, and glaciers, and moraines, elicits a history as in- teresting as any that has passed within his own period, restores the strangest tableaux to the curious eye, reanimates the life of ages compared with which his own is as brief as that of a gnat in a sunbeam, and verifies the whole by a science which year by year is becoming still more accurate, still better founded und more comprehensive than any other science that relates to the earth on which we dwell.”

I offer no apology for this long quotation, since it embodies, in far better words than any of my own, reflections that must naturally arise in every thinking mind when surrounded by such associations as were presented to us in this never-to-be- forgotten day’s walk. But beyond and above all other recollections stands out in proud pre-eminence the glorious view from the Col d’Anterne. That lives in my remembrance now as vividly as at first, and as long as memory holds her seat will always live there, a “thing of beauty” to be to me a “a joy for ever.” Such are, I think, amongst the highest and best pleasures to be derived from travels. Pleasures they are that do not, like so many others, vanish too soon and often leave a sting behind, but live on with us in continued remembrance throughout life and (who shall say 7) perhaps through all eternity. The pleasures,—nay more, the great benefits,—that we may and ought to derive from recollections of travels amongst such scenes as those of which I have been writing, cannot be better expressed than in ‘the following beautiful lines of Wordsworth’s, with which I here

close the account of our visit to Sixt :— ‘‘ Though absent long, These forms of beauty have not been to me As is a landscape to a blind man’s eye ; But oft, in lonely rooms, and ’mid the din Of towns and cities, 1 have owed to them, In hours of weariness, sensations sweet, Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart ; And passing even into my purer mind With tranquil restoration :—feelings too Of unremembered pleasure ; such, perhaps, As may have had no trivial influence On that best portion of a good man’s life, His little nameless, unremembered acts Of kindness and of love. Nor less, I trust, To them I may have owed another gift, Of aspect more sublime ; that blessed mood In which the burthen of the mystery, In which the heavy and the weary weight Of all this unintelligible world I Is lightened ; that serene and blessed mood In which the affections gently lead us on, While with an eye made quiet by the power Of harmony, and the deep power of joy, We see into the life of things.”


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On the evening of Friday, April 17th, an entertainment was given in the College Hall, in aid of the funds of the Magazine. The Hall was compactly filled in every part, and presented a very pleasing appearance, many of the present boys being crowded close together in the galleries, while the body of the Hall contained not a few of the old boys and their friends, together with a large number of ladies. The Chairman (W. J. C. Miller, B.A., Vice-Principal of the College) in an introductory speech, said that the Magazine deserved a more extensive support than it had yet obtained, and that he believed it would bear comparison with any similar periodical that had come under his notice. By its literary merits it sought to appeal to the public outside the walls of the College, amongst whom it already had a great many subscribers, and would, he hoped, soon obtain many more. Quoting Bacon’s famous aphorism that “ Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man,” he maintained that the sort of careful writing needed for such: a Magazine tended to develop and strengthen that valuable quality of exactness which was worth acquiring at any cost or by any pains whatsoever, and thus afforded in itself a most beneficial means of training. Furthermore, the Magazine might serve pleasantly to connect those now at the College with those who, perhaps, had long ago left it, and thus foster that esprit de corps which, in regard to any school, it was so desirable to establish and maintain. Describing the several parts of the Magazine, he commended, as a noteworthy feature of it, the department for Queries, wherein might be proposed any in-. teresting question to which a reader would like to have a full and exact answer ; advocated the claims of the Puzzle-pages, as affording scope for something more than mere ingenuity and jeux @esprit ; and passed a well merited panegyric on the Chess department, as being superior to anything of the kind, within the same limits, that he had ever met with, edited as it was by an old College boy who, along with the highest excellence in the game, combined a knowledge of the extensive of Chess. such as few players possessed, and who, moreover, gave to his Editorial duties and to the interests of the periodical in general —what, in fact, was devoted to the Magazine by every one connected therewith—that labour of love which power cannot command and wealth cannot buy. With respect to the financial position of the Magazine, he remarked that it was brought out

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in a very neat form, and published at a lower price than most of a similar kind ; thus, in order to enable it to pay its way, a larger number of subscribers was needed, and would, he hoped, before long be obtained, so that appeals of this sort, though pleasant, might be no longer necessary. All possible pains were now being taken to improve the character of the Magazine, both by bringing to bear on it a greater amount of experience in Editorship and arrangement, and in other ways, so as at least to endeavour to deserve, if not to obtain success. Finally, he expressed a hope that all there present would aid the good work by something more than lending their counten- ance and support to that evening’s entertainment ; that in estimating the value of the Magazine they would not try it by too high a standard; and that in reading it they would not be like so many Iagos, “ nothing if not critical,” but extend to it all the indulgence of which it stood in need, and try to find merits rather than defects, remembering that ‘¢ Errors, like straws, upon the surface flow ; He who would search for pearls must dive below.” The several pieces were then given in the following order :— 1. A caprice by Th. Ritter, entitled Les Couriers ; played with taste and expression by Miss Robinson. 2. A scene from Sheridan’s Rivals (Act I., Sc. 1.) between the servants Fag and Thomas ; very well acted respectively by G. D. Watson and W. M’Iver. 3. A trio by Randegger, entitled J Naviganti, sung by Mrs. Scott, Mr. Wrigley, and Mr. Whitaker. This was given in place of the song announced to be sung by Mr. Beardsell, who had been unexpectedly summoned to London, but had, as he said, found a most efficient substitute in another old College boy, Mr. Wrigley. 4, Selections from two other scenes of The Rivals (Act III, Sc. 4, and Act IV., Sc. 1) between Sir Lucius O‘Trigger (E. Woodhead), Bob Acres (F. H. James), Capt. Absolute (J. H. Hastings) and David (J. H. Lister). After a very slight and natural hesitation at first, arising from the novelty of their position, these scenes were most admirably rendered by James and Woodhead. For an amateur, James acted Bob Acres almost to perfection ; and Woodhead, though less demonstrative, was not a whit inferior as Sir Lucius O“Trigger, making up for his quieter style of acting by the excellent by-play of his coun- tenance, which, along with James’s freer use of gesture and emphasis, brought out in strong relief every point of Sheridan’s brilliant and witty dialogue. 5. The Last Rose of Summer ; gloriously sung by Mrs. Scott —under the form in which it had been appropriated by Flotow,


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and set as the brightest gem in his Opera of Marta, to the words Qui sola vergin Rosa, §c.—eliciting a rapturous encore, to which she responded by singing with even greater effect, Hatton’s song The Lark now leaves his Watery Nest. 6. The well known duel-scene from The Rivals (Act V., Sc. 3); given by James and Woodhead with greater ease, and in . even better style, than they had done No. 4. James’s rendering of the valour oozing out at the palms of his hands could hardly have been improved upon. 7. Some interesting chemical experiments were now per- formed by Mr. Jarmain, the Professor of Chemistry at the College. Hereupon many thought the gas would have to be turned out ; and several ladies enquired, with much trepidation, whether there was going to be an explosion; just as in the duel- scene, they had been as much alarmed as Bob Acres himself, fearing lest O‘Trigger’s pistol would go off. But there was no pistol shot fired ; no darkening of the Hall enough to suggest reminiscences of the Earthquake of Lisbon at the Colosseum,— wherein sometimes, after the catastrophe, pairs of fond beings were suddenly displayed to public gaze in a way they little contemplated ; and no explosion beyond the bursting of a large glass cylinder, which sent down the room clouds of chemical incense that made the most highly favoured recipients thereof sniff, cough, sneeze, and bend their heads, in a way most amusing to witness. 8. A pianoforte solo by Wehli, entitled Silver Bells ; played by Miss Brook. 9. A Selection from the Magazine was then read by the Chairman, who introduced his reading by remarking that he had chosen the two following pieces, not because he thought them better than others in the Magazine, but because they both referred to a district for ever associated in his remembrance with two of the pleasantest days he ever spent amongst grand scenery,—the first two days of his visit to Switzerland, when much that he saw seemed to him like the revelations of a new world. This district is that around the beautiful lake at whose lower end stands the picturesque town of Lucerne, and into the upper end of which flows the glacier-fed river Reuss, whose banks are skirted by a road that everywhere winds amongst _ magnificent scenery, and at one point passes close to a huge rock of granite, popularly supposed—like the Rock of Cashel— to have been dropped by the Devil, and hence called Teufelstein ; while in the grandest and gloomiest part of its course, the river leaps, by a lofty cataract between precipitous granite walls, into a savage abyss, across which one wonders however human in- genuity managed to throw a bridge at all. Tradition accordingly

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ascribed the construction of the old bridge—called Teufelsbrucke —to that mysterious being whose aid is often called in to solve other difficulties besides those connected with bridge-building. It was this Legend of the Bridge (Vol. II., pp. 101-104) that was first read as a specimen of the prose articles in the Magazine. Having read this, the Chairman next gave The Stork of Lucerne (Vol. II., p. 215) as a specimen of the articles in, verse ; adding that the latter was from the pen of an old boy then present, who had just sent in a similar contribution for the Magazine, and from whom he hoped they might soon have many more. 10. A fine scene from Sheridan’s School for Scandul (Act I., Sc. 2) ; well rendered by Mr. French and F. Anderton. Anderton’s appearance as Lady Teazle was, in fact, one of the most interesting parts of the entertainment. Not in the least like the Lady Teazle of the stage, and speaking with a sort of bashful hesitancy which, though foreign to the character, was very pleasant to see, he looked and acted the part in a style as interesting, perhaps, as if it had been more exactly done by an older and more practised amateur. 11. Leslie’s trio, Oh / Memory; sung by Mrs. Scott, Miss Curnock, and Mr. Wrigley. 12. Another scene from The School for Scandal (Act III, Sc. 1) between Sir Peter and Lady Teazle. 13. Macaulay’s Horatius ; very well read by Mr. Bate. 14. A canzonetta by Henrion, entitled La Manola , finely sung by Mrs. Scott. After the thanks of the meeting had been presented by acclamation to the performers, and three hearty cheers given by the boys to the ladies who had that evening favoured them (including, we presume, Lady Teazle), the usual finale of loyal Englishmen, God save the Queen,—sung in a doleful style, for it was late, and everybody was in a hurry to go,—brought pleasantly to a close an entertainment wherein the audience, the character and variety of. the pieces, the style in which they were all executed, and the results, far exceeded the most sanguine expectations of the managers of the Magazine. The programme was a long one, but highly interesting and well gone through from beginning to end, and the audience seemed as well pleased with the whole of the entertainment as were those who had the management of it to find that their appeals for aid had met with so'ready a response from everyone to whom they applied, and that their labours in this way to further the cause of the Magazine had been crowned with such an abundant success.

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(Concluded from page 128. )

But I met with nothing. The profoundest stillness reigned around. The lid of the well was undisturbed, and the chain intact above it. I glared through the pitchy atmosphere, and struck furiously at the shrubbery for a concealed enemy, but in vain, A reaction took place, and a cold shiver ran through me, as my former fears, now considerably increased, took pos- session of me. With a bound I made for the steps; up which I fled as though pursued by demons ; along the verandah, and through the corridor and my bedroom, into the hall. My intention was to make for K’s. apartment; but, as I rushed frantically towards it, I stumbled and fell over his prostrate body, lying at the entrance to his room. I thought he was dead—dead from fright, or possibly murdered. My own fears vanished for a moment, under this idea, and I rushed back to my room to obtain water and a light. I found, on my return, that, though insensible, he was not dead ; and, after I had plentifully sprinkled his face with cold water, he began to revive, but the expression of terror that his countenance assumed was most appalling. “Was it not horrible!” he exclaimed ; “did you see it?” ‘“‘] saw nothing,” I answered. ‘“ Although I was below, and must have been close to the infernal scene ” “ Below?” broke in K. “ Why it was in this very hall ”— pointing to a ring-bolt in the lofty ceiling, over the dining- table—“ there, there, there !” He was fearfully excited, and I thought he would have relapsed ; so I got him at once into his room and on his bed, making up my mind to say nothing at present to increase his fears. I got some brandy—a dose of which did us good—and waited patiently till he approached of his own accord the recital of what had happened to him. ‘‘T had been asleep,” he said, at length, “ for some time, when I awoke, restless and uneasy. I was disturbed by a melancholy dirge.” “Ah, confound it!” I said; “it has often annoyed me; but pray continue.” ‘“‘ Sometimes it was apparently in my room, then in the hall, and again it sounded afar off. I was impressed with the idea that somebody, besides myself, was in the room ; but my light had been extinguished, and I could perceive nothing. An

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indefinable feeling of heaviness oppressed me, as I again heard the wailing cry, which now, I was convinced, proceeded from my room. I sprung up, intending to come to you, and, as I approached the door, which was shut, I distinctly beard the voice in the hall outside. I was so frightened that I did not immediately open the door, but when I did—horror of horrors ! —but you saw it, did you not ?” Fearing further to disturb his distracted mind, I replied that I had been alarmed while below in the compound, but had not seen what he had ; that I had run up-stairs, and found him in a state of insensibility. His nervous system had received a very severe shock—that was quite clear ; and I dreaded, for his sake, to hear a repetition of the unearthly sounds. But they troubled us no more. I closed the door, and threw open the window, mentally resolving to strike my tents the next day. K. was so depressed that even brandy-pawnee and cheroots were inadequate to elevate his spirits to a conversational point, and we both carefully avoided all reference to the events of the night. I had, by no means, entirely recovered my equanimity, and I gladly hailed the first crow of chanticleer, as the disperser of evil spirits, and the harbinger of daylight. When my servants made their appearance, I ordered an early breakfast, and gave directions for packing up bag and baggage, preparatory to removal, as I knew I should experience no difficulty in finding other quarters. As for K., poor fellow, he felt so bad that I quite agreed with him in the wisdom of his determination to return home to Trevandrum ; and I may add, par parenthese, that he did not pass the forthcoming examination as he had contemplated doing, though he now stands high in the civil service of India. I sent a message to my landlord, requesting his immediate attendance. He came shortly after breakfast, and I paid him his rent, (a very paltry amount) informing him that I was leaving his house that very day. “Has any thing occwred, sir, to cause you to leave so suddenly ?” he asked. ‘‘Yes, something very unusual,” I replied, reflectively ; ; for I was unwilling to make public what had happened—both K. and myself agreeing that ridicule would be the only result of such a confession. it up here, sir?” asked the landlord, pointing to the hall, “‘or below, in the compound ?” appear to know all about it!” I exclaimed, both as- tonished and angry that he had knowingly rented me a house with so evil a reputation. As I saw a cunning smile steal over

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his features, I felt a great inclination to knock him down, but restrained my wrath. me,” I said, “what you know of this infernal place of yours ?” “Well sir, to say the truth, the house has a bad name. It has not been very long in my possession. I bought it from the last owner because it was very cheap, and I was ignorant of its character. I resided in it for a time; but my family were so alarmed by strange noises, and the servants by what they declared to be supernatural appearances, that I was compelled to remove ; although, for my part, I never saw any thing extra- ordinary about the house. I subsequently let it to others, but they did not remain.” “‘ And you, I suppose, made a good thing out of it, pocketing rent that was not your due, eh? But what,” I asked, “ is the history connected with the hall?” “You see, sir, that ring-bolt in the ceiling? Many years ago, a woman resided here, who committed murder and suicide ; for her body, and that of her infant, were found, one morning, hung from that very bolt. Whether the crime was the result of misfortune or insanity, I never knew; but it is reported that her voice is often heard, and that her spirit still haunts the building.” ‘“‘ And the compound?” I asked. “Ah!” replied he, “ there are other houses than mine that are troubled in that quarter. All that I know is this : that when the Portuguese held possession of Cochin, they amassed, by force and cruelty, a large amount of wealth, and when the fort was beleaguered by a powerful and ultimately victorious enemy, their great consideration was how to secure it. Their doubloons, jewels, and rich gold ornaments were packed in iron chests, and imbedded at the bottom of the deep wells in their compounds. It is recorded that, on these occasions, a slave was intrusted with the secret, ordered to protect the treasure, and on his promising to do so, was immediately killed and thrown into the well, with the idea, I suppose, that his manes would scare away any seekers after the hidden wealth.” ‘Are you aware whether any of it was recovered by the Dutch, on their taking possession of Cochin 1?” “I have heard,” he replied, “that search has often been made, but no success has attended the effort. <A series of the most unlooked-for accidents was constantly taking place : either the water in the well could not be got under, or portions of the brick-work would cave in, killing the operators below. Event- ually, all further attempts were abandoned as useless, although every body believes in the great concealed wealth of Cochin.”

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I paid my landlord and dismissed him, without satisfying his evident curiosity as to what had occurred. I pondered over his story, and could not help remarking how curiously it was borne out by the events of the previous night. I had strictly avoided inquiring particulars of what K. had seen, owing to his extreme state of agitation; but that he had really seen some- thing, or imagined that he had done so, was quite obvious, Whether the fear of ridicule, or something else, influenced him, I do not know ; but I never, subsequently, induced him to speak of the subject, without a shudder, and a request that all re- ference to it should for the future be avoided. I saw that the recollection was painful to him, and therefore complied with his wish. K. had but recently arrived in Travancore, and knew as little as I did of any local tradition or historical incident that might have biassed our judgments, or perverted our imaginations, We had, neither of us, heard of Spiritualism, and up to that period were profound unbelievers in ghosts. For my part, I troubled my head very little about the matter, after it was over, although it made a far deeper impression on K. What I heard may have been accounted for in both cases on reasonable grounds, no doubt, but I never endeavoured further to elucidate that night’s mystery. Ten years afterwards, I most unwillingly revisited Cochin, en route to Bombay. It had changed considerably in its com- mercial aspect, but the town within the fort was the same as I had left it. I passed my former residence: it was apparently. empty. I met the landlord in the street, and addressed him : ‘“‘Ts your house, there, to rent, Mr. Winkler ?” “Yes, sir,” he replied, evidently not recognizing me. “‘ How long has it been empty?” I inquired. He seemed, I thought, annoyed at the question, but answered that it had been without a tenant for some time. On interro- gating him as to the cause he got still more annoyed, but would give no satisfactory reply to my questions. [I hinted certain matters to him and turned away, laughing at his evident con- fusion and wonder as to who he could be who knew both him and the secret of his house. He doubtless walks the streets of Cochin at the present day, vainly endeavouring to let his house ; and would, most probably, for a small gratuity, give the inquirer all the information that might be required in corroboration of

the truth of the foregoing narrative. E. J.

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We Grueries.

44. By H. Hastinas. What is the meaning of cold, in such names as Coldcotes, Conistoncold, &c., in the Northern Division of the West Riding of Yorkshire ? 45. By A. H. HaAIaca. What is the Birs Nimroud ?

46. By H. APPLeTon. What is Benzoin ?

47. By J. H. Hastinas.

In Shakspeare’s Tempest (Act II., Sc. 2) Caliban says ‘‘Sometimes I'll get thee young scamels from the rock.” The glossary says that scamels are seamels or seamews: can any reader of the Magazine say whether this is the true meaning of the word ? 48. By W. R.

What explanation can be given of the similarity of colour frequently existing between animals and their habitats ; for example, between rabbits and heather, polar bears and snow, lions and the desert, &c. ? 49, By W. J. C. MILLER.

Required the derivation and exact meaning of each of the following words, with illustrations of the resemblances and differences between them :—charade, conundrum, enigma, puzzle, rebus, riddle.

Solutions of Puzzles.

38. By THE PROPOSER. . Terra es et in terram ibis. 89. By C. E. James; J. W. B., F.R., A. S. B., J. HL, A. W. B., J. W. Aberystwith : Hatteras, Bath, Wye, White. 41. By A. W. Barrstow.

In every 2000 marriages 1 is severed : (obtained by multiplying -05 by 20). One successful application for divorce represents 10 applications, each of which represents 100 unhappy marriages ; hence 1 successful appli- cation represents 1000 unhappy marriages. But of all marriages, 1 in 2000 is severed. This one, as shown before, represents 1000 unhappy marriages ; therefore, out of 2000 marriages, 1000 are unhappy ; that is to say, one- half of the whole number of marriages are unhappy ones.

42. By A. S. BENNER, A. B., J. W. Sole, aCe, meAn or bAse, M.P.; SCAMP. 48. By THE PROPOSER. Le Cousin (the gnat).

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50. (From the Cambridge Correspondence Class Paper for Ladies).

If > of Cupid's arrows slay, wound, and the remainder miss ; and if of the wounded # recover and the others perish ; how many victims fall to 100 arrows ?

51. By Harrgietre E. MIuuer.

The popular equivalent for the exact mathematical shape of a kiss, the geologic term dor a soft calcareous clay, and the name of one of the early conquerors of Britain, form the last three parts of the square of the word that designates the sweetest spot on earth : construct this square.

62. By J. 8S. CAMERON.

Transpose the following lines in such a way that their initials shall designate an important and ever increasing class of the men of Hudders- eld :— Darling warblers of our hills, Gentle songsters from the ling, Clear and strong their music thrills, Little harbingers of Spring. Other birds too on the wing, Singing Heaven’s own melody, Busy as they build their nests, Ever warbling from on high, Orpheus dwells within their breasts. You may hear them easily Lift their voices to the sky, Early hum their lullaby ;-- Oh ! so sweetly in the Spring Linnets, larks, and thrushes sing.

Web Pu3z3les,

45. By H. J. BROOKE. Take the name of a fish; an English county; a Siberian town; a town of a large island in Asia; a town in France: their initials name a country, and their finals the capital of the country. 46. By IsaBELLA GILL. Square the words April, Harp, Roger.

47. PROPosED BY C. FEUGLY. File-moi, je te véts ; retourne-moi, je coule.

48. By W. J. C. MILLER.

Required (1) the shortest word that contains all the vowels in their alphabetical order, (2) the shortest sentence that contains all the letters of the alphabet.

49, By Tuomas HUGHES.

My first a swindle some would call ; My last is Neptune’s own, my all,

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oe a, Vrs a ee “an a “ws mime xe ms Deen aaa a LL

White to play a nd mate i n four mov



Se a i 8 ain A

“eh “os “i 2 7k ve

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.

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No. I. Tae Dusuque CHEss JOURNAL. (Continued from page 134. )

But we overlook all these and a score of other “whims,” for the originality and variety which characterise this journal. It affords a welcome contrast to much of our English chess literature, which errs, perhaps, on the side of primness. One of the main features of the “Dubuque” is the presentation every month of a photographic likeness of some eminent Ameri- can or European problematist or chess-player, accompanied with appropriate memoirs giving examples of their finest efforts in problem or game. The following well known names appear, amongst others, in recent issues :—-H. F. L. Meyer, V. Portilla, Jean Preti, Rev. A. B. Skipworth, Victor Gorgias, Van der Linde and _ his accomplished wife, J. G. Belden, H. J. C. Andrews, Ernest - Morphy, uncle of the great Paul, and in the February part of this year, J. O. H. Taylor, the author of “Chess Brilliants.” We cannot resist giving an extract or two from the biography of J. G. Belden, the Chess Editor of the “ Hartford Times,” _ which, it is almost needless to say, is “written by himself.” After giving a humorous sketch of his early days, and sundry amusing chess adventures of his youth, he says—‘ He has played chess with some very good and some very poor players. He has been known to beat a remarkably poor player several games in succession.” Respecting his problems he discourses “thusly ” ;—‘ He has had a few problems published, but the chess editors usually assured him in their columns, that his compositions contained no elements of originality except in the multiplicity of keys which they afforded.” He has also at work for ten years on a hundred move position which will, when completed, challenge the admiration of the world. Five moves of it are already done.” He specimen of his powers in a two-mover, which shows conclusively that Mr. Belden can make good problems as well as good jokes.

White.—K at QB4; Qat K B7; Rs at K R8 and K 4; B at K Kt 2; Kt at Q Kt 5; Ps at K Kt 3 and Q R 7. Black.—K at Q R sq; R at Q sq; Bs at K Kt sq and Q R 4; Kt at K R3; Ps at K R 6, K Kt 5, and Q B 4.

Blindfold chess is very popular nowadays. Let us see what J. G. B. can do in that direction.

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‘*In blindfold chess our hero has ever believed that his talents, if they had full scope, would shine with the dazzling splendour of a penny candle on the towering summit of a hen coop. Paulsen’s triumphs stimulated him to eclipse them, and so he undertook the stupendous and wonderful performance of conducting twenty games blindfold. At that time he resided in Hartford, and was a member of a chess club, so that he found no difficulty in finding twenty antagonists. He commenced the feat one evening at about. seven o'clock, by playing P to K 4 on all the boards. Each answered the same. He followed with Kt to K B 3 on all the boards, Then a buzz of admiration was heard on all sides. The answer came Q Kt to B 3. Forty Knights had galloped into the arena. In an impressive voice he then ordered twenty Bishops to advance to B 4. Twenty clerical figures stepped meekly into line. This is as far as he went, because his twenty antagonists, not under- standing the science of the noble game, made twenty exceedingly awkward moves, which confused the blindfold player not a little. Scarcely any two of them were alike. He was about to decline playing with such an unscientific and awkward squad when he was relieved from his emburrass- ment by an alarm of fire. Fearful that the players might await his return, when he started, he assured them that he seldom got back from a fire inside of two weeks. That ended his blindfold chess. He had boldly undertaken douhle the number of games ever essayed before, and so far as he went made moves that the greatest living player could not improve upon. He rests on his laurels. Twenty blindfold games. Think of it!”

He winds up characteristically enough, as follows :— the writer to say in conclusion that as the Niaur is dark, my BoarD-ing house QUEEN impatient, l’ll DRaw this sTALE sketch to a close by CHECKING my pen. Methinks I hear the reader say, ‘ A capital move.’ ” Besides numerous games and problems, each number con- taining from twenty to thirty of the latter on diagrams, the “Dubuque Journal” publishes from time to time original con- tributions from competent pens on various chess topics, which include a series by G. E. Carpenter on a curious mathematical theorem entitled the 8-Queens Problem ; a masterly review of Alexandre by the same eminent problem critic; a valuable article on “ Oversights” by J. O. H. Taylor, of Norwich ; another on ‘ Impossible Positions” by Lewis W. Mudge; and several analyses of new moves in the openings. The February and succeeding parts are a great improvement, typographically, on their predecessors ; we think the steam- engine must have got to work at last, and the weak point in the magazine being now remedied, we predict for the future even a wider success than has hitherto been achieved by the “ Dubuque Journal.”

HUDDERSFIELD CoLLEGE CHEss CLUB.—The concluding Meeting was held on the 15th of April, when the chessmen offered by the President of the Club were presented to J. H. Lister, the winner of the Tournament, who had not lost a single game.

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WE have had brought under our notice a ‘Catalogue of rare and valuable works, principally on Chess, forming the extensive collection of an American amateur, including curious and important treatises by the most celebrated players, and all the standard writers on the game of Chess,” which are to be sold by Messrs. Sotheby and Co., 13, Wellington Street, Strand, on the 15th of this month. It is very seldom indeed that such a magnificent Chess library as this is brought under the hammer of the auctioneer, the number of lots being 473, and even this does not represent the grand total, as several of the lots range from two up to, in one case, twenty-seven volumes. The collection is rich in all departments of Chess literature, comprising scarce specimens of Cozio, Greco, &c., in eighteenth century works, and a very complete series of the moderns in all editions and languages. Lot 16 will be a prize to the fortunate possessor. It is thus described :— ‘‘ Alphonsine Chess Manuscript. The 103 Chess Problems in this

Album are those of the beautiful MS., one of the gems of the Escurial Library, which was executed for Alphonso X., King of Castile, in the 13th

ony Problems of this rare MS. have never been published, and there are but two copies made of it as far as is known.”

Lot 49 is the “ British Chess Review, edited by Herr Horr- witz, 2 vols. 1st Vol. half-calf, 2nd cloth. 1853-4.

*,* The second Vol. ends at page 122, and contains all that has appeared. ”

We quote this to draw attention to an inaccuracy in the description, as it is not the first time we have noticed a similar error in connection with this work. The second vol. contains sia monthly parts, and ends at page 186, as a copy in our possession testifies. Horrwitz is probably a printer’s error, as the Review was edited by Herr Harrwitz. Lot 181. ‘“ Household Monthly Magazine, five consecutive numbers, from February to June, woodcuts—1865.” This periodical had a chess department edited by the present writer ; its pages contain problems by Healey, Finlinson, Farrow, and others. We should think there will be a very brisk competition for Lot 184, which is ‘‘ Huddersfield College Magazine, Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, diagrams. Huddersfield, 1872-3.” Lot 402 we should like to have, if we could only read it ;— * Trevangadacharya Shastree. Essays on Chess, half morocco. Bombay, 1814.

*,* A very rare work, and in fine condition.” J. W.

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University Supplement.


(By our Oxford Correspondent. )

Amone the annual contests between the two Universities the Chess Match seems at last to have taken a permanent place ; and though for obvious reasons it would be hopeless to predict for it a popularity such as is enjoyed by the boat race, the cricket match, or the athletic sports—the chess tourney does attract a crowd of spectators without parallel in the history of the game. As an exhibition of chess skill the match will probably prove always a failure. The ordinary undergraduate of two or three years standing will possibly never afterwards find himself in a better condition for handling an oar or a bat, or for a three mile run, but the youth that is so much in his favour in any contest requiring strength and activity tells against him at chess. There can be no doubt, moreover, that Chess is not popular in the University, and is cultivated only in a very languid man- ner by the few who play at all. The merest glance at the games already played in the University Matches will show their great want of skill. Yet was this contest on both occasions watched with a keen and surprising interest by all the chess talent of London. Readers of the Huddersfield College Magazine may remember that upon the invitation of the City of London Chess Club the first match took place in their club rooms, 34, Milk Street, Cheapside, on March 28th, last year. Seven players represented each University, and Oxford won the match easily by nine games to two, with two drawn. This year the same club most hospitably repeated the invitation, and the second match was played on March 27th in the presence of from 600 to 800 spec- tators, including, among others, Staunton (who paid his first visit to the club on this occasion), Lowenthal, Horwitz, Bird, Black- burn, Zukertort, and Steinitz, who acted as umpire. Great preparations had been made by the City of London Club to do honour to the occasion. The room was most impar- tially decorated with dark and light blue—not a window was

Page 162


allowed to display favouritism, but each had one dark and one light blue curtain. The very candles were adorned with dark and light blue spirals, and the players were almost surprised to find that their chess-men and boards did not partake of the prevailing hues. A substantial railing round the players enabled them to conduct their games with much greater comfort than last year when the crowd was very oppressive. At a quarter past six the two captains, Mr. De Soyres (Cambridge) and Mr. Parratt (Oxford) drew for move, which fell to Cambridge on the first board, and was then taken alternately all down the line. The first four players on the Cambridge side took part in the match last year, and the first three on the Oxford side. Fortune very soon declared itself in favour of Cambridge, and as time went on the defeat of Oxford became only the more severe, At eleven o’clock several games remained unfinished, and were adjudged by the umpire. The following list gives the names of the players and the result of the match.

OXFORD. Won. Won. Drawn. W. Parratt............ J. de Soyres........ 1... 2 F. Madan .............. J. N. Keynes...... 2 .. I S. R. Meredith........ 1 C. B. Ogden........ 2 W. Grundy............ 1 W. W. R. Ball.... 1 Hon. H. Plunkett.... T. H. D. May...... 2 1 C. Tracey J. S. Nicholson.... 3 A. R. C. Connell..... 1 W. Hooper ......... 2 ... 3 13 4

During the match Herr Zukertort played six games blind- fold, and Mr. Blackburn played a number of simultaneous games, with a view to draw some of the crowd away from the University Match—a benevolent intention which was by no means successful. Upon the conclusion of the play the combatants were invited to a magnificent supper, which was not concluded until two o’clock. The hospitality of the City of London Chess Club was unbounded, and the University players were very much impressed with the hearty kindness of their reception. The result of the match no doubt took Oxford by surprise, but it is probably good for both sides that both matches should not have been won by either. W. P.

The following three games played by the captains of the - teams, Messrs. Parratt (Oxford) and De Soyres (Cambridge), are taken, with the notes and concluding observations, from the Chess columns of the Illustrated London News, edited by Mr. Staunton.

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GAME I. (Sicilian Opening.) WHITE (Mr.deS.) siack (Mr. P.) WHITE(Mr.deS.) Buack (Mr. P.)

LPtK4 1PtQB4 I nisktto 2,KttoKB3 2 PtoK3 him to preparatory to advancing 8 KttoQB3 3 PtoQR3 15. Kt takes Kt 4,.PtoQ4 4. P takes P 16. P takes Kt 16. P to K Kt8 §. Kt takes P 5. Kt toQ B3 17. K Rto Kt 5 17. RtoK 6. BtoK 3 6. B to Q Kt 5 18. QtoKR4 18 PtoQ Kt4 7. BtoQ 3 7. K Kt to K 2 19. QRtoK Ktsq 19. B toQ Kt 2 8. Castles 8. B takes Kt 20. PtoK Kt 4 20. QRtoK Bag 9. P takes B 9. Castles 21. P takes P 1. PtooKB4 10PtoK B38 Has White any better move? This looks less efficient than P to Q 4. 21. Kt takes P 11. RtoKB3 4 22, Btakes Kt 22. R takes B

12 RtoK Kt3 12.PtoK B4 23. Rtakes R 23. Kt P takes R

13. P to K & 13. QtoQ B2 2.QtcoKB6 24. 14 hktoK B2 ee oe 5 O to Ki

ch) 15. K to Raq 26. Q takes Q (ch) 26. K takes Q It was shown afterwards that Mr. de Soyres would have done better by playing Drawn game.

GAME II. (Irregular Opening. )

WHITE (Mr. P.) Buack (Mr.deS.) wire (Mr. P.) Biack (Mr.deS.) 1PtcQ 4 1PtK B4 12.QtcQBsq 12. BtoQR 8 2PtoK Kt3 2. KttoK B3 18. Kt to K Bsq 13. Kt takes B 38 BtoK Kt2 3 PtoQ4 14. K takes Kt 14. R to Q B sq 4.QBtoK B4 4. PtoK 8 15. Q to K 3 15. PtoK R38 5. BtoK & 5 PtooQB4 16.PtoKR4 16.QtoK 6 PtroQB3 6. KttcQB3 17. PtoQR8 17, 6 to K Rt 3 7.PtocoKB4 7. PtcQ Kt3 18. Q KttoQ2 18 K RtoQ sq 8 KttooK B38 8 BtoK 2 19. QR to Q Baq 19. Q to K sq 9.Q Kt toQ2 9. Castles 20. K toR 2 20. Q to K B aq 10. Castles 10. Kt to K Kt5 I 21. Rto K Ktsq 21. PtoK R4 11. KttoK 6 22. Ktto K Kt 5 22. B takes Kt An excell + position for the Kt hed b ‘| 23. RP takes B 23. Kt takes B excelien #1010N for the 6 been enabled to maintain it; but, being oe Q takes st OE unsupported, he can be of little service. 26. QP takesQ 26. Bto K 7,

and the game was declared a drawn battle. GAME III. (Hampe's Opening. )

WHITE (Mr.deS.) (Mr. P.) WwHITE(Mr.deS.) sBiaoxk (Mr. P.) 1, Pto K 4 1PtoK 4 12. B to Q 2 12. B to K Kt 5 2,KttoQB3 2 KttoQ B38 13. Q to K s 13. Kt to K R 2 8 PtoKB4 3 BtoQ Kt5 14, Ktto K & 4 14. BtoK R4¢ Fo 03 15. KttoK B 5 - Bto . Kt to 3 6. P toQ 3 6. PtoK R8 Mr. de Soyres has now a winning 7. Castles 7. BtoQ B4(ch) I of position. 8. K toR a4 8. Castles 15. Kt to K 2 % KttoQR4 9. BtoQ Kt3 16. Q to K Kt 3 16. KttoK Kt3 it Kt takes B 10. R Ptakes Kt I B2 17. KttoK Kt4

PtakesP 11. P takes P 18. QRtoK Bsq 18. K to R 2

The time for concluding the tourney having arrived when Black made this move, the position was submitted to the umpire, who adjudged the game to be White’s, It is right to say that Mr. Parratt’s play throughout these games is far below his real strength, owing to an almost total want of practice for some months.

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WHITE. BLACK. 1. BtoK Kt6 1 KtoQ Kt4 2 BtKR5 2. Any move 3. B mates. SOLUTION OF PROBLEM XIV. 1 BtQ8 1. Kt takes P (a) 2. Q takes B P 2. KttoQB7 8. QtoQ Kt 8 3. Any move 4. Q mates accordingly. (a) 1. RtoK B2 (bd) 2. Kt to K 5 (ch) 2. K takes P 3. Q to B 8 (ch) 8. R takes Q 4. BtoK 7 (mate) (6) 1 Pto B6 (c) 2, QtoK B4 2. P takes P 3. Kt to K 8 (ch) 3. Kt takes Kt 4, R to Kt 4 (mate) (c) If 1. Rto Kt 4, Q takes R, &c. The key-moves of the problems by Messrs. Pierce, p. 132, are as follows. o 8 1. PtoK 6. No. 16. 1. QtoK R65. No. 57. 1. Bto K Kt3. No. 125. 1. K to K 2,


The correct solution of Problem XIII. has been received from J. 8., Sunderland ; D. W. O., Glasgow; A. W., London ; W. N., Wrexham ; and A. F., Huddersfield. I The correct solution of Problem XIV. has been received from A. W., London ; and D. W. O., We have also received correct solutions of the problems on p. 132, from D. W. 0., Glasgow. J. 8. The collection of problems by ‘J. B., of Bridport,” alluded to in the review of Messrs. Pierces’ book in our last number, was published in 1865, by Messrs. Triibner and Co., London, soon after the lamented death of the composer. A short obituary notice, written by the Chess editor of this Magazine, appeared in the Chess Players’ Magazine, for January, 1864, from which the following is an extract :—‘‘It is with feelings of deep regret that we record the death of that distinguished problem composer, Mr. John Brown, more generally known to the chess world as ‘J. B., of Bridport.’ Under this pseudonym he has for many years contributed his ingenious productions to the various chess organs ; and we have no hesita- tion in assigning him a place in the very front rank of modern illustrators of the art. His problems are notable for their naturalness, simplicity, and depth ; and the literature of Chess has lost in ‘J. B., of Bridport,’ one of its most accomplished ornaments.” C. V. N. Your proposed solution of Problem XIV. beginning with 1. P toQ B 6, appears to hold good against all the defences you give, but we do not see how mate can be effected if Black replies with 1. R to K B 8.

Page 165

Huddersfield College


THE great bed of chalk that traverses England from South- West to North-East is divided into two strings. One of these begins at Beer Head in Devonshire, and stretches in a North- Easterly direction, while the other stretches Northwards from Beacuy Head in Sussex, and after meeting the former, the chalk bed terminates on the coast of Yorkshire, in the headland of FLAMBOROUGH, which forms the subject of the first part of the following paper. About seventeen miles North-West of this well known promontorystands the “Queen of Watering-places,” Scarborough ; and about seven miles South-West stands the small town of Bridlington and the ruined priory which forms the subject of the second part of the paper. A party of fourteen of us visited Flamborough together. The pure white cliffs of this headland—composed entirely of chalk—are the haunt of innumerable sea birds. The chalk has been worn away by the action of the waves into a great number of caves, of which the following are the most deserving of notice. At the North landing place there is “‘ Robin Lythe’s Hole ;” and this was the first cave that we entered. On the land side the entrance is dark and narrow, but after going a few yards we entered the cave, which is very large and lofty, being about fifty feet high. Tradition relates that Robin Lythe was a fierce pirate, and that he made this cave his stronghold, wherein he was safe from pursuit, on account of the difficulty of entering. We took a boat, and after rowing a short distance to the North-West we came to the “Smuggler’s Cave,” a good sized cavern with a small beach in front, used, it is said, by the smugglers to bury their contraband goods in before selling them. After leaving this place we rowed a little farther to the North-West and entered the “Kirk Hole.” The entrance to this cave was so narrow that we had to unship our oars to get in at all. The cave is said to extend quite under Flamborough Church, but our guide informed us that this was not true, and that he had often been to the end of it himself. On the North side of the landing-place there is another large cave called the ‘“‘ Bacon Flitch Hole,” but this we did not go into. On leaving the caves we walked along the cliffs towards Bridlington. The cliffs are cut out into numerous little bays, apparently by the

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prolonged action of the waves. In one of these bays stand the “King” and “Queen,” two chalk rocks that have withstood the sea while the rest of the cliff has been worn away around them. At low water one can walk quite round these rocks. In the next opening stands the ‘“ Matron,” another chalk rock which, matron-like, is broader and altogether of ampler dimensions than the former two. Passing one or two more of these little bays, we came to the main point of the headland, which is 292 feet above high water mark. Off this headland was once fought a memorable battle ; the antagonists being on the one hand Paul Jones, the noted pirate,—who held a commission from the United States of America,—assisted by two men-of-war and one armed brigantine, and on the other the English ships Serapis and Scarborough, which were conducting the Baltic fleet to port. To save the merchantmen, the protecting ships attacked the foe with great fury ; but after a long fight they were forced to strike their colours, though the merchantmen all escaped safely into Scarborough. This battle was watched from the cliffs by hundreds of people, and such was the conster- nation caused by Paul Jones, that the harbour was full of ships, while many others were chained outside the pier. About 400 yards from the extreme point of the headland is Flamborough Lighthouse ; the room containing the light being reached by 118 steps. The light consists of four white and two red faces, which revolve by clockwork in such a manner as to show a bright light every two minutes. The clockwork is worked by a weight, which falls the whole length of the tower, taking somewhere about four hours to reach the bottom, and requiring both the lighthouse keepers to wind it up again. In fine weather the light can be seen thirty miles off, which is the distance visible from the headland. The walk along the cliffs to Bridlington is extremely pleasant, but we here took a waggonette to drive home. After going a few hundred yards we came to the old lighthouse, a very ancient looking building, now fast crumbling to decay. The mast of a ship stands out at the top, but it contains nothing to indicate its precise age. It is preserved as a landmark. About a mile further on there is the little fishing village of Flamborough, which contains a very ancient church dedicated to St. Oswald, and the remains of a castle supposed to have belonged to the Danes, and hence called “ Danish Tower.” It is square and arched, but its age is not known. The church was dependent on Bridlington Priory. A little farther on the road to Bridlington we came to the “ Danes’ Dyke,” a ditch stretching from the North to the South side of Flamborough Head, which is supposed to have been dug by the Danes as a fortification to protect them from the Saxons; and hence the

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portion cut off from the mainland of England has sometimes been termed “‘ Little Denmark.” About four miles further on we came to Bridlington Quay, which has a small but very safe harbour ; and a mile to the West of it stands Bridlington itself, containing the remains of Bridlington Priory. : Bridlington Priory was founded for the use of the Augustin- ian Canons about the beginning of the reign of Henry I., by Walter de Gant, the founder of Guisborough. It rapidly became one of the richest priories in Yorkshire, from the numerous gifts which were bestowed upon it by the Yorkshire nobles. The proximity of Bridlington to the sea rendered the priory liable to attacks from pirates, who at that age were very numerous ; and in the year 1388 a grant was obtained from Richard II., enabling the monks to surround the priory with walls in order to .withstand these raids. The Canons obtained another benefit from the Pope, fot about the year 1260 the Archdeacon of Richmond came to the priory demanding food and shelter for himself and attendants, including ninety-seven horses, twenty dogs, and three hawks. He and his retinue soon consumed as much provisions as would have sustained the house for a very long time ; whereupon Pope Innocent II]. commanded that henceforth the Archdeacon, when travelling, should not have more than seven horses, At the time of the dissolution of the monasteries, the yearly revenue of this priory amounted to £682; the building consisted of the nave, transepts, chancel, and the Prior’s house; a tower rose from between the transepts ; and there were also fortifications. Nearly all of the fortifi- cations and the whole of the chancel and Prior’s house were destroyed by Henry VIII., and this so weakened the rest that the tower—which in Henry VIII.’s time was described as being “‘daungerouslye in decaye,”—fell and destroyed the transepts ; after which nothing but the nave remained of this once magni- ficent monastery. The pillars of the Prior’s house may still be seen against the South wall of the nave. The only remnant of the fortifications is the ‘Bayle Gate,” an erection much resembling the Bars at York, though it is by no means 80 strong. The room above the archway was formerly used as the Guildhall ; and the cells below this room, on the right and left of the arch, were termed the “ Kidcote,” and served as a prison. The fair, which was granted by King John to the Canons, was held between this gateway and the church, and if it is not held there still it was till quite lately. There had been originally two towers at the North-West and South-West corners ; these, however, were broken down by King Henry VIII., and instead of the one at the South-West corner, a hideous octagon has been built to put the clock in.

K 3

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oo bo

The Paul Jones before mentioned has an evil name all along the East coast of England, and he and time together are said to have destroyed much of what Henry left. Be this as it may,—and Paul Jones is perhaps not so black as he is painted,—the building is now undergoing a gradual restoration. The plastered up windows are being replaced by glass ones, but several still remain in anything but a transparent condition. The West end is built in a very beautiful style ; but the numerous statue-niches in its lower part are now all empty, and time is doing its work on the carving and moulding, the remains of which are still however extremely fine. There is some very beautiful carving to the three doorways at this end of the church. Passing round to the North side we come to the North porch, which is deserving of very careful notice. The heads within the porch represent Edward I., Eleanor, and Archbishop John Romanus. Above this entrance there. was a chamber with a door leading into the church. The East end was built out of the remains of the tower and transepts, but it is badly proportioned and very ugly. On the South side of the church there are nine windows of three different shapes, and built with stones of different colours, which makes it probable that they were erected at three different periods. Entering the church through the South-West door we come to an iron “joug” or collar chained to the wall. A little to the left hand is a circular font standing on a round pillar, and made of black marble full of madrepores. The plaster with which it was covered has been lately cleared away. At the East end of the South aisle there is a bracket on the wall with a stone alms box. A little further to the East is a hagioscope, that is to say a square hole in the wall through which persons who were not allowed to enter the church viewed the service. In the North-East corner there is a case containing the works of Hooker, Jewel, Comber, and Heylin. Near the West end of the North aisle there is a coffin- lid of black marble, whereon are carved a fox and a crane with a vase between them, a cat with great claws, a building with circular and pointed arches, and two fighting monsters with dragons’ tails. The triforium and clerestory pass round three sides of the church,—the South, West, and North,—being interrupted at the East end because it was built up after the dissolution. The restorations are being conducted by Mr. G. G. Scott, who designed the East window and the roof. The stained glass of the great West window (55 feet high by 27 feet broad) was designed by Mr. Wailes, and was inserted in 1854. Among the numerous celebrated Canons of this monastery, the most distinguished were the following :—Peter of Langtoft,

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who wrote a rhyming chronicle as far as the end of the reign of Edward I. ; George Ripley, the alchemist ; and John of Brid- dington, who died a Prior, and whose extreme and unusual excellence and uprightness caused an attempt to be made to canonize him. Although this attempt proved fruitless, his remains were afterwards removed to a shrine behind the high altar: he was generally known as St. John of Bridlington, and had a feast day assigned to him. Some prophecies written in Latin verse are attributed to him ; but this is probably a forgery owing to his renown. The last prior, William Wode, ended his days on the gallows of Tyburn, in 1537, for having joined in the “pilgrimage of grace.” I will now conclude by expressing a hope that this paper may arouse in some of the readers of the Magazine enough interest to induce them to go and observe the many objects of interest—of which I have here mentioned but a few—that are to be seen in the neighbourhood of Flamborough Head and Bridlington Priory. E. B. Hastines.


Wuen the history of this latter part of the nineteenth century shall come to be written, the intellectual vigour of our times to be estimated, and the currents of thought mapped out ; when the causes which have given direction to these currents and the energies which have originated that vigour come to be ascertained, some names will stand out preeminently as those of the men who have influenced the teachers of mankind, and amongst such names three will especially shine forth. Amongst those who by their writings have done the work that in former times was done from the pulpit, who have taught men contempt for the false, and reverence for the true, will stand the noble name of the author of Sartor Resartus. Amongst those who have taught men to reverence and to love the minutest line of God’s finger work, will be found the name of him who wrote the Modern Painters ; whilst of those who have taught us by the music of their words, and the pictures these convey, that the true, the good, the beautiful are eternally the same, we have, I had almost said we want, no brighter name than that which stands upon the title-page of the Idylls of the King. Carlyle has thundered his philippics against an age of shams, Ruskin has scorched with his invective all improvers upon Nature, and Tennyson has shown us Nature as she is, and

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Man as he might be. It was in that stirring period which immediately preceded the passing of the first Reform Bill that Tennyson published his first instalment of verses, and two years later, the very year of that great victory of real over sham representation, these were followed by a second. Speaking of those living and reading at the time of these earlier publica- tions, a recent writer remarks that “they seemed to themselves to have found at last a poet who promised not only to combine the cunning melody of Moore, the rich fulness of Keats, and the simplicity of Wordsworth, but one who was introducing a method of observing Nature different from that of all the three, and yet succeeding in everything which they had at- tempted often in vain. Both Keats and Moore had an eye for the beauty that lay in trivial and daily objects. But in both of them there was a want of deep religious reverence, which kept Moore playing gracefully upon the surface of phenomena, without ever daring to dive into their laws or inner meaning ; and made poor Keats fancy that he was rather to render Nature poetical by bespangling her with florid ornament, than simply to confess that she was already, by the grace of God, far beyond the need of his paint and gilding. Even Wordsworth himself had not full faith in the great principles that he laid down in his famous Inéroductory Essay. Deep as was his conviction that Nature bore upon her simplest forms the finger mark of God, he did not always dare simply to describe her as she was, and leave her to reveal her own mystery.” But Tennyson is nowhere afraid of describing Nature in her own true colours. Take for example the following lines :— ‘‘ And the creeping mosses and clambering weeds, And the willow-branches hoar and dank, And the wavy swell of the soughing reeds, And the wave-worn horns of the echoing bank, And the silvery marish-flowers that throng The desolate creeks and pools among.” All the dismal beauty of the unromantic fen country, where “‘ the tangled water-courses sleep,” all the mournful melancholy of “the level waste, the rounding gray,” since Tennyson began to write, have been : ‘* Flooded over with eddying song.” Nor are Tennyson’s descriptions of Nature mere dry scientific details devoid of music and beauty of rhythm ; he can sing of

‘* Myriads of rivulets hurrying through the lawn, The moan of doves in immemorial elms, And murmuring of innumerable bees.” Neither does he altogether disdain to let his fancy play with rural images, and turn them into argument of love. In that

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strange yet wild and thrilling poem Maud, we find such lines as

‘‘ The red rose cries ‘She is near, she is near ;’ And the white rose weeps ‘ She is late ;’ The larkspur listens, ‘I hear, I hear ;’ And the lily whispers ‘I wait.’ ” Or again, in the same poem, the expectant lover sings thus : — “The slender acacia would not shake One long milk-bloom on the tree ; The white lake-blossom fell into the lake, As the pimpernel dozed on the lea ; But the rose was awake all night for your sake, Knowing your promise to me ; The lilies and roses were all awake, They sighed for the dawn and thee.” We could almost fancy that in turning over the pages we had lighted on a verse from Rare Ben Jonson, on meeting with lines so unlike our practical, prosaic age as the following :-— ‘*] know the way she went Home with her maiden posy, For her feet have touched the meadows, And left the daisies rosy.” But it is not so, we are dealing, not with a seventeenth, but a nineteenth century poet, who does not hesitate to sum up, in a line or two, the daring nebular hypothesis of Laplace :— ‘* This world was once a fluid haze of light, Till toward the centre set the starry tides,

That eddied into suns, and wheeling cast The planets ; then the monster ; then the man.”

Even the facts which the geologist has by patient industry revealed, instead of being rejected as inconsistent with a fore- gone conclusion, are made to furnish matter for melodious verse, as for instance in the following lines from In Memoriam: ‘* There rolls the deep where grew the tree. O earth, what changes hast thou seen !

There where the long street roars, hath been The stillness of the central sea.

‘* Tho hills are shadows, and they flow From form to form, and nothing stands ; They melt like mist, the solid lands, Like clouds they shape themselves and go.” And not only the facts of science but also the tendencies of modern thought are admirably embodied in his lines. Who that has been young but has felt the frenzied fancies of his brain re-echoed in these mournfully musical strains :-— ‘© Yet I doubt not thro’ the ages one increasing purpose runs, And the thoughts of men are widen’d with the process of the suns.”

‘¢ Not in vain the distance beacons. Forward, forward let us range. Let the great world spin for ever down the ringing grooves of change.

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‘‘ Thro’ the shadow of the globe we sweep into the younger day :. Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay.

‘*O, I see the crescent promise of my spirit hath not set. Ancient founts of inspiration well thro’ all my fancy yet.” But Tennyson has not merely drawn beautiful pictures. from Nature, not only has he made science poetical, and touched the chord that vibrates in every youthful breast ; but he has beyond and behind all a still deeper meaning for those who will: seek it, and a still higher teaching for those who will follow it. The earnest, loving reader of his poems will find that

‘* Ancient founts of inspiration well thro’ all his fancy yet.”

In Memoriam and the Idylis of the King ought each to have a paper to itself. About the latter I hope to have something to say in a future number of the Magazine. Of the former it has been well said that in this book Tennyson has “done for friendship what Petrarch did for love.” Enoch Arden, Maud, and the Princess are all well deserving of notice. Perhaps some of our readers,—I would say especially of our fair readers,—may be induced to put upon paper their thoughts about Tennyson, and in a future number of the Magazine take for a theme some one poem of our laureate’s, and point out its beauties, its meaning, and its scope. In this busy age many of Tennyson’s minor poems are better known than his longer works. The songs for instance that separated the cantos of the Princess, are all of them exquisitely beautiful. I will only mention three, “Home they brought her warrior dead,” “Sweet and Low,” and that wonderful bit of word music with the refrain of the Bugle Call. But, perhaps, of all that Tennyson has written, nothing is more frequently read and re-read than that touching little piece, the first part of which is entitled The May Queen. Many writers can make us laugh, but I have seen the tear unbidden force its way from beneath fair eyelids when this poem has been read, a tribute to its merits more powerful far than any words that I can write.



In the summer of 1871, a party of four friends, myself amongst them, paid a visit to Abbotsford, Melrose, and Dryburgh, three places famous for their associations with Sir Walter Scott. Early one fine morning in the beginning of June we left the old- fashioned county town of Jedburgh and proceeded by train to

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Galashiels, where we had to change for Abbotsford. When we arrived at the small station of Abbotsford Ferry we got out, and were ferried across the river Tweed in an old dilapidated boat, rowed by an old man who could scarcely speak English. After a pleasant walk of about a mile along the right bank of the - Tweed, sheltered from the sun by the beautiful trees which lined the road-side, we arrived at Abbotsford, a spot which has been immortalized on account of the genius of him who designed the house, and lived and died therein. The first room we entered was the study, which is a large library in itself. It was here that the great writer composed several of those works that made his name famous throughout the world. The desk and chair remained just as they were when be died, and you might almost fancy you saw the great novelist in an attitude of thought, composing one of his world- famous stories. In this room is Chantrey’s bust of Scott, which is said to be a very good likeness. The next room we passed into: was the library, which contains 20000 books, some of them very valuable. The drawing-room, which we entered next, is not very striking when compared with some of the other rooms. The dining-room is a handsome apartment, containing some valuable paintings by eminent masters. The armoury contains many old-fashioned guns, pistols, swords, and armour, amongst which are the pistols of George IV. and of Napoleon L, and the gun that belonged to Rob Roy. After having looked at many such interesting things as these, we had the good fortune to see some- thing that was to us of even greater interest. In one of the rooms we encountered an old gentleman over six feet high, very shabbily dressed, his shirt collar appearing to have been put on and not properly fastened, as we could distinctly see the part that was intended to be covered. His shoes were in holes, and he wore a very yellow waistcoat, which showed clearly enough that his snuff-taking propensities were not small. Yet this shabby- looking giant was well known, by repute at least, over the whole of the United Kingdom, on account of his eloquence as a preacher, his excellence as a writer, and his intrinsic worth as @ man ;—it was, in fact, the late Dr. Guthrie. One of our party, who is celebrated for his modesty, could not refrain ‘from asking to be allowed to speak to him. Dr. Guthrie readily consented, talked very pleasantly to each of us, and shook with us all round. During our short but delightful conversation with him, he said that although he had passed Abbotsford scores of times, yet strange to say, this was his first visit to the house. Soon after parting from this great but humble man, we wended our way to Melrose, which is a little over two miles—“ twa miles and a bittock,” as the Scotch say—

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from Abbotsford. It was a very pleasant walk, and our enjoy- ment was much increased by the fineness of the day. After we had gone a short distance, Dr. Guthrie passed us in a carriage, on his way also to Melrose. After dinner we inspected the Abbey, which well deserves its reputation as the grandest in Scotland, and one of the finest in architectural beauty in the United Kingdom. Some of the sculpture is so fresh, that one of my companions asked the woman in charge if it had not been restored. Of course the answer was in the negative. It is supposed that the heart of Robert Bruce is buried here, and a stone is placed where it is thought to rest. There are interred here many men famous in Scottish History, but I have not space to enumerate them. The one defect about Melrose Abbey is its poor situation. It stands in the midst of the town ; and however fine an Abbey may be, it loses half its beauty when it is thus situated. It would take up the whole of the Magazine were I to describe the Abbey minutely ; it may not, however, be out of place to give Sir Walter Scott’s beautiful description of the East window, which will convey some idea of the beauty of the whole building. Scott says ‘* Thou would’st have thought some fairy’s hand poplars straight the ozier wand, In many a freakish knot, had twined ; Then framed a spell when the work was done, And changed the willow-wreaths to stone.” The rest of the Abbey is as beautiful as this window. Having seen Melrose Abbey, we walked to the railway station, where, while waiting for the train to St. Boswell’s, we again met our distinguished friend of the morning, Dr. Guthrie. We had here an excellent opportunity of seeing how he took his snuff. Out of one of his pockets he pulled an immense snuff-box, such a tremendous piece of furniture that one of our party declared it was in truth as big as a young chest; and seeing the quantities of snuff which the Doctor took therefrom, I should not have been surprised if he had been yellow all over. We had a ten minutes’ chat while waiting for our train, after which we parted never to meet again on this side the grave, as he died at St. Leonard’s on February 24th of last year. On reaching St. Boswell’s, we had a walk of about a mile, over a by no means level road, to the banks of the Tweed, where we were ferried across, not by an old man this time, but by a sturdy and buxom Scotch lass. After we had crossed the river, a very short walk brought us to the ruins of Dryburgh Abbey, which are most beautifully situated in what, from an eminence on the other side the river, appears to be almost an island, on account of the circuitous course which the Tweed here takes. The ruins of Dryburgh will not bear comparison

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with those of Melrose in an architectural point of view ; but for beauty of situation, Dryburgh far surpasses her rival. The objects which chiefly attract the tourist to this Abbey, are the tombs of Sir Walter Scott, his wife, and his son. There lie the mortal remains of Scotland’s greatest writer, not beneath the groined roof of some splendid edifice, but within the walls of a ruined Abbey. After we had seen many other objects of interest at Dryburgh, we returned by train to Jedburgh, having derived pleasures and benefits that will not soon be forgotten from this brief visit to what may appropriately be called “The Land of Scott.” ARTHUR ROBINSON.


The elves sit perched on a rocky height, Beguiling with riddles the summer night, Though, if but a wind-puff should near them stray, carry both elves and riddles away.

What gold comes from no earthly mine ? The golden rays, when the sun doth shine. Who borrows her silver from foreign gold ? Yon moon above, so pale and cold. Where burst the tears from a heart of stone ? The stream from the rock to me is known. Where flows a stream, but no channel withal ? The stream of rain through the air doth fall. Where may the widest bridge be found ; Where ice the river in chains hath bound. Whence flows a tide that must never rest ? From the heart within the human breast. What mourners are decked in bright array ? The trees upon an autumn day. Who never yet saw his house inside ? The snail that within it doth abide. When do the weak tread down the strong ? Men tread the earth as they pass along. Can nothing vanquish the solid ground ? Iron hath dealt it many a wound. Is anything stronger than iron or steel ? Their strength soon flies when the fire they feel. Can aught exceed the fire’s bright glow ? The fire-extinguishing water-flow. And what than water is stronger still ? The wind can drive it at its will. Are wind and air then mightiest found ? They tremble at the thunder’s sound. Who is more powerful far than death ? He who can smile with his last breath. Who stands midst earthquakes undismayed ? He who of death is not afraid. From the German.

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to G@)ueries.

22. By G. W. SHaw.

Bishop St. Nicholas was born at Patara, in Lycia of Asia Minor, on the 7th of December, in the year A.D. 261. He was celebrated for his enerosity, especially in regard to children, upon whom, on the eve of his irthday every year, he used to bestow rewards ‘‘according to their {St. Nicholas is regarded as the patron saint of boys, as St. Catherine is of girls. Brewer informs us that ‘‘in Germany a person assembles the children of a family or school on the eve of St. Nicholas (Decr. 6th), and distributes gilt nuts and sweetmeats ; but if any naughty child is present, he receives the redoubtable punishment of the klaubauf.” Epiror. ]

28. By A. H. Hareu.

February had originally 29 days ; but when, by a decree of the Roman Senate, the eighth month was called Augustus, a day was transferred from February to August, in order that the number of days in the latter month might not be less than those in July.


The word latking is derived from the Anglo-Saxon léc, which signifies play. Hence we have laking from A.-S. lécan, to play. In the Prompt. Parv. we find ‘‘ Laykyn, or thing that chyldryn pley wythe.” [In the April number of the Monthly Journal of Education, there is a letter by one of, our finest English scholars, WaLTER W. SKEAT, containing a paragraph that supplies a very full and complete answer to this Query. r. Skeat says that ‘‘The A.-S. suffix of substantives, and lecan of verbs is eommon enough, and easily traced back to the Mzso-Gothic laikan, to play. From the root of laikan, comes the A.-S. Jdéc, used with much atitude, and in a variety of senses, In the first place it means a sport, and is familiar to every schoolboy in the form /ark, which is mere bad spelling for /ahk, or the A.-S. ldéc. The Icelandic leikr, a game, is cognate with the A.-S. déc, but our own Anglo-Saxon MSS. are far older than any- thing existing in Iceland.” Another of our fine English scholars, Dk. Morais, has two examples of the use of the word in question in his admirable Specimens of Early English ; one in the Story of Havelok the Dane (p. 48, line 131) where the word is spelt Jeyke, and the other in Lawrence Minot’s Political Songs (p. 186, line 64) where it is spelt layke. Both these poems are in fourteenth-century English. In a note, Mr. Morris defines the word thus: ‘‘leyke=to play ; A.-S. décan, to play ; déc, play : vulgar English lark, sport.” Many such examples may be cited of good old English words, which, though they have dropt out of classic English, are still in common use in our provincial dialects. For example, the pretty word beck,—familiar enough to us as the bach of Swiss waterfalls (Staubbach, Reichenbach, Giessbach, &c.),—is now almost entirely abandoned to our poets (some of whom make good use of if; see Jean Ingelow’s ‘‘ Tiny right beck that flowed between,” &c.) but is the ordinary word for a brook in this district of Yorkshire. Epiror.]


Boacart Ho’ CLoveH derives its name from the tradition that a demon frequented a farm house which stands on the edge of this yet picturesque valley. It is distant about three miles from Manchester, and near the small village of Blackley. Samuel Bamford once lived near this place, and has given a graphic account of some superstitious practices which took place in the Clough. The demon alluded to made himself

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known by his shrill unearthly laugh when listening to the fireside tales of the villagers in the farm house ; and he afterwards made himself felt by pulling the bedclothes off the children ; by dragging the servants down stairs by the legs ; by upsetting the cream mugs ; and by throwing pieces of wood at the heads of those who in anyway offended him. At other times he would become good-humoured ; and then he would fodder the cattle ; load the hay ; stack and thrash the corn; milk the cows; and generally assist in the farm work. At last he became very unruly, and when any of the children threw a stone, or even a shoe-horn, through a hole in the wainscoting, the demon would throw it back at his head with a vengeance. This they called ‘‘lakin wit boggart” [see answer to Query 38} but the play did not always end satisfactorily. When the farmer found that he could endure his tormentor no longer, he took another farm some miles distant, and was Jogging along the road with his last load of furniture, when he met a neighbour who thus accosted him. ‘‘ Well, George, an sooa yore leeovin t’owd pleck at last.”” Aye, Johnny, tha sees we cud stop no lunger for that plaguy owd powse, and sooa weere flitting tha sees.” Just at this moment a shrill voice from the churn at the top of the cart cried out :—‘‘an I’m flitting too, Johnny.’’ The farmer in despair turned round to his wife and said :—‘‘ Nay, nay, Malley, its nooa yuse ; we mut as weel turn back to t’owd hawse, as gooa an be plagued wi that powse in a fresh un nod hawve as convaynient.” The story goes that the farmer and his family went back to their old home, and were never more tormented by the Boggart.

46. By J. B. KnIGut.

BENZOIN is a concrete resinous gum, found in Sumatra, and burnt as incense alike in Catholic churches and in Mohammedan mosques. [H. J. Brooke adds that it is often called Gum Benjamin, We may add, further- more, that the tree from which this fragrant balsamic juice exudes is the Styrax Benzoin, belonging to the natural orden Styracaceew, and that, besides its incense-giving properties, the gum is said to be used as a cosmetic, and also employed medicinally in paregoric and as an expectorant. EDITOR. I

Web @ueries.

50. By J. B. Smiru. Who was the mother of David, and what is known about her ? 61. By A. H. Harau. Required the exact meaning, derivation, and history of the words (1) Mile, and (2) Riding, as in West Riding of Yorkshire. 52. By G. Harrop. By whom and when was the manufacture of Soap invented ? 53. By J. H. Hastinas.

Whence did the well-known eircumpolar constellation Ursa Major obtain the name of Charles’ Wain ?

54. By A. R. Wriaur.

Two towns called Anticyra,—one in Phocis, the other near the mouth of the Spercheus,—are said to be remarkable for the great quantity of Hellebore they produce : what is this Hellebore, and what are its uses ?

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55. By J. H.

What places within easy reach of Huddersfield are the pleasantest for (1) a few days’ walking tour, (2) a day’s excursion, (3) for a picnic ?

56. By T. Hatram.

Is it a fact that through fear or sudden fright the hair of the head (1) stands erect, or (2) turns white? If so, by what process ?

57. By T. T. WILKINnson. What is known respecting the sun’s corona ?

58. By W. J. C. MILLER.

Required the exact meaning, force, and derivation of the word Touch in the well known Shaksperean line ( Troilus and Cressida, Act III., Sc. 3) ‘‘QOne touch of Nature makes the whole world kin.”

Solutions of

87. By E. Brenner, J. W., H. S., H. E. M., A. B.

E APE SHAWL CHAMOIS ELIMINATE EPAMINONDAS ASTRONOMY TORNADO CHANNEL or{ PLUNDER ENDED THUNDER EAR 8 44, By J. W. BroapBent, E.G. C., J. W., I. G. Teneriffe Koangsin Hare Walmer Kastbourne Aleppo Inverary Naxos Mauritius

Campeachy [TWICKENHAM] 45. By J. W. Bowes, A. F., W.B., L. D., J. W., J. A. M, FB. L.


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Le lin, le Nil. 48. By G. Harrop, L. D., M. C., J. W., J. B. K. Facetious, or Facetiously.

(2)...John quickly extemporized five tow bags.

The following sentence (Ezra VII., 21) contains all the letters of the alphabet, if ¢ and j be considered identical :—

‘‘And I, even I Artaxerxes the king, do make a decree to all the trea- surers which are beyond the river, that whatsoever Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, shall require of you, it be done

speedily.” 50. By W. McIver, F. B. L., H. E. M, M. C. i, of 100 (=10) arrows kill outright ; 4 of 4 (=20) kill by wounding ; therefore, out of every 100 of Cupid’s darts, 30 are mortal.

51. By W. Broapsent, M.C., J. W., H. E. M.

HOME OV AL MARL ELULUd«A 52. By J. B. Knieut, M.C.,J.8.C., LD, GH, J. W., HE. M. Oh ! so sweetly in the Spring Ever warbling from on high ; Linnets, larks, and thrushes sing : Gentle songsters from the ling, Darling warblers of our hills, Early hum their lullaby, Clear and strong their music thrills; I Busy as they build their nests, Other birds, too, on the wing, Orpheus dwells within their Lift their voices to the sky, breasts. Little harbingers of Spring, You may hear them easily Singing heaven’s own melody.


Web Wu33les,

58. By J. W. THORPE. Square the words Elba, Avon, Pisa, Paris.

54. By Haregretre E. MILyuEr.

My first delights the ear; my second is a renowned Conqueror ; my third the wife of a famous Voyager ; my fourth an Athenian beauty ; my fifth relates to deeds of prowess ; my sixth degraded a celebrated hero into effeminate habits. The initials give the name of one the finest Lyric Poets the world has ever seen ; and the finals the name of this poet’s country.

55. By H. J. Brooke. I am a word of 10 letters; my 2, 5,6 is a name ; my 8 4 5, 6, 7 & musieal instrument; my 8, 1, 9, 10 an adjective of quality ; and my whole is a town on the Black Sea. .

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66. By J. A. Mclver.

Two-thirds of the ninth part of a man ; an essential ingredient of all good work ; a name for the morning; an important article of domestic comfort :—the initials name a state, and the finals its capital.

57. By J. B. Kwiosr.

A great Grecian commander ; 2 Greek city a district of the Morea ; an Athenian liberator; a Trojan hero; the Greek for a star ;—of these words the second letters form the name of a great philosopher.

58. By T. P. KirkKMANn.

124, 154, 156, 163, 234, 1382, 473, 456, 467, 367, and 124, 143, 126, 234, 167, 523, 173, 562, 567, 573, are two sets of ten triplets each made with seven elements, so that every duad employed occurs twice in either system. If we change them by any substitution, as 2135746,—which means put 2 for 1, 1 for 2, 3 for 3, 5 for 4, 7 for 5, 4 for 6, and 6 for 7,— the first becomes 215, 275, 274, 243, 135, 231, 568, 574, 546, 346, which is similar to the first ; but no substitution can make the first into the second, or the second into the first. These two are dissimilar sets. Required the entire number (which is less than eight) of dissimilar sets.

59. By T. T. My first is a being of infinite power ; My second no freedom can claim for an hour ; My whole to my first is for ever directed, And besides marks a name for his science respected.

60. Dramonp Puzzis; BY R. BENTLEY. My first is a vowel ; my second a pretty name ; my third any division of people ; my fourth what is seized by force ; my fifth a beautiful town in Britain ; my sixth is produced by nature; my seventh is pleasant to listen to ; my eighth is good when cooked for breakfast ; and my ninth is very ill used by bad speakers.

61. By J.

A gracious wight, most unpolite ; transposed, a sailor’s dread ; Curtail, transpose, and you disclose what oft adorns the head.

62. By J. MavrocorDATo.

I am a word of 14 letters; my 5, 10, 11, 2, 9, 4 give a descriptive feature of our country ; my 3, 6, 1, 2, 4, 12 the name of one of the United States ; my 11, 6, 8, 4, 10 a town in Yorkshire ; my 10, 5, 1, 2, 10 a town in Asiatic Turkey ; my 5, 3, 4, 5, 2a country in Asia ; my 10, 6, 1, 5, 11, 11, 8 a town in pain ; my 9, 5, 11, 6 a river in Africa; and my whole is an island in one of the oceans.

63. Diamond By G. Fox.

My first is a consonant ; my second is what Yorkshire women have a tendency to become ; my third is a king whose name stands first in a well known book ; my fourth is welcome to the storm-toss’d sailor ; my fifth is a town in England ; my sixth was execrated of old in the thieves’ litany ; my seventh is a young officer; my eighth is a period of time; and my ninth is one-third of my eighth.

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uf fs aa ar @ le ee ws fo eae =f i ol a A el ee ee mis

‘ WHITE. White to play and mate in three mov


lead a ae ee gon Ot 28 7 oo fs

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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Tue nineteenth annual meeting of this Association was held on Saturday, May 16th, at the Queen Hotel, Huddersfield. The large room was open for Chess-play at twelve o’clock, and shortly afterwards visitors from the neighbouring towns began to arrive, the room soon presenting avery animated appearance. In one corner was a table on which the numerous prizes were arranged, which consisted this ear of a choice collection of Chess-works amounting in value to about £9; it also contained a varied selection of periodical Chess literature, and papers which devote a portion of their space to the game, including the West- minster Papers, the City of London Chess Magazine, the Dubuque Journal, the Chess Record (Philadelphia), the Chess Players’ Chronicle, the Hud- dersfield College Magazine, the Illustrated London News, the Field, Land and Water, the English Mechanic, and the Glasgow Herald. Mr. JoHN WATKINSON was the President of the Association for the year, and Dr. Soorr the Vice-president. The following places were influentially represented on the occasion: Bradford, Halifax, Holmfirth, Huddersfield, Leeds, Manchester, Ossett, Penistone, Sheffield, Shipley, and Wakefield. The main features of the day were a match between the Leeds and Wakefield Clubs, and three tournaments ; the first a handicap of four players,—the second and third composed of eight players each. The entrance to the tournaments was 2s. 6d., while the fee for each of the Clubs was 10s. Play went steadily forward till six o’clock, when it ceased for tea, which was excellently served, and partaken of by more than fifty gentlemen.

tea, Mr. JoHN WATKINSON gave the following address :— It is not my intention on the present occasion to say more than a very few words. Many important games in the club match and tournaments are in progress, and we are very wishful that they should all be played out to- day, and none of them adjourned to any future period. I will at the outset, in the name of the Huddersfield Chess Club, give you all a very hearty welcome to the town of Huddersfield. (Applause.) We are always glad to entertain the members of the West Yorkshire Chess Association to the best of our ability, and I am delighted to see such a large gathering of strong players from all parts of the Riding. There has been a considerable amount of Chess vitality in the county during the past twelve months. Not only have matches been contested between various clubs in our own Association, but I have noticed with pleasure that Chess is becoming a prominent feature in connection with working men’s clubs, of both colours of politics. I donot know whether it would be possible to discover a man’s Liberalism or Conservatism from the style of his Chess-play, though in theory, I suppose, the Liberal should be more inclined towards the modern gambits, whilst his opponent would prefer the old-fashioned close openings. (Laughter.) I do not find it so, however, in actual play. A c ing impartialit seems to be the rule in this respect across the Chess- board, while, after all, the rare combination of soundness and brilliancy is equally the requisite of the great Chess-player as of the great politician. A happy sacrifice may sometimes save a game of Chess as well as a Ministry. Mr. Lowe did not disdain even to sacrifice all his to save the Cabinet. (Laughter.) enlarge our horizon, and take in the entire Chess world, we shall find that the last year has been one of unusual activity. Several important works on the game have issued from the press, new life has been transfused into most of our Chess columns, and another magazine entirely devoted to the game has made its appearance. The correspondence match, too, between London and Vienna, recently

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concluded in favour of London, has made no little stir in Chess circles. Look at the most able analysis of one of these games in this month’s City of London Chess Magazine. The entire alphabet has not been of sufficient length for the notes, for, not content with going once from A to Z, Messrs. Potter and Steinitz have made another start and got as far as double I the second time round. The notes to the second game, which is promised for the next number, will, I believe, even exceed this portentous length ; while the annotators themselves, one would think, after their arduous labours, must have stopped short at nothing less than a draught of XX (double XX). (Laughter.) To my mind, however, the chief event of the year has been the University match. Nothing in the history of Chess has ever caused such excitement. Not less than six hundred spectators wit- nessed the play, and the London press, whose cue hitherto has been to almost ignore the game, gave the match a prominent place in their columns. The Daily News’ reporter, however, while showiug a competent knowledge of the University players, past and present, falls into a strange misapprehension respecting the gualzty of the play in the recent contest. He says: ‘‘The Universities played Chess this year of the very highest order, Next time we hope they will produce a team equal to the defeat of fhe best English players.” The captain of the Oxford team, in an account of the match contributed to the Huddersfield College Magazine, gives a far sounder estimate of the strength of the play. He says: ‘‘ As an exhibition of Chess skill, the match will probably prove always a failure. The ordinary undergraduate of two or three years’ standing will possibly never afterwards find himself in a better condition for handling an oar or a bat, or for a three miles’ run, but the youth that is so much in his favour in any contest requiring strength and activity, tells against him at Chess. The merest glance at the games already played in the University matches will show their great want of skill.” Leaving out the two captains of the respective teams, who are both finished players, these remarks are doubtless accurate. The English mind, however, enjoys nothing better than a good fight, and it is this, perhaps, more than the actual skill displayed, which causes such intense interest to be taken in all the University contests. Coming back nearer home by an easy transition,—for Mr. Parratt, the Oxford captain, is a Huddersfield man, and well known to most of you,—I think we have reason to congratulate ourselves on the success that has hitherto attended the West Yorkshire Chess Association. For nineteen consecutive years it has held on an unbroken career, and has contributed not a little to the diffusion of our noble game throughout the county. Be it ours to do all that we can to prolong its existence. After some little discussion, it was unanimously agreed that the next meeting of the Association should be held at Sheffield in the month of April, 1875. Mr. W. H. B. Tomiinson, Ex-Mayor of Wakefield, moved a vote of thanks to the President, Vice-President, and members of the Huddersfield Chess Club for their hospitality to the visitors, with very sincere pleasure. It had, he said, always been a great satisfaction to him to see Mr. Watkinson amongst them, and he was sure that they all hoped with him that Mr. Watkinson might long continue to occupy the proud position he held as a player, not only in West Yorkshire, but in England. He and the other visitors present were glad to meet once more under the kind hospitality of the Huddersfield Club, and he hoped they would do so for many years to come. Mr. W. Trickett, Leeds, seconded the resolution, and it was passed with acclamation. Mr. WarkINson briefly replied, saying that the members of the Huddersfield Chess Club very much appreciated the vote. Chess-play was then resumed until about ten o’clock. The following is the result of the various tournaments :—

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Fizst Rounp.—Mr. Godwin (Sheffield) beat Mr. A. Menssing (Brad- ford); Mr. A. Finlinson (Huddersfield) beat Mr. T. Spencer (Shipley). By the terms of the tournament Mr. Godwin would have had to give Mr. Finlinson the odds of Kt., but there not being time to finish the tournament the prizes were divided, Mr. Finlinson taking Staunton’s Praxis, and Sketch of Paul Morphy, and Mr. Godwin, 1862 Congress Book, and Chess Stratagems. SECOND TOURNAMENT.

First Rounp.—Mr. T. Brown (Sheffield) beat Mr. G. F. Onions, (Bradford) ; Mr. E. Wall (Bradford) beat Mr. T. Holliday (Huddersfield) ; . W. Shaw (Sheffield) beat Mr. T. Spencer (Shipley) ; Mr. T. Fieldsend (Bradford) beat Mr. D. Mills (Bradford). M RounD.—Mr. Shaw beat Mr. Brown; Mr. Fieldsend beat r. . The prizes were divided—Mr. Shaw taking three volumes of the Westminster Papers, and Mr. Fieldsend, Alexandre’s Two Thousand Chess Problems, and Waifs and Strays from the Chess-board, by Captain Kennedy.


Frrst Rounp.—Mr. Brearley (Huddersfield) beat Mr. W. Bottomley (Shipley); Mr. T. W. Field (Halifax) beat Mr. J. Moorhouse (Holmfirth) ; Mr. W. Thomas (Huddersfield) beat Mr. P. Hodges Penistone); Mr. J. E. Hawkins (Huddersfield) beat Mr. T. Holliday (Huddersfield). Holliday gave a rook to Hawkins. Szconp Rounp.—Mr. Field beat Mr. Brearley; Mr. Hawkins beat Mr. Thomas. Tarrp Rounp.—Mr. Hawkins beat Mr. Field. FourtTH Rovunp for (the third prize).—Mr. Brearley beat Mr. Thomas. Hawkins took three volumes of the Westminster Papers as the first rize; Field, games between McDonnell and De La Bourdonnais, and hilidor’s Analysis as the second prize; and Brearley, Staunton’s Chess Player’s Companion as third prize. The match between Leeds and Wakefield resulted as follows :—

WAKEFIELD. Won. LEEDs., Won. Drawn. J. W. Young............. 1 J. White....... _—-_ — S. 2 F. Dunne............. 1 — W. L. Robinson......... 1 A. Bilbrough........ 2 — J. C. Marks.............. 1 J. W. Stringer...... — 1 J. Elliott................. . 3 E. Gaunt............. — — Rev. A. Grace............ 3 W, Trickett.. ....... — —- 11 3 1

The prizes were given as follows :—Young, volume of Chess World ; Day, ditto; W. L. Robinson, Chess Problems, by Messrs. Pierce ; .J. ©. Marks, Morphy’s Games; Elliott, London and Edinburgh Match, by Lewis ; and Grace, Howard Taylor’s Chess Brilliants. The principal game in the Leeds and Wakefield match was that played by Mr. Young and Mr. White, and we hope to find space for it in our next number. The meeting was generally pronounced to have been one of the most enjoyable ever held in connection with the Association.

*,* Problem XV. requires a White Pawn at K 6, and Problem XVI. a Black Pawn at Blk’s We withhold the solutions for another month.

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Suddersteld College Magazine.






English Literature and History......Mr. J. FRENCH. Writing and Commercial Subjects...Mr. W. BINNER. Mr. W. T. ALEXANDER, Ist B.A. (London ) Latin and English \ Mr. W. FAIRWEATHER. Mr. W. CLEGG. Mr. C. INGLESON.

FON oi M. C. FEUGLY. German...... HERR RIEDEL. Mr. W. H. STOPFORD, Head Master of the Halifax School of Art. oo... Mr. JARMAIN. Drilling... ci Mr. PURVIS.

Secretary: Mr. J. BATE, Carr House, Huddersfield. L

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE was instituted (1838) for the purpose of affording, at a moderate expense, a superior Collegiate and Commercial Education upon a Scriptural basis. THE BUILDING is pleasantly situated in the best suburb of the town, and its arrangements are eminently suited for an educational establishment of the first order. THE COURSE OF STUDY includes the Scriptures, the English, French, German, Latin, and Greek Languages; Ancient and Modern History ; Political and Physical Geography; Arithmetic, Mathematics, pure and applied ; and Political Economy. THE FEES FOR TUITION, which are payable half-yearly in advance, are 6, 8, 10 or 12 Guineas per annum, according to class. The German Language is taught in the three highest forms instead of Greek, at the option of the parents, without any additional payment, bul no boy is allowed to learn both Greek and German.

EXTRAS: £ os. d. DRAWING 2 2 Oper annum PAINTING (Water Colour) 440 » PAINTING (Oil) -ooe 6 6 O CHEMISTRY (inclu Chemicals, &c.) 2 12 DRILLING and STATIONERY (ist an (2nd 8 0Ohalf-yearly. Ditto (8rd to 6th) 010

Day Pupils may dine at the College on payment of Three Guineas per quarter. I A QUARTER’S NOTICE, in writing, must be sent to the Principal or Secretary, prior to the removal of a Pupil. In default of such Notice, a Quarter’s Fee will be required. The GENERAL MANAGEMENT of the Educational Course is under the direct supervision of the Principal. Discipline is maintained without corporal punishment. The daily course of study is preceded by the READING OF THE SCRIPTURES AND PRAYER in the College Hall. REGISTERS of the ATTENDANCE and behaviour of the Pupils are Kept, and information of all cases of absence is given to the Parents. REPORTS of progress in study and of general conduct are forwarded monthly to the Parents or Guardians of each Pupil. The College being affiliated to the University of London, all Pupils of two years’ standing are entitled to compete for the Scholarships, Exhibitions, Medals and Prizes of that University ; and also to present themselves for examination for the various Degrees in Arts, Laws, and Science.

Encouragement is given to diligent and orderly Pupils by the free use of Books from the College Library. uo

Application for the admission of Pupils must be addressed to the Principal.

BOARDERS Are received by the PRINCIPAL, at the College ; by Mr. FAIRWEATHER, at Mountjoy House ; and by Mr. Frencu, at Elmfield House. A Circular of terms and particulars will be forwarded on application.

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A SCHOLARSHIP (biennial) of the annual value of £40, tenable for two years at one of the British Universities, will be awarded to the Candi- date who shall distinguish himself most in the Honour Matriculation Examination of the University of London.

Only such students as have attended the classes of the College for at least two years immediately previous to the Matriculation Examination will be eligible for the Scholarship.

Forty Pounds will be paid after Matriculation, and Forty Pounds after the intermediate Examination has been passed, provided this be done within eighteen months after Matriculation.


Two EXHIBITIONS (annual) of the value of £10 each, in connection with the Local Examinations of the University of Cambridge.

Competitors must have been Students in the College for at least twelve months previous to the Examination.

The successful Candidates must obtain Honours in the 1st Class of the Junior Examination, and must continue Students of the College for twelve months afterwards, and pass the Senior Examination in the following year.

Should more than two Students obtain Honours in the 1st Class, the Exhibitions will be awarded to those two who stand highest in their general class work.


The Gotp Mepat, value of £5, for the best English Essay, presented by A. ILLINGWoRTH, Esq.

A Gotp MEDAL, of the value of £5, by E. A. LEaTHAM, Esq., M.A., M.P., for proficiency in the study of History, and for English Declamation, on alternate years.

*Two SrtvER MEDALS, of the value of £3 and £2 respectively, for proficiency in Latin and Greek, by the Rt. Hon. the Marquis or Ripon.

* Two SILVER MEDALS, of the value of £3 and £2 respectively, for roficiency in Mathematical and Commercial Knowledge, by Wricur Esq., J.P., Chairman of Directors.

* A SILVER MEDAL, value £2 2s., for proficiency in the French Language, _ by W. Matiinson, Esq., Vice Chairman.

* The award of these Prizes is determined mainly by the results of the Cambridge University Local Examinations.


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* A Sitver Mrpat, value £2 2s., for proficiency in the German Lan- guage, by W. Sykes, Esq.

A Pen, or GotpD Pen 1N value £2 2s., for the best Specimen of Penmanship, by J. E. WILLANs, Esq.

REWARDS, to the value of £3, by J. N. Sykes, Esq., for the encourage- ment of diligent and meritorious Pupils, otherwise unrewarded.

A Prize or Booxs of the value of £2, for accurate Scholarship, by J. CrossLey, Esq., of Halifax.

* A Book, of the value of £1 by the Rev. R. Bruce, M.A., for proficiency in Scriptural Knowledge.

* Two Prizes oF Books, of the value of about £3 and £2 respectively, for proficiency in Natural Science, presented by Huew Mason, Esq.


CLASS PRIZEs OF Books are awarded every Midsummer.

The ‘‘Bravmonr” Prizes, consisting of Books to the value of £2 in the Lower VI. form ; 30s. in the Upper V., Lower V., IV., and IIT. forms ; and £1 in the II. and I. forms, awarded to the boys who obtain the highest total of marks for all subjects in their respective Classes, presented by H. F. Braumont, Esq. The Recipients of the ‘ Beaumont” Prizes do not take any ordinary class prizes.

CERTIFICATES OF MERIT are awarded to Pupils, on their leaving the College, who have distinguished themselves by general good conduct and attention to their studies.

CERTIFICATES OF HONOUR are presented to those Pupils whose conduct has been uniformly good, and who have attained the highest proficiency in Classics, Mathematics, Modern Languages, or English Studies.

N.B.—No Student can receive a Class Prize who has been less than six months, or a *‘ Beaumont” Prize, who has been less than twelve months in the College.

All Candidates for the Medals, Scripture Prize, Pen, or ‘‘ Hugh Mason” Prizes must have been at least twelve months in the College classes at the time when the Examinations commence.

.*The award of these Prizes is determined mainly by the results of the Cambridge University Local Examinations.

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Tae Annual Distribution of Medals and Prizes in connection with Huddersfield College took place on Wednesday, June 17th, in the College hall. The interior of the building was artis- tically decorated, and the hall and galleries were crowded by the scholars and their friends. At the end of the room, facing the chairman, were the words, in elaborately designed characters, to the Chairman,” the inscription being wreathed in festoons ; and lower down, the clock was encircled with evergreens. Above the chairman’s head was a crown of flowers of variegated hues, and the sides of the hall were elegantly festooned with evergreens, interspersed with roses of different colours. The upper part of the hall was hung with white and coloured muslin, besides evergreens and banners, which had a very pretty effect. The lower part of the building was decorated with. appropriate Latin mottoes, the work of ornamentation having been executed in excellent taste. I The chair was occupied by Wright Mellor, Esq., ex-mayor of Huddersfield, who was supported by the Rev. R. Bruce, M.A., Messrs. 8. Sharpe, L.L.B. (principal) W. J. Miller, B.A. (vice- principal) Alderman T. Denham, Messrs. J. Dodds, C. H. Jones, W. Mallinson, J. W. Willans, J. B. Greenwood, and others. The Principal having opened the proceedings by reading part of the 5th Psalm, and part of the 2nd chapter of. Paul’s second epistle to Timothy, which was followed by prayer, The Chairman called upon the Principal to read the annual report, which was as follows :—


The Huddersfield College was opened in the year 1838. It has now therefore just terminated the 36th year of its existence. It is gratifying to be able to state that the number of students in attendance during this past year has been greater than that of any former year. Our present number is 226, being an increase of 15: on last year. The work of the College has been carried on in nine divisions or classes. In the highest, or upper VI. form consisting of students over 16 years of age, who are preparing for various examina-

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tions, there has been an average attendance of seven. Four of these presented themselves last December for the Senior Cambridge Local Examination, and were all successful. E. Woodhead took 2nd class honours with distinction in English, and a College Exhibition of ten pounds. J. H. Hastings and F. H. James were in the third honour class, and H. Appleton obtained the ordinary certificate. From this class also W. A. Sykes passed the examinations at the Apothecaries’ Hall with special distinction ; he being the only candidate out of a large number who was ‘placed in the first class; and G. H. Sykes passed the preliminary examinations of the Incorporated Law Society. The middle VI. form, consisting of 20 students, was sent in last December for the Cambridge Local Junior Examination. Fifteen out of the number were successful, one, J. H. Lister, gaining first class honours with distinction in English ; three obtaining honours in the second class, viz. E. B. Hastings with distinction in English, R. L. Knaggs with distinction in Re- ligious Knowledge, and J. F. Kriiger; four gained third class honours, viz. A. H. Haigh with distinction in Religious Knowledge, T. E. Atkinson, J. W. Hattersley and F. Watson ; and seven received the ordinary certificate, viz. H. J. Brooke with distinction in Chemistry, A. B. Burrows, W. B. Cumming, G. E. Dixon, B. Hall, F. Rookledge and P. Tattersfield. This class, as well as the upper VI, has distinguished itself during the year by uniform diligence and good conduct. The lower VI. form, containing 22 boys, was also presented” for the Junior Cambridge Examination, but I regret that I cannot report so favourably of their work as of that of the two upper classes. Although several of them passed in the Preliminary, Religious Knowledge, English and French Sections, only three succeeded in satisfying the examiners in a sufficient number of subjects, to entitle them to receive the University Certificate. The majority failed to realise the fact that it is necessary to manifest somewhat more than ordinary diligence, in order to be successful in such a test. The three who passed are F. Ander- ton, F. A. Brooke, and B. H. S. Walker. These were all resident pupils, and voluntarily devoted some portion of their spare time to perfecting themselves in their work. In order to stimulate this class I have arranged to-examine it weekly, so that I may have frequent opportunities of testing their progress and guiding them to a more satisfactory conclusion in future. An analysis of the work done by these three classes at their Examinations, shows the following results :—

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In the Preliminary Subjects 36 passed. »» Religious Knowledge, inclading Scripture & : Evidences of Christianity ... », the English Section wee vee vee Lee .. 28 ,, », French ves bee wee vee 22 ~=«C, », Latin . bee vee vee vee . ll,, Mathematics ... be Lee vee ee ll_ ,, », Greek bee bes _ ves be eee 2 ,, », German vee bee aes bes bee 2 «=; » Chemistry ... ves bes bes bes 2 4; », Drawing ss... ves 3s;

The upper and lower V. and IV. forms have been examined by me, on an average, once in three weeks each during the session. On the whole I can speak favourably of the work done, though the standard of scholarship among them is not so high as could be wished, owing to the fact that many boys have entered during the past year, from 12 to 14 or 15 years of age, whose previous training has been defective; this is the less excusable, from the fact that we receive boys at the early age of eight years, provided they can read and write fairly, and work the four simple rules of arithmetic, and carry them through a carefully graduated course of study up to the highest class ; and I would here especially note for the information of parents, that boys who make the best progress and obtain the highest distinctions here, are almost invariably those who have begun with us at the commencement, and have worked their way up gradually, step by step, to the top. In the Examination of the III. form I have been assisted ‘by the Vice-Principal, Mr. Miller. This class affords abundant evidence of careful and pains-taking teaching. The work of the two lowest classes was tested by me last week ; I was much pleased with the general interest which the little boys took in their elementary studies, and with the intelligence which most of them manifested. The result of the Examination convinced me that these classes are in the hands of trustworthy and efficient instructors. The contest for the Accurate Scholarship prize this year has been between J. H. Hastings and E. Woodhead ; the latter stood first in the general results of the Cambridge Examinations last December, but has somewhat lost ground by his unavoidable absence during the first quarter of this half-year owing to ill health. Special papers were set in English, Latin, French and Arithmetic, and the result is in favour of Hastings. I think it only justice to both of them to express my unqualified approval of their praiseworthy diligence and gentlemanly conduct throughout the year. They have been just what a Head- Master would always wish his leading boys to be.

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The Hon. Secretary’s special prize for Scripture has been gained by A. H. Haigh, who obtained the highest position of those who were distinguished in Religious Knowledge, at the last Cambridge Examination. The first Classical Medal is awarded to J. H. Hastings ; he has been at the head both in Latin and Greek during the year, and has passed in both these languages at the Cambridge Senior Examination, though his youth would have entitled him to go in for the junior. R. L. Knaggs fairly gains the second medal. His diligence has been most exemplary. He passed in both languages in the junior Examination, and obtained second class honours. EK. Woodhead obtains the first Mathematical Medal, and J. H. Lister the second. These two students have each dis- tinguished themselves the most in this subject in their re- spective classes. J. H. Hastings is the successful candidate for the French Medal. The German Medal is not gained. Our Chairman last year, Mr. Hugh Mason, kindly offered to give an annual prize, and in accordance with his wish, we have decided to offer it for proficiency in Natural Science ; we pro- pose to divide the amount, which will be about £5 annually, into two portions, three fifths of-it to be given as a senior prize, in books, to the candidate who obtains 1st or 2nd class Senior Cambridge Honours, and passes,in Chemistry, and in one of the following subjects :—Zoology, Botany, Geology and applied Mathematics—or obtains distinction in Chemistry ; and the remaining two-fifths to be offered as a prize to junior candidates on similar conditions. Should there be but one such candidate, either senior or junior, the whole amount will be given him, provided he evinces sufficient merit. . We also intend for the future to require candidates for the Classical and Mathematical Medals, to obtain at least 2nd class honours; and pass in two of the necessary subjects, or obtain distinction in one, and candidates for the French and German Medals to obtain 2nd class Senior Honours, and pass in these languages, or 2nd class Junior Honours, and obtain distinction in them. D. F. E. Sykes, who left us last June and went up in the same month for the London University Matriculation Ex- amination, passed in the first division, as did also E. J. Bruce, who went up from Mill Hill School, having previously been a pupil here for some years. J. F. Welsh, formerly a pupil here, and since at Denbigh Grammar School, obtained a 2nd class in honours amongst the senior Cambridge students, with dis- tinction in Latin.

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I have only to add that the general tone of conduct amongst the boys during the year has been satisfactory, and that all the officials connected with the Institution have worked harmoniously and cordially together for the promotion of the general good.

The following is the report of the Rev. Dr. James, on the English Essays, read by the Principal at a later period in the distribution :— Of the six competing Essays, the three entitled ‘‘ Tolle Querelas,’ ‘* Beati domi simus,” and ‘“‘Semper idem” appear to me to be by much the best. Each of them has excellencies peculiar to itself, and I have had to read them twice before making up my mind. The first has many good points, but scarcely grapples with the real subject; and it is unfortunate that the writer should have urged so many objections to Horace’s maxim, and then accepted it apparently unwillingly, and for want of a better. Fora considerable time I hesitated between the second and the third. But the style of the former is less mature than that of the latter ; the sentences are often verbose and rather clumsy, and there is a good deal that is not altogether pertinent. Moreover, if correct orthograph is to weigh it must be condemned, for twice over the word ‘‘sustenance”’ is spelt ‘‘sustinence.” It might have been a slip if only occurring once, but the repetition shows ignorance. idem ” shows most grasp of the subject ; most readiness and flexibility in the treatment of it; is lucid and generally polished in style; and seems to me altogether a very good and creditable paper. I therefore give my voice in its favour. I much admire the thoughtfulness, earnestness and piety displayed in ‘‘ Beati domi simus,” but the other is much more concinnous, and much more tersely and elegantly expressed.

The Prizes were then distributed by the Chairman, assisted by the Principal, with the usual demonstrations on the part of the boys. . The Principal intimated that the next proceeding would be to award the declamation medal. He did not know whether they should have a declamation or not, as the proceedings were perhaps rather longer than usual. At this stage there arose such a storm of applause that the Chairman observed it had evidently been decided for them that there should be a declamation.. (Applause.) Mr. F. H. James (in the upper form) then rose to make the declamation, which lasted a quarter of an hour, the subject chosen being the classic phrase Trahit sua quemque voluptas. The declamation was given in true elocutionary style, and both as to matter and manner was highly creditable, the audience testifying their appreciation by frequent outbursts of laughter and applause. This terminated the first part of the proceedings.

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The CHAIRMAN then said he was there almost by accident in the place of a gentleman who, after having consented to be present, found he had other engagements altogether incompatible with his attending there. He was sure he need not point to the array of young gentlemen there to prove that the Huddersfield College was a flourishing Institution, because that was abundantly apparent. He was glad to know that there were at pre- sent a larger number of boys in attendance at the classes than they had ever had since the College was founded thirty-six years ago, and that, he thought, showed they had done a good work, and that it was appreciated by ublic, who gave them support in consequence, Thirty-six years was a long time—a whole generation and more—and it was sometimes aseful to look back, in order to see what they had really done in the past. It was a very satisfactory testimony they had to bear to the results of the education given, when they could point to so many who had been educated there, and who were now filling honourable positions in society. Some were at the head of wealthy establishments as manufacturers, others were honourably acquitting themselves as preachers of the Gospel, others were discharging very important functions as borough magistrates and county magistrates in various parts of England, while others occupied exalted positions as members of the House of Commons. Only the other day he saw in the Illustrated London that. a gentleman had been elected as member of Parliament for a southern constituency, who was educated at Huddersfield College. He felt proud that they had at that place educated boys who had turned out'afterwards so honourably to them- selves and so creditably to that institution in which they received their education. He did not think they had yet sent out any Judges, Bishops, or Lord Chancellors. But this was a growing institution and not a very old one, and perhaps it had not lived long enough to produce Judges, Lord Chancellors, or Bishops. These had, however, to be educated some- where, and he hoped that some of the scholars from that place would ulti-

* The article referred to appeared June 6th, and is as follows:—Mr. James Lloyd Ashbury, who was born in 1834, is only son of the late Mr. John Ashbury, of Manches- ter, founder and proprietor of the great manufactory of railway rolling-stock at Open- shaw. That establishment, the largest of its kind, covers twelve acres of ground, and employs 2000 hands. The member for Brighton, leaving Huddersfield College at sixteen years of age, underwent a thorough practical training in the work and business of his father’s concern. In 1859 he went to Russia, and lived there two years, representing his father as contractor for the construction of the Riga and Dtinaburg Railway. He has since been engaged in railway business in Turkey and Egypt, Italy and Spain ; from the Spanish Government he has received the orders of Charles III. and Isabella Il. His father partially retired in 1862, and died in 1866. The firm was converted into a joint-stock company, the ‘‘Ashbury Railway-Carriage and Iron Company,” with limited liability, of which Mr. James Ashbury is managing chairman. He was at one time a director of the firm of Sir John Brown and Co., of Sheffield, the armour-plate manufacturers, employing 4000 men; also director of the Carnforth Iron Company, in Cumberland ; the Norton Iron Company of Durham, the Brecon and Merthyr Railway, the Hereford and Brecon Railway, and four or five other companies. Several of these appointments he has relinquished, but he still retains the office of chairman of the Denbigh, Ruthin, and Corwen Railway, director of the Smyrna and Cassaba Railway, and two or three others. In addition to these business engagements, Mr. Ashbury is a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Institute of Mechanical Engin- eers. He takes much interest in scientific education, as he showed by a gift of £4000 to Owens College, Manchester. In 1867 Mr. Ashbury resorted to yachting as a recrea- tion for the benefit of his health. He built the famous Cambria, which in 1868 beat the American champion yacht Sappho, but was defeated by that yacht, under different conditions, in 1870. Mr. Ashbury then accepted the challenge of Mr. James Gordon Bennett, jun., of New York. to race his Dauntless across the Atlantic. The Cambria, after a stormy sail of twenty-three days, won this grand race by an hour and a half. Mr. Ashbury, in 1870, was chosen commodore of the Royal Harwich Yacht Club, and this year of the Royal London Yacht Club, but he has parted with the Cambria to another owner. He was a candidate for Brighton in 1868, but did not then succeed. His majority of votes over both the Liberal candidates upon this last occasion was above a thousand. Mr. Ashbury is unmarried,

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mately attain to one or other of those high positions. And he had no doubt it was possible for them to do so, for there was quite as good brain in Yorkshire as in any part of England; at Jeast he would always think so until he was convinced to the contrary. This was not either a Church of England or a Dissenting College, it was both. (Hear, hear.) They had here on these forms the sons of parents who were members of the Church of England as well as the sons of parents who belonged to Dissenting com- munities. Hewasglad that such was the case, showing, as it did, the breadth of the foundation upon which the institution stood. He could not help thinking that boys of different persuasions, educated in the same institu- tion, would tend much to smooth many of those asperities which were to be deplored in bygone generations, A number of successful candidates had to-day received the reward of their labours, and he had no doubt there were boys who had not done so, and who were yet as clever, nay, perhaps cleverer than these successful pupils. After speaking of the physical stamina requisite to pass a successful examination, he urged them to cul- tivate a good habit of mind, and study with a determination to master the subject before them, and to avoid the bad habit of mind by which many 2 pupil was discouraged at the first sight of his lesson, which he regarded as too difficult to be mastered. In order to show how the affec- tions of pupils clung to the school, he referred to the fact that a number of old pupils were there that day to witness their success. They were that evening also to dine together, in considerable numbers, in memory of the many pleasant days spent there. He was sure they all rejoiced to find that there was such a strong affection towards the place of their early training, and it was to be hoped that all who were trained there would turn with fond recollections to the delightful days spent in Hnddersfield College. (Hear, hear.) Mr. C. H. Jones then moved a vote of thanks to the donors by whom the institution had been so highly favoured, viz., the Marquis of Ripon, formerly member of the borough; Mr. Leatham, the present member; Mr. Beaumont, late member for the southern division of West Yorkshire ; Mr, A. Illingworth, late member for Knaresborough ; Mr. Hugh Mason, who presided last year, and who presented the institution with £100, the interest of which had gone in prizes; their valued president, Mr. Wright Mellor, Mr. W. Mallinson, Messrs. Sykes, of Lindley, and others, ° Mr. W. HAsrtInGs seconded the motion, which was carried. The Rev. R. Bruor (Highfield) then gave the sentiment, ‘* Welcome to-day to our old boys, may they have a happy re-union this evening,” (APP ause.) Speaking of the way in which their old boys had distin- guished themselves in St. Stephen’s and elsewhere, he pointed out that one boy, a very advanced and good Liberal (Mr. Illingworth) had been deposed from his seat in Parliament, while another old boy, a ve advanced and good Tory (Mr. James Ashbury, M.P. for Brighton) had. been installed. (Laughter and applause.) He then went on to speak of old boys who had been distinguished in other ways, as justices of the peace, doctors of medicine, doctors of law, doctors of divinity, masters of arts, bachelors of arts, and he knew not what. Of the masters he said they required to be men of great zeal and diligence, and that institution was fortunate in the possession of such men. Mr. W. J. MILuEr, B.A., Vice-principal, who was received with much enthusiasm by the boys, said he had much pleasure in seconding the sen- timental motto, as Mr. Bruce had aptly called it, of ‘‘ Welcome to the old boys.” To those who were engaged there in teaching, one of the most leasing features of that day’s proceedings was to see the number of old y8 who gathered in their favourite region behind the clock, from which elevated position, like the so-called gods of a theatre, or those in classic L 2

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atory, they seemed to look down with unmoved serenity on the pr below. (Laughter.) They were designated old boys; but they ranged over very wide limits of age, from those youths who, like one he observed just now, stood affectionately caressing the down upon his chin—(laughter) —to those whose venerable locks, or the utter want of them—(renewed laughter)—showed what good service this institution had done, extending over a very long period. Well, he was sure they were all most heartily lad to see them there ; they hoped in future years to see them there ; and Fe hoped that just as he now saw them, so some of those who were now sitting at the top benches before the clock would, in after years, gather to the more dignified regions behind it. It had been very often astonishing to him to see over what a wide space Huddersfield boys had taken their range. He had scarcely been in a large town without meeting some old boys from Huddersfield College. Having given instances of this, he ex- pressed a hope that the bonds of union between old College boys would be strengthened, and concluded by seconding the sentiment. (Applause.) Mr. J. W. WILLAns, who was introduced by the chairman as one of their old boys, and who is a son of one of the old founders of the school, then responded to the sentiment which had been accorded with so much eclat, Speaking of education generally, he said nothing was calculated to do more for the wealth of the country intellectually, and he might say morally, than a great raising of the standard of middle-class education, in which respect they were much behind some other nations. He was glad that inducements were thrown out to them to prosecute their studies, as in the case of Messrs. Woodhead and Hastings, for it was a great mistake. to take boys too soon from school and hurry them into business. He con- cluded by putting in an appeal on behalf of the old boys that the holidays should be extended from five to six weeks, a suggestion which was received with great enthusiasm. The CHAIRMAN having submitted it to the parents present, it was de- cided by a show of hands that the extension should be ted. On the motion of Mr. W. MALLINSon, seconded by the Rev. P, FEATHER- STONE, an unanimous vote of thanks was accorded to the chairman. The CHAIRMAN briefly responded. The proceedings terminated with three ringing cheers for the Queen, the Royal Family, the chairman, the council, &c.

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The Prizes in the First and Second Forms are given for general

proficiency, combined with good conduct.


Beawmont” Prize: J.


C. Dent Fell . E. Gledhill Wilkinson . Fitton Burrows Crosland

© by Pad ba b> CO


Taylor Kenyon J. Taylor

Dodgshun Scarborough . H. Fitton H. H. Dawson



E. Broadbent




Moody Stead Tinker Jno. Fox T. Watkinson A. Watkinson

A. E. Withers W. Baxter S. Sykes G. Burrows. A. Haigh C. Fiel J. D. Hirst

Special Prize for Writing: J. S. Haan.

Prize holders ate distinguished by an Asterisk.

The others are

worthy of honourable mention for diligence and proficiency.


‘ Beaumont” Prize: J. HINcHLIFFE.


History & Geography. *W.H. Oxley *J. H. Ormerod Hinchliffe Scarborough Firth M ‘Iver

Latin. J. Hinchliffe *F, Hall

*E. Scarborough

E. O. Green

Jas. Kenyon

G. Earle

Arithmetic. *Jos. Dyson Hinchliffe Scarborough

O. Oxley W. Oxley



*G. Earle J. Firth B. Halstead K. Fitton EK. Ramsden W. Oxley S. Smith

English. *J. Firth W. H. Oxley B. Halstead Hinchliffe Ormerod

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Scripture. *W. H. Oxley Woodhead B. Halstead Hinchliffe Firth Moody Ormerod

M ‘Iver Scarborough

Beaumont” Prize: J. GOLDTHORP.

Scripture. Latin. French. *q. Fox *J. Crothers *A, Brooke J. Crothers Fox R. Brearley E. T. Woodhead Mellor Whitwam G. Crowther R. Brearle Crothers Mellor Goldtherp Rogers Ht. Hirst Moxon J. Smith R. Brearley Rogers Hirst Goldthorp Ely History. Arithmetic Geography. *R. Brearley *A, Moxon *R. M‘Nish Goldthorp Whitwam ispin M ‘Nish Goldthorp Brearley Crothers Crowther Mellor Whitwam Woodhead Crowther Hopkinson Mellor Senior J. Martin Goldthorp ispin Bentley Moxon Crowther English. Writing. *R. Brearley *A, Smith Crowther Senior Whitely Bentle Bentley Whitely Moxon Anderson Crothers Ely LOWER FIFTH FORM. ‘* Beaumont” Prize: A. SYKES. Scripture. Latin. French. *F, Rutherford *J. Huntington *W. E. Firth W. Sykes Harrop A. Sykes Atkinson W. Rutherford Jos. Sykes Huntington A. Sykes Atkinson J Sykes Whitehead Varlow Whitehead Firth Whitehead Varlow Arnett Barber


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History. Arithmetic. Geography. *F. Rutherford *W. E. Firth *F. Stopford Atkinson Huntington F. Rutherford Stopford A. Sykes Atkinson A. Sykes Jos. Fitton M’Grath Huntington F. Rutherford A. Sykes Harrop H. Nield 3 08. Fitton Lodge i n . es Barber Cook Bt Atkinson Jowitt Whitehead Denham English. Writing. A. Sykes *V. M’Grath F. Rutherford H. Nield Jos. Sykes Stopford Whitehead F. Rutherford Atkinson Atkinson Hopkinson UPPER FIFTH FORM. Beaumont" Prize: A. R. WRIGHT. Scripture. Latin, French. A. R. Wright *C. E. James *R. W. Shaw *R. W. Shaw A. R. Wright Broadbent Mallalieu Geissler Watson Watson Shaw Marsden Knaggs Mallalieu Mallalieu Wood Brighouse Enagge Brighouse Watson Geissler D n Mallinson Platts Wright History.' English. Geography. *H. W. Brighouse *R. W. Shaw *F. W. Mallalieu Mallalieu Wright S. 8S. Wood Wood Watson Shaw Wright Fisher Watson Watson Dodson Wright Shaw Knaggs Kn Dodson Brooke Platts Platts Taylor Dodson Fisher Taylor Arithmetic and Algebra. Writing. *J. W. Thorpe *H.S. Brooke A. R. Wright J. P. Brown Mallalieu Crowther Brown Watson Watson Wood Fishe’

Wil'. nson

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LOWER SIXTH FORM. “6 Beawmont” Prize: T. R. Porritt.

Scripture. Latin. French. *F. A. Brooke *A. Melliss “A. Melliss Glendinning Porritt Porritt Porritt F. A. Brooke Dodgshun Dodgshun Whitham Brooke Anderton M’ Iver Glendinning Denham Wilkinson G. Scarborough Smith German. Mathematics. English. *J. W. Dodgshun *G. Scarborough T. R. Porritt G. Scarborough T. Smith *F. A. Brooke Bentley A. Wilkinson Kaye Brooke Dodgshun Whi Glendinning Glendinning M’Iver Horiing Meliss "Iver endinning . Wilkinson Greek. History & Geography. Writing. *A. G@. Wilkinson *F. A. Brooke Pen, J. W. Burrows A. Melliss : Glendinning Holmes Porritt Porritt G. Scarborough A. Scarborough Dodgshun Dodgshun Anderton Denham MIDDLE SIXTH FORM. ‘* Beaumont” Prize: KE. B, Hastines, Scripture. Latin. French. *G, Priestley E. B. Hastings *G. Dixon Johnstone Kriiger Hastings Robinson Priestley Hall Hall 4. Barrows ordan Kruger atters riestley Dixon Geissler Robinson Hastings Hall Tattersfield Geissler Mathematics, English. Mistory, &c. *J. F. Kriiger E. B. Hastings E. B. Hastings C. Geissler Kriiger *Kriiger Tattersfield *B, Hall Priestley G. Rhodes G. Dixon Robinson G. Dixon G. Priestle . E. B, Hastings Tattersfiel Tattersfield Robinson German. E. B. Hastings *H. J. Brooke Tattersfield C. Geissler B. Hall

G. Dixon

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UPPER SIXTH FORM. Accurate Scholarship Prize: (by J. CROSSLEY, Esq.,) J. H. Hastines,

Latin. J. H. Hastings, Medal £. Woodhead


J. H. Hastings, Medal R. L. Knaggs, Medal KE. Woodhead

Political Economy. eA. H. Haigh Hattersley English. E. Woodhead, Medal *A. H. Haigh J. H. Hastings F. H. James


J. H. Hastings, Medai J. W. Hattersley E. Woodhead J. H. Lister

History, &c.

E. Woodhead J. H. Hastings J. H. Lister A. H. Haigh R. L. Knaggs J. W. Hattersley


Water Colour Painting. Mechanical Drawing. *E. Woodhead *G, Priestley J. W. Burrows A. Whitham G. Scarborough G. Dixon G. D. Watson J. W. Dodgshun A. Burrows A. Denham J. Kaye A, Scarborough Chalk and Pencil. Outline. *S. Dixon *W. M’Iver J. D. Johnstone F’, Roberts T. Smith G. Rhodes Rookl . Hopkinson H. 8S, Varlow A. Brearley E. T. Woodhead E. Scarborough Tinker C. Dodgshun Dent Chemistry. SENIORS. JUNIOBS. J. H. Hastings *R, W. Shaw *H. J. Brooke ¥. Anderton Lister J. Burrows Tattersfield A. Burrows

SPECIAL PRIZES for diligence and yood conduct, presented Messrs. WM. and JAS. NIELD SYKES :—P. TartrersFreExp ;



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The ‘‘CARLISLE” GOLD MEDAL, for the best English Essay, presented by A. ILLINGWORTH, Esq. E. WooDHEAD. The ‘*‘DECLAMATION ” GOLD MEDAL, presented by E. A. LEATHAM, Esq., M.A., M.P. F. H. JAMES. SILVER MEDALS, for Proficiency in Latin and Greek, presented by the RIGHT HON. THE MARQUIS OF RIPON. Ist—J. H. Hastinas. 2nd—R. L. Knaaes. SILVER MEDALS, for Proficiency in Mathematics and Arithmetic, presented by WRIGHT MELLOR, Esq., J.P., Chairman of Directors. Ist—E. WooDHEAD. 2nd—J. H. Lister. SILVER MEDAL, for Proficiency in French, by W. MALLINSON, Esq. J. H. HAsrines. GOLD PEN AND CASE, for the best Writing, by J. E. WILLANS, Esq. J. W. Burrows, SCRIPTURE PRIZE, presented by the Rev. R. BRUCE, M.A., Hon. Sec. A. H. Haren. CERTIFICATES OF HONOOR. J. H. Hastines, F. H. JAMEs.

CERTIFICATES OF MERIT. J. W. J. F. Krocer, G. Dixon, A. B. Burrows, L. PRIESTLEY, G. PRIESTLEY, H. Green, B. H. S. J. W. DopesHun, A. DENHAM.

Students who passed the Cambridge University Local Examination in December, 1873 :-— SENIORS (UNDER 18.) HONOURS II. E. (distinguished in English. ) Cambridge Local Exhibition, value £10.

HONOUORS III. - J. H. Hastines. F. H. JAMES.

Satisfied the Examiners. H. APPLETON. JUNIORS (UNDER 16.) HONOURS I. J. H. Lister (distinguished in English.)

HONOURS II. E. B. Hastines (distinguished in English.) R. L. (distinguished in Religious Knowledge.) J. F. Krucer.

HONOURS III. . A. H. Haicu (distinguished in Religious Knowledge.) T, E. ATKINSON, J. W. HAtTTERSLEY. F. WATSON. Satisfied the Examiners. H. J. Brooke (distinguished in Chemistry. ) F, ANDERTON. W. B. Cummine. F. E. Rooxiepcr. F. A. Brooker. G. E. Drxon. P. TATTERSFIELD. A. B. BuRRoWsS. B. HALL. B. H. S. WALKER.

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On Wednesday, June 17, the first dinner, at which there was a general athering of Huddersfield College old boys, was held at the George Hotel. r. Sugden, the manager, provided an excellent repast, and the manner in which it was partaken of by the ‘‘old boys” showed that they had lost but little of the appetite for a good dinner which ‘‘ young boys” are enerally credited with possessing. Mr. J. W. Willans presided, and the following old College boys were also present :—Messrs. Alfred, Illingworth, John William Taylor, George Mallinson, H. E. Passavant, Edwards Watkinson, Joseph Bowker, jun., James Sykes, Francis Fryer Abbey, James H. Hirst, B. Hall, G. H. Greenwood, T. F. Firth, A. Haigh, W. Ainsworth, C. Hirst, J. Hargreave Shaw, John Rhodes, W. C. North, Frederick Henry Shaw, J. E. B. Howe, James S. Kirk, George H. Wrigley, John William Wood, George Pesel, Charles P. Anderton, Arthur Briggs, James Ambler, William Atkinson, Joseph Johnson, Richard Riley, J. S. Brierly, A. W. Bairstow, W. D. Mallinson, Wm. Middlebrook, H. Spencer, J. A.,;Wrigley, G. W. Tomlinson, Fred. Eastwood, Arthur Anderton, Charles Dean, J. E. Willans, John Cass, John Smith, J. W. Willans Shaw, Samuel J effery, Robert Bruce, Henry Dewhurst, Henry Marriott, Herbert Denham, W. E. Anderton, James Shaw, William N. Roberts, J. Hemingway, Henry Bur- rows, W. J. Dodds, William Shaw, James Priestley, Tom Haslam, F. H. James, J. W. Hanson, Joe Webb Tempest, Frank Ainsworth, W. C. Geissler, H. T. Roberts, Thomas Binns, A. Dickinson, 8. H. Brierly, George Frederick Johnson, Charles E. Johnson, Robert Hall, J. Richard Haigh, Thomas Heaps, D. F. Sykes, John Marsden, J. W. Lupton, John Watkinson, Thomas Bardsley, J. Alfred Bottomley, W. H. Crossland, Charles Holliday, John William Denham, T. K. Mellor, George C. Orrah, Brook Beardsell, Alfred Robinson, John Brooke Greenwood, Jos. Tattersfield, Samuel Bairstow, Fred. W. Robinson, Thomas Hale, George W. Hirst, Henry Hirst, William Hirst, R. Littlewood, H. Dyson Taylor, Beaumont Eastwood, John A. Schofield, James Henry Brooke, Henry M. Shaw, J. S. Cameron. After dinner, the CHAIRMAN gave the usual loyal toasts, and after they had been drunk, he called upon Dr. J. S. Cameron, one of the secre- taries to the committee who made the arrangements for the gathering (Mr. John Watkinson being the other secretary), to read a selection from the letters of apology from ‘old boys” who were unable to be present. Dr. CAMERON then read extracts from several of the letters received from_the following gentlemen :—The Rev. Enoch Mellor, D.D., Halifax ; Mr. F. Greenwood, who wrote from the Junior Carlton Club ; Mr. James Firth, Heckmondwike ; Mr. Nathan Whitley, Halifax; Mr. Edwin Firth, Heckmondwike; Mr. Robert Pesel, Bradford; Mr. Edwin Morle Halifax ; Mr. Henry Illingworth, Bradford ; Sir Charles Henry Firt Heckmondwike ; Mr. J. 8. Thornton, London ; Mr. F. W. Marsh, Liver- pool ; Mr. Buckley Bent, Manchester ; Mr. Meaby, Huddersfield ; Mr. W. Allan, Huddersfield ; Mr. John King James, architect, Hull ; Dr. 8. Mit- chell, Sheffield ; Rev. Newton R. Lloyd, Vicar of Milnsbridge, on behalf of his son, who is at Durham; Mr. A. P. Fiddian, Mr. Thos, Neal, Mr. W. Milligan, Mr. E. Brook-Smith, one of the masters of King’s College School, London; Dr. W. H. Broadbent, London; Mr. J. Brook-Smit one of the masters of Cheltenham College i Rev. W. F. Hurndall, M.A., Ph.D., Rickmansworth ; Mr. W. W. Greenwood, Huddersfield ; Mr. C. E. Schwann, Manchester; Mr. T. B. Willans, Rochdale; Mr. R. F. Heath, Oxford ; Mr, F. Wadsworth, Cleckheaton ; Mr. Riley Briggs, Leeds ;

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Mr. W. H. Willans, London ; and a gentleman who dated his letter from Oxford, whose name Dr. Cameron would not give, because he mentioned in his letter having ‘‘ ed” an old master to his seat, which, with the excuse of another that he was going to be married next day, created much laughter. THE CHAIRMAN also stated that he had received a telegram that afternoon indirectly from Mr. Ashbury, M.P. for Brighton, expressing regret at his inability to be present. THE CHAIRMAN then said it devolved upon him to propose what they might call the toast of the evening—‘‘ The Huddersfield College ; honour to its past, and success to its future.” It was to do honour to one of the chief founders of the College that he had been asked to take the position of chairman that evening. Referring to the origin of the College, e said that in the year 1836 the Rev. W. A. Hurndall became the minister of one of the chapels in the town, and not long after was expressing at his (the Speaker 8) father’s fireside his desire to find a school fit for his son, now r. W. F. Hurndall. His (the chairman’s) father felt a similar anxiety about himself and his brothers, and that fireside conversation might be said to be the origin of the Huddersfield College. Heshould do violence to his father’s gratitude and modesty if he sought to arrogate to him any exclusive honour in founding this institution, and he must out of simple duty to the men who took a prominent part in the founding of the Huddersfield College, mention afew ofthem. Foremost on the list was the first president, the late John Sutcliffe. (Applause.) Then there was that man of most active and practical benevolence, the founder of the Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institu- tion, and who, he was happy to say, still lived, the very pattern of business-like activity and uprightness—Frederick Schwann. (Cheers.) Then there was Thomas Pitt, of whom their recollections were of the most vivid character, associated with his stick as well as himself. (Laughter.) There were also Thomas Mallinson, George Crosland, William Greenwood (who was known as one of the kindest of doctors), George Sargent, (a doctor of eminence in the town), John Haigh, William Shaw, John Whitley, John Robinson, R. G. Jackson, John Harpin, David Shaw, Joseph Milner, E. L. Hesp (solicitor), and the Rev. George Highfield. (Cheers.) Those were the good men to whom they were indebted for the origin of this institution. It was to their honour that they founded it upon that broad Christian and unsectarian basis, which was really most in ony with the interests and with the character of a free and Christian nation—a basis which had been most successful, and from which there had never arisen, he believed, any bickering or any strife. (Hear, hear.) He saw around him not a few of those who were present at the beginning of this College, which was not in what still might be termed the new building, not in that Gothic and aristocratic looking building in New North Road, but in those cottages on the two sides of St. Paul’s Street ; and he thought it would be very interesting to-night for those friends to show themselves to the remainder of the company, for they were really the old boys. (As there was a general call, the ‘‘old boys” who were present at the opening of the College stood up, there were nineteen of them, and they were heartily cheered by the younger ‘‘old boys.”) The chairman then continued that he could recall to them the first distribution of prizes in the Philosophical Hall (now the Huddersfield Theatre), and he believed none of them were as big, and certainly none of them were as bulky as they were at the present time. (Laughter.) He remembered how they marthed through the town with great pride up to their new building, which struck them as being very grand. Well, they would not like him to pass on without mentioning the masters. There were their friends Dr. Wright, bright, firm, and kind, and Dr. Milne, of calm spirit and dig-


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nified bearing. (Cheers.) Then there was their original writing master, George Simpson—(laughter)—who was a sort of semi-reminder of Mr. Disraeli. Then they had also as one of the originals Mr. Poulton, who was the tutor of the lower school—and some who were there he thought were then in that lower school. (Laughter.) Then there was Mr. Faulls, who could not be said to be a man of calm temperament—but he was a most unselfish and generous man—(hear, hear)—and it would not be satisfactory to them if he did not name with him his good partner in life, Mrs. Faulls. (Applause.) There came afterwards Mr. Oram ; but on the original list, too, there was their drawing master, one of the nicest and most gentlemanly of men—Mr. Tomlinson—(cheers)—who still lives, he was glad to say, and whose son was present todo honour to him. The could not help recalling some of those who were the earliest scholars, such. as De Paiva, Green Bentley, who wrote that stirring poem on slavery— (hear, hear)—and amongst the later members of the College, Henry Anderton, who only recently passed away from them at the beginning I of what promised to be a splendid eareer. (Hear, hear.) These had gone before them to what Uhland had called the ‘‘ Silent Land,” and, with many of the original founders, had joined that mystic majority beyond; but happily there remained a large number to do honour to the College, men whohaving passed through agood career there, had subsequently distinguished themselves at the Universities. First on the list was Enoch Mellor, who took his M.A., then his D.D., degree in the Edinburgh University, and who, he believed, was looked upon by Sir William Hamilton as one of his best classmen. Then there was John Brook-Smith, M.A., and L.L.B., of Cambridge ; W. F. Hurndall, M.A., of London, and Ph.D., of Bonn University ; then there was Dr. Broadbent, who obtained the mathematical medal ; Dr. Willis, a rising barrister in London, who obtained the second classical medal; A. H. Diek, M.A., (London), and L.L.B. ; 8. Fiddian, M.A., Cantab 16th wrangler, who took the 1st classical, mathematical and gold medals of the College; A. P. Fiddian, M.B., of London, who had ined the 1st classical and mathematical medals ; then there wastheir friend, . J. §. Cameron, who having taken the first classical and the two gold medals here, passed through his various examinations with great distinc- tion, and ended by taking his doctor of medicine degree at Edinburgh University ; then there was S. Jeffery, who was now a student at Magdalen College, Cambridge, having taken two scholarships; next came W. J. Dodds (the son of one of their townsmen), who was now” a distinguished student at Edinburgh University, and who obtained the Carlisle and first mathematical and declamation medals. They had also present there W. E. Anderton, now of St. John’s College, Cambridge, who obtained the French and German, and second classical medals ; there was Robert Bruce, who took the first classical, both mathematical, and both gold medals here, and gained the College Scholarship for the first time; then matriculated in honours at London, passed through very excellent course at Aberdeen, and was, he believed, contemplating going to Oxford. Then there came last, and, to himself at all events, not least in love, the two Asquiths, one of whom had just taken first classical honours at Oxford, and also the Craven Scholarship, having had one of the most distinguished careers in modern times at the University. He believed he was only right in saying that Mr. Asquith’s bro- ther deserved almost equal honour. Ifthey looked around on this company, and at the surrounding towns in Yorkshire, they would find men representing them in the various mercantile and commercial centres—such as the Salts, the Shaws, the Illingworths, the Cravens, the Bottomleys, the Briggses, the Firths, the Whitleys, the Schwanns, and a whole multitude

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beside—men of whom they had reason to be proud as having been their fellow pupils in that institution. Then there were other classes of dis- tinction. They had present with them one gentleman who had already been a member of the House of Commons ; and they would be glad to see him there again as soon as possible. They had hoped to have another entleman there who now represented the Huddersfield College in Parliament in place of Mr. Illingworth. Considering the Tory reaction it was natural that they should now have as their representative in the House Mr. Ashbury, the Tory member for Brighton. (Laughter.) Long might he live and dogood service for his country. (Cheers.) Then there were others in the various townships who occupied positions of honour as magistrates, as members of School Boards, and of the Councils of their towns, and who were servin their day and generation according to their ability as true and loyal citizens of the land. Having alluded to the various stages of prosperity which the College had passed through, he said it was to him a source of satisfaction to find that scholarships had been established there with a view to encourage a longer course of study than had hitherto been ordin- arily followed. They had already two small exhibitions of £10 for boys who obtained honours in the 1st class of the junior Cambridge local exami- nations, and also a scholarship tenable for two years at any of the British Universities for those who had passed with honours in the London Matriculation. Now, it seemed to him that there should be something more than those prizes, so that those boys who had passed the junior examinations might be encouraged to pass the senior Cambridge examinations— that beyond those prizes there should be a scholarship tenable at one of their English Universities. He had in his eye now one or two boys to whom such an opportunity would be of great value ; and there were often boys who were held back for want of such help as that. And what he had to suggest was whether they, as old boys, with the view of combining gratitude for the past with benefit for the future in connection with their College, should notestablish an old boys’ scholarship of £50 or £60 a vear—(cheers}_-tenable for three years, he should say, at any British University, or at any of those superior Science Colleges which were being established now, and which might lie more in the direction of the purpose of those for whom the benefit would be designed. (Cheers.) He might say that on that point he wrote to one or two friends, and he had received replies from his two brothers, William and Tom, promising their assistance in any such move- ment, and Mr. Ashbury said he would join in the establishment of such a scholarship most heartily. (Applause.) He merely threw this out for their consideration, and if it met with their approval, later on in the evening they could make a suggestion for embodying it in a practical form. He had only one thing more to mention. He should desire to see their College become also a link between the elementary education in the town— between the Mechanics’ Institution and the Board Schools, and the University system. (Applause.) In the great republic of letters there was no distinction of classes, and if there be in their Board Schools lads of talent who could be brought out into such an institution as their College, it might give a development to their talents which would be otherwise impossible for them ; and through the College they might find the avenue to the Universities of the land. And if they could establish such a scholarship as he had suggested, they would make an outlet for the lads to the Universities, and he believed there would be sufficient spirit in the town to induce others to establish exhibitions or scholarships tenable at the College, for pupils from the Board Schools or the Mechanics’ Institu- tion: and so they would help on the great work in which he believed they were all interested. He concluded I by proposing the toast of ‘‘ The Huddersfigld College ; honour to its past, and success to its future.’

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The toast was drunk with great enthusiasm. Mr, A. ILLINGWORTH (late M.P. for Knaresborough), ‘after passing 2 high compliment upon the chairman for his excellent review of the pro- gress of the College, said the toast which he had to propose was that of “‘The Masters and Council, past and present.” The Council, when the College was originated, was made up of gentlemen of the highest personal eharacter, who were actuated by the greatest patriotism in providing what was felt to be a want--a good, high-class middle school. They (the first Council) were gratified by seeing that institution flourish, by seeing large numbers gathered there, and many of the founders happily lived long enough to see some reward and some fruit for their labour. Speaking of the present state of the College, in point of numbers and efficiency and reputation, it had reached a higher point than it had done in any previous period of its history. (Applause.) And he only hoped—and he was sure he expressed the ardent wishes of every gentleman in that room—that it would continue to flourish. With regard to the masters, one could not help calling to mind the names of Dr. Wright, Dr. Milne, their friend Mr. Oram, and their friend Mr. Simpson, with all his peculiarities, and also their friend Mr. Faulls. (Applause.) Now he was happily able to speak with similar confidence of the present staff ; but it was unnecessary that he should dwell upon them individually, . for the fact that the institution had risen to a state of prosperity higher than in the past was the strongest proof of the efficiency of the masters, and of their determination to keep the school in a high state of efficiency. He had the pleasure of knowing the Principal, and of regarding him with very great admiration, and he believed him to be the right man in the right place. He begged to give, without any further observation, ‘‘ The asters and Council, past and present, of the Huddersfield College,” coupling with it the name of his old friend, Mr. James Willans. The toast was drunk with an accompaniment of three cheers. Mr. JAMES E. WILLANS, in responding, said he believed the Masters and Council were animated by the strongest desire to do their utmost to pro- mote the prosperity of the College. He had no doubt they would be glad to do their best to fall in with the suggestion made from the chair, and which, he believed, would receive every encouragement from all present. Mr. Jonn the vice-chairman, said he had been requested to propose the toast of “‘The Old Boys who have honoured us this day with their presence, and who have come from a distance.” He was one of those who had been “ kept in”—(hear, hear, and laughter)—he had been kept at home. There had been a great many others, there were a great many there that day, and he was sure that if he expressed on their behalf their very eat pleasure at meeting that day so many of their friends from a istance, he would not be stating more than their real feelings. (Cheers.) Having expressed the pride he felt at having been an old College boy, and at the success of the present boys, he said if the movement suggested by the chairman should meet with their approbation, he should he glad to give it all the support hecould. He concluded by asking those who resided in the neighbourhood to drink heartily the toast of ‘‘ Our friends from a distance,’’ wishing them all prosperity, welcoming them both heartily and cordially to this gathering, and wishing they might see them often again. . The toast was drunk with musical honours, Mr. ARTHUR Briaos, of Bradford, said that on behalf of the old boys from a distance he rose to acknowledge the hearty response they gave to the toast which had just been proposed. The old boys of the old days had wandered far from the College till they had met again in that room, and many had been their adventures ; and if they could have a fireside meeting, he dared say there would strange tales told. (Mr. Taylor: ‘‘Stop

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all night, Mr. Briggs.” (Laughter.) He could only say, from his recol- lection of early life, that he was proud to belong to the Huddersfield Col- lege. He was very proud of that square College cap, although it was a very heavy one, and he was often bullied because he was a very little boy ; but when he got home he was a head taller than other little boys because he had been at Huddersfield College. He remembered the old boys and the old masters. He had his domicile with good Mr. Faulls, and there was a pattern boy of Mr. Faulls’s who always sat at one end of the table, and the great aspiration of the other boys was to climb to the same height in the opinion of Mr. Faulls. (Voices: ‘‘ Name.”) He need not name him ; he thought he would name himself. (Voices: ‘‘ Lupton.”) On behalf of the foreign boys he thanked them for the way they had received the toast. Then they had to consider the home boys. On the whole the home boys were very considerate to the outside boys. (Laughter.) On the whole, he said, tho’ perhaps they were a bit rough occasionally, but perhaps that might sometimes have been deserved. He now had very great pleasure in roposing ‘‘The health of the home hoys.” As far as he could see they prospered, and he hoped the boys now in the school would prosper even more than those before them. The voice of the school had been heard in Parliament, and would be again, for he thought the present member (Mr. Ashbury) had not spoken yet ; but he hoped that in future years they would not be represented by an odd member, but that they would be repre- sented on both sides of the House by Huddersfield College boys. (Hear, hear.) He trusted that the remarks made by the chairman would not fall fruitless, but that efforts would be made to make the College more useful than it had been in the past. He hoped the foreign boys would join with him in drinking most heartily the health, prosperity, and happiness of the home boys. The toast was drunk with enthusiastic cheers, led off by Mr. Briggs. Mr. Epwarps WATKINSON responded on behalf of the home boys. He said the College had known vicissitudes of fortune. The same laws that applied to individuals applied to public institutions like that ; but he rejoiced to know that it had now entered upon a career of prosperity which threw into the shade the history of the past. He hoped they would meet together again ere long in that or some larger room, and expressed the pleasure it gave him in responding to the toast. Mr. J. A. BOTTOMLEY proposed ‘‘ Success to the Huddersfield College Magazine,” and spoke of it as a link between the new and old boys ; said it developed the literary abilities of the boys, and was remarkable for the sound common sense with which their contributions were marked. He asked them to drink ‘‘ Prosperity to the Huddersfield College Magazine, coupled with the health of the editors and contributors.” . Dr. J. 8S. CAMERON responded, and remarked upon the excellence of the Chess department of the magazine, and the eminence of the editor, Mr. John Watkinson. He also claimed that the magazine had something to do with that gathering, for it was really amongst the members of the magazine committee that the idea of an old College boys’ dinner had origi- nated ; therefore they had to thank the Huddersfield College Magazine that they had had a good dinner and a jolly evening. Mr. ALLEN HaicH proposed ‘‘ The Universities,” including the old boys who had gone there, and Mr. WM. ANDERTON responded. Mr. WRIGLEY proposed ‘‘ The health of the ladies,” to which the latest addition to the old boys, Mr. F. H. Jamzs, responded. Mr. W. AINsworTH proposed the health of the committee who had made arrangements for this gathering ; and for them Mr. J. S. returned thanks, and proposed ‘‘The Chairman,” who responded by calling upon Dr. Cameron to read the names of the gentlemen, who with power

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to add to their number, would act as a committee to carry out the sugges- tion he had made with regard to the scholarship. Dr. CAMERON then read the following names:—Messrs. J. W. Willans, G. H. Greenwood, T. F. Firth, Allen Haigh, George Pesel, G.,W.,yTom- linson, Henry Dewhurst, James Priestley, and John Marsden. On the suggestion of the chairman the name of Dr. Cameron was added, and on the suggestion of Mr. Ainsworth that of Mr. John Watkinson the proposal was unanimously adopted. THE CHAIRMAN then asked whether they would have a similar gathering every five years. (Voices: ‘‘Three years.”) He thought they could not get a gathering to be so successful every three years, but he would put it to them to say what should be done. On a show of hands being taken, a large majority appeared _in' favour of having a dinner every three years. THE CHAIRMAN said the next gathering would be on the distribution day of 1877, and asked the committee to consider themselves a committee for that purpose, and would suggest that they should add to their number one or two other gentlemen from the towns round about. He wished them a very good night, and commended to their favourable consideration, as chairman, his most humble and respected friend, Mr. George Wrigley. (Laughter and applause. ) . GEORGE WRriGLEY then took the chair, and inaugurated the brief reign he had before him—it being then about half-past ten—by saying ‘‘All genial spirits come this way.” The ‘‘genial spirits” did ge that way, and, under the mild sway of Mr. Wrigley, a very pleasant and harmonious half-hour was spent by them.


On Easter Monday (April 6th, 1874), four “old boys” met by appointment at the Huddersfield Railway Station, bound for the Northern head quarters of hydropathy. In spite of certain signs of rain, we courageously took our tickets for Bradford, clad according to the respective degree of our confidence in the weather. One “boy” determined to brave whatever storms might come, with the sole aid of a slender silk umbrella; a second had on a light overcoat, and a third one somewhat heavier ; while the fourth wore not only an ordinary overcoat, but a drab mackintosh of the latest cut as well, and carried an umbrella besides. Arriving at Bradford, we inspected the newly erected Town Hall, the spacious corridors and staircases of which we traversed with delight ; a blush of shame however suffusing our cheeks as we thought of the “superior” accommodation provided for our own local magnates. We then wended our way to the Midland Station, first, however, having purchased a strap for our friend of the mackintosh, in order that, in the absence of rain, this article might be strapped up into a respectable looking package. Booking for Saltaire, a pretty

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place always to be identified with the name of its founder, we were soon deposited at the station. Crossing the bridge, the beautiful park came into view with its prettily arranged walks by the water side, whilst on the river, parties of holiday folks were indulging in the favourite occupation of boating. Our path shortly entered a wood, and we busied ourselves with clothing, in imagination, the somewhat bare branches of the trees with spring vegetation, and conversing on such abstruse subjects as the existence of mind and matter. We soon passed a beautiful ravine, the shelving banks of which would in the full bloom of summer tempt the traveller to explore its beautiful recesses. The spot seemed naturally to suggest thoughts of poetry; so we talked of Tennyson, and of a discussion recently held at the head quarters of the Huddersfield Literary and Scientific Society, in regard to his position as a poet. We recalled some of his descriptions of scenery, and admired their beauty and their truthfulness ; and we altogether indignantly dissented from the strange opinions expressed by some of the speakers in the discussion, that in writing of the appearances of nature Tennyson’s language was often character- ised by coarseness, that some of his sentences were not gram- matically correct, that in such words as “past” (for “passed”) his spelling was defective, that he often introduced such barbarous words as “‘wilding” and the like, and that in some of his poems use was made of vulgar Yorkshireisms. By and by, we came upon a group of young men spending their holiday in the highly intellectual game of “ Aunt Sally.” . As we gradually rose to a higher altitude,—now passing a cosy looking farm-house suggestive of quiet repose, and now admiring the more distant prospect,—our spirits rose also, and we became a merry party. A driving shower overtook us, our friend of the mackintosh having to halt for the purpose of unstrapping his protector, and on looking back, we saw him making vigorous efforts to insert his body into its capacious folds. One of our party who had long been on the look out for a place of refreshment, was now rewarded by the welcome sign of the “ Fleece,” at Eldwick. This inn we found crowded with visitors, select and otherwise, from the genteel young fellow proud of his personal appearance, to the navvy altogether care- less of his toggery. Owing to the press of business, the shandygaff, recommended by one of our party, was long in making its appearance, and then another quarter of an hour elapsed before the bread and cheese was placed on the The delay afforded us ample time to examine the furniture of the apartment, and to study the countenances of ten or adozen fellow travellers, and also

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the specimens of the fine arts hung on the walls, to which we would particularly call the attention of any friends who may visit the neighbourhood. It was quite evident even to the “boys” that the “spring cleaning” had not begun. Having satisfied our wants, and paid the very moderate charges of our host, we proceeded on our walk over Rumbald’s moor. In the little inn a list of subscriptions for repairing the road across the moor was placed before the visitors, shewing that the munificent sum of 3s.6d. had been contributed towards the £50 required for the purpose. We preferred, however, trying the road for ourselves before contributing towards the fund; and we afterwards came to the unanimous conclusion that a good case could not be made out for such an extravagant expenditure of public money. A little roughness exists here and there, but only enough to indicate to the pedestrian that he is walking across @ moor and not in a paved street. As we trudged along, the prospect of the distant hills to the north was very fine, whilst behind us the long chimneys of Bradford and the surrounding villages spoke to us of the activities of commerce. The view southwards towards Arthington—of a softer and richer kind of beauty—also attracted our attention. In due course we approached the confines of the moorland, and then the lovely valley of the Wharfe lay at our feet. The opposite hills, with Beamsley Beacon, Middleton Hall, and Denton Park, with their surroundings of wood and meadow, furnished a view rarely to be equalled, whilst immediately below us Ilkley Wells House, with its pleasant shrubberies, and in the distance Ben Rhydding, with its baronial style and magnificent grounds, indicated the kind of accommodation provided for those who have faith in hydropathy and pure air as a means of alleviating human suffering and prolonging life. But however beautiful the scenery, gazing upon it was not likely to satisfy the hunger which the bracing air of the hills had called forth. We therefore rapidly descended the hill-side, —not, however, without the mackintosh being again brought into requisition,—and immediately made for the Crescent hotel, where we at once ordered dinner. Of course on such a day as Easter Monday, several visitors besides the four “old boys” were eagerly putting in a claim for like accommodation, and this occasioned considerable delay. But it is never wise to partake of a full meal immediately after a long walk, and this truth was no doubt present in the mind of our host, and had its effect both in delaying the appearance of the “Palestine soup” that stood for the first course, and also in the tardy pro- duction of the beef-steak pie and other courses, which followed, though not in quick succession. Our wants being fully satisfied

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we took our departure. One of the “boys” was somewhat alarmed by a false report that the charge for dinner was exorbitant, and a deadly paleness was observed for a moment to overspread his noble countenance, but this soon gave place, however, to a smile of satisfaction, when the really reasonable charge was announced. We were hardly in the plight in which one of our party and a friend once found themselves at Harrogate ; on which memorable occasion, after paying their hotel bill, the sum of twopence was all that remained in their joint pockets to meet any emergency which might arise ; their anticipated surplus having been injudiciously invested in books. After dinner we had a most delightful stroll along the banks of the Wharfe. The sun shone out brilliantly, the birds sang sweetly, and groups of little girls in holiday attire were wandering about in all directions with large bunches of daffodils. These flowers, indeed, grew so luxuriantly throughout the valley, that in looking at them one could not but recall the following beautiful verses wherein WoRDSWORTH sings their praises :— I wandered lonely as a cloud ~ That floats on high o’er vales and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host of golden daffodils ; Beside the lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. Continuous as the stars that shine And twinkle on the milky way, They stretched in never-ending line Along the margin of a bay : Ten thousand saw I at a glance Tossing their heads in sprightly dance. The waves beside them danced, but they Out-did the sparkling waves in glee :— A Poet could not but be gay, In such a jocund company : I gazed, and gazed, but little thought, What wealth the show to me had brought : For oft, when on my couch I lie In vacant or in pensive mood, They flash upon that inward eye Which is the bliss of solitude, And then my heart with pleasure fills, And dances with the daffodils. The play of the shadows of the light fleecy clouds on the hill-side gave effect to the scene, which, with the river pleasantly meandering through the valley and the varying tints of the verdure that clothed the moors and woods, rendered the spot so attractive as to induce the wish that we could linger awhile amongst its beauties. However, the time for the departure of our train arrived. What a crowd at the station, and what a rush to the carriages to secure seats! Old men

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and women, young men and maidens were there, returning home after a pleasant holiday. We were comfortably seated in our carriage, when an elderly man managed to force his way into a compartment already sufficiently full. He was evidently not a member of the Temperance Society, and he had with him a little dog which he nursed very tenderly ; but whether he was taking care of the dog, or the dog had charge of him, was not clearly evident. Settling down, they were both ve quiet, till at Holbeck the guard came round to collect the tickets. The man had a ticket for himself but none for the dog. He refused to pay the sixpence demanded, but promised to send the amount the next morning. This would not satisfy the greedy official, who suggested that the man should give him a cheque for the amount,—a rather curious suggestion to make on a Bank holiday. This, however, he refused to do, probably not having his cheque book with him. He and his dog were thereupon ‘summarily ejected from the carriage ; and as the train moved off, he was overheard endeavouring to compound with the collector at the rate of about seven-eighths of a penny in the pound. An incident like this indicates that the dividend of nine per cent. paid to the shareholders of the North Eastern Railway Company is not earned without great attention to details. In due time we arrived safe and sound at Huddersfield, thankful for the opportunity thus afforded us of so delightfully spending Easter Monday. EpwaRps WaArTKINSON. .

FAnshers to Ghueries.


Amongst our Indo-European ancestors, the mistletoe was symbolical of lightning, or fire. In England the Christmas frolics under the mistletoe are relics of the old faith in the potency of this plant in re-vivifying the affairs of love and marriage. Brand says that the mistletoe held high distinction in the Pagan rites of Druidism, and it therefore had its place assigned it in kitchens, where it was hung up in great state, with its white berries ; and whatever woman chanced to stand under it, any young man present had a right, or claimed one, of saluting her, and of plucking off a erry at each kiss, Mistletoe is said to have been the forbidden tree in the middle of the trees of Eden; for in the Edda, it is said to have been the death of Balder. The Celts and Goths also made use of the plant at their feasts in honour of the winter solstice. [To the foregoing answer, in regard to this interesting old custom, we add the following remarks :—The word mistletoe is a corruption of miséel-ta, where mist, meaning dung, expresses the old belief that the plant was pro- pagated by the droppings of birds, especially of the missel-thrush ; and ta is for tan, Old Norse tein, which means a plant or twig.

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Kissing under the mistletoe is a relic of Scandinavian mythology, being connected in its origin with the following story from the Zdda. the Apollo of the North, was hated by Loxx, the spirit of evil ; and as Frica, the Scandinavian Venus, had exacted from everything that springs from air, earth, fire, and water, an oath not to hurt her son Balder, Loke made an arrow of mvistictoe, and gave it to HoEDER, the blind god of fate, who therewith killed Balder. The celestial favourite having been restored to life at the urgent request of the gods and goddesses, the mistletoe was dedicated to the goddess of love, and everyone who passed under it received a kiss, to show that the branch was thenceforth to be the emblem of love. One old writer unhesitatingly ascribes the origin of the custom in question to the fact, as he says, that mistletoe was the ‘forbidden tree” in the Garden of Eden ; though it is not easy to see how this would furnish 8 sufficient reason for kissing under a branch of it at Christmas. It is interesting to learn that this old custom is thus a sort of religious rite, in its origin closely connected with gods and goddesses, and has about it so fine a flavour of antiquity. Error. ]

45. By J. B. Smiru.

Brrs is a dilapidated temple of seven stories, tapering like a pyramid, situated about sixty miles from Hillah, a town in Mesopotamia. (J. B. KyicurT adds that certain Biblical authorities of high repute, for whose opinions he refers to Cassell’s Family Bible, suppose the ruins in question to be those of the Tower of BABEL !] 53. By M. HIBBarp.

The constellation now called Charles’ Wain was first called ceorl’s wain [or w. on from its supposed resemblance to a farmer’s waggon,— ceorl being the old Saxon word for farmer.

Wey Waueries.

59. By C. E. James.

When was the last case of execution by decapitation in England ; and who, and for what, was the person so executed ? .

60. By W. J. C. MILuER,

Required the derivation and meaning of the roots that enter into the river-names AIRE, AYR, AAB, ARVE, ARVEIRON, ARAR,

61. By 8S. D. Stock.

When and for what purpose was the stone pillar erected that stands in the Market Place of Huddersfield ?

62. By J. H. Hastines. What is the origin and force of the French termination ment. 63. By E. B. What is the origin and meaning of the name CATHAY, as in ‘* Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of CaTHAy ?” 64. By J. H. MILngs.

Required to know (1) the best course of training for one in sound health who is desirous to walk, run, or otherwise contend at Athletic Festivals ; (2) the best book that treats on the subject ; (8) whether the practice is beneficial or injurious ?

Page 215


Solutions of Wu33les. 40. By J. B. Knieat, H. E. M., L. H., C.S.


58. By F. H. Stoprorp, E.H., H.E.M., J. W.G, G.D.8.,

F. A. -B., AR. W., J. W., AS. B, A.M, AJ. T.8., and many others.



[The first is an improved square on April in Question 46. ]

54, 57. By A. Metuiss, H. E. M., J. W., J. B. K.


and many others.

ADRIANOPLE; Dan, Piano, Pale. 61. By T. T. Wrtkinson, H. E. M., E. H. A churl is surely ‘“‘unpolite,” a lurch the ‘‘sailor’s dread ;” Curtail, transpose, and you disclose ‘‘the curd upon your head.” 62. By F. H. Knaaes, G.D.8., J.P, A.M. J. W., I. W.G., W. H. 0., A. R. W., F. B., and many others. Van DreMEN’s LAND ; Island, Nevada, Leeds, Sivas, India, Seville, Nile.

Web 64. By G. H. TINKER. What word of seven syllables has the same vowel in six of them ? 65. By J. H. Howorrsa.

My first, third, sixth are what many boys are very fond of; my fourth and fifth read the same backwards as forwards; my second suggests pleasant thoughts in the holidays ; my seventh is a coarse woollen stuff :—my initials name a famous statesman, and my finals his country.

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66. By H. and G. D. ScarBorovucn. Square the words Pink, Hand, Mass, Glass, Maniac.

67. By Emma HIrsr.

My first is much liked by young folks in their holidays ; my second a noted heroine ; my third eccentric ; my fourth a place renowned in song and story ; my fifth pretty and welcome in winter ; my sixth what most of us sigh for :—my initials name a famous drama, and my finals its author.

68. By Harriztre E. MILuErR.

My first we can ill do without ; my second is a town in Russia; my third inflammable ; my fourth made of gold ; my fifth the birth-place of a Dutch Admiral ; my sixth the place of a celebrated dramatic scene ; my seventh the same backwards as forwards ; my eighth famous for volcanoes ; my ninth a picturesque spot in the Highlands ; my tenth always welcome : —wmy initials name a great writer, and my finals one of his best works.

69. By W. J. C. MILuer.

In Shakspere’s Winter's Tale (Act IV., Sc. 2) the Clown says ‘‘ Let me see: Every ‘leven wether tods; every tod yields pound and odd shilling ; fifteen hundred shorn, what comes the wool to?” Required an answer to the Clown’s question.

70. By T. T.

My first may mark when things are double ; my second often leads to trouble ; My whole to Maga adds a grace, and oft therein finds honoured place ; Aspiring youths in me delight, because I prove how well they write.

71. By W. H. T. AMBLER.

I am a word of 14 letters; my 3, 9, 13, 14 is the name of a famous river ; my 4, 11, 8 what a man too often is; my 14, 7, 5, 9, 1, 14 is what we are often done to; my 5, 2, 12, 9, 1 isa common subject ; about my 1, 11, 6, 18 much anxiety has been expressed of late; my 2, 10, 4, 14, 8 1s often a vigorous action ; my 6, 8, 5, 14, 3, 8, 9, 11, 3 is a valuable quality ; and my whole is an ancient city.

72. By T. P. Why is the Dean of Gloucester’s punch-bow! like the Egean Sea ?


I am a word of six letters, and am made from flour. My 4, 3, 2 is an animal which dislikes my 2, 3, 4, and is also an enemy to my 5, 3, 2; my 6, 3, 2 is a covering used by my 2, 3, 4, 1, who much dislike my 4, 3, 2,1; my 5, 3, 4is a conveyance ; and my 6, 3, 4, 2 is an animal.

os 56. By J. A. M‘IVER

Was inadvertently misprinted in our last ; it should run thus: Two- thirds of the ninth part of aman; a Spanish princess; an essential in- gredient of all good work ; a name for the morning ; an important article of domestic comfort :—the initials name a State, and the finals its capital.

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Ay, a — _ Ly a _ at “a 2 alas _ A Wl co




WHITE White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM XX.—By Mr. F. DUNNE, (Adapted from a position occurring in a ctual play. ) BLACK.

aa" a i a “es 7 oe satan V7 wee see

WHITE. White to play and mate i n three moves.

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__ WHITE. BLACK, 1 BtoQ6 1. P takes B (best) 2. Q takes P (ch) 2. R takes Q 38. Kt toQ B6 3. RK takes R 4, Bto K B 8 (mate). SOLUTION OF PROBLEM XVI. 1. R to Q 6 and mates next move. SOLUTION OF PROBLEM XVII. 1. BtoK Kt 8 1. R takes B i 2. Q Kt toQ Kt 2 2. Q takes P (ch) 3. Q Kt to Q 3 (mate). SOLUTION OF PROBLEM XVIII. 1 RtoQR4 1. K takes R 2. Bto K 2 2. P moves 3. B to Q sq (mate).


Ercut of the members of the Huddersfield Chess Club some time ago commenced a tourney, which has recently been brought to a conclusion. The players were divided into classes. The first class gave the odds of Pawn and two moves to the second, Knight to the third, and Rook to the fourth; the second class gave Pawn and two moves to the third, and Knight to the fourth ; and the third class gave Pawn and two moves to the fourth. Each player had to contest one game with all the other players, and those who won the most games carried off the prizes, which were an inlaid Chess-board, value 25s., used in the Oxford and Cambridge Chess match last year; a set of Chess-men, worth about 17s., used in the same contest ; and 5s. for the third prize. The following table shows the names and class of the players, and the result of the contest :—

H. D. F. Y. M. H. B. L. Won.Lost,

1. TT. Holliday ........... —... 0... 1... 0... 1... 1... 0... 1... 3 2. E. Dyson ............... Lo. 0.1. 1. de dL. 1. . 1 2. <A. Finlinson .......... 0... Lo—.. Ll. 1... 1... 0... 1... 5... 2 8. T. S. Yates .... ....... 1... 0... O..—.. 0... 0... 1... 1... 8 4 4, W. Marriott ........... 0... 0... 0... Lom. 1... 0.2. 0... 2... 5 4, J. E. Hawkins ....... 0... 0... 0... 1... O..—... 1.0. 1. 8... 4 4. D. Brearley ............ 1. O...2..0. 2... O.—.. 1. 4... 3 4, J. Liddell ............... 0... 0... 0... 0... 1... 0... O..—... 1 6

E. Dyson, it will be seen, won the first prize with a score of six games ; A. Finlinson the second, with five games ; Holliday and Brearley coming off equal for the third prize. In playing off the tie Holliday won.

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We are sorry that none of these games have been preserved. We have in our possession, however, a couple of games in the 1872-3 tournament of the Huddersfield Chess Club,* which, from a press of other matter, we have not hitherto been able

to print. They were played between Messrs. Watkinson and Finlinson, the former giving the odds of Rook. GAME d. Remove White’s Queen’s Rook. (Evans Gambit. ) WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Watkinson. Mr. A. Finlinson Mr, Watkinson. Mr. A. Finlinson. 1PtoK 4 1. PtoK 4 22. B to Q B 5(d )22. KttoK B7(ch) 2 KttoQB3 23. Btakes Kt 23. Q takes B 3 BtooQB4 3 BtQB4 24.BtoK 6 24, Q to K B 8(ch) 4,.PtoQ Kt4 4, Btakes Kt P I 25. KKttoKtsq(e)25. K to Q B sq 5. PtooQB3 5.BtoQB4 26. B takes B(ch) 26. K to Q Kt sq 6. Castles 6. P to Q 3 27. Q to Q Kt sq 27. PtoQ R 4 7. P to Q 4 7. P takes P 28.Q KttoQ4 28. RtoQR3 8. P takes P 8. B to Q Kt 3 29. BtoQ Kt 5(7)29. R to Q Kt 3 9 KttoQB3 9. KttoK B3(a) I 30. PtoQR4 30. KRtoK Bsq 10. P to K 5 10. P takes P 31. QKttoK B331. PtoQ B83 11. Kt takes QP I 32. B 32. P takes B 12. Kt takes K P12. Kt to K 3 33. Q to K 4 33. Q to K B 4 13. Q toQ Kt3 13. QtoQ5 34. Q to Q 4 34.QtoK B3 14. KttoK B3 14.QtoK B5 35.QtoQB5 35. RtoQ B sq 15.RtoKsq 15.QtoK Kt 5 36.QtoKR5 36. RtcoQB8 14.PtoKR3 K Kt6 87. KttoQ3 37.RtoK B8 17. Btakes BtksK BP(ch) I 38. KttoQB5 38 QtoK B7 18. KtoRsq 18. B takes R 39. Q to K 5 (ch) 39. K to R 2 19. BtksK BP(ch)19. K to Q sq 40.QtoKR2 40. Q takes Q Kt 20. Q to Q aq (ch) 20. Bto Q 2 and White resigned. 21.Q Ktto K 2 21. Kt to K 5 (c) NOTES. (a) Kt to Q R 4 is the best move here. (0) A hasty move. If R to

K 2 had been played instead, we do not see how Black could have saved the game. For instance :

White. Black. 17. Rto K 2 17. BtoQ2 (We see no better move.) 18. B takes Kt 18. P takes B 19. R takes K P (ch) 19. K to Q sq

(If B takes R, White wins off-hand.) 20. R takes B and wins. . (c) The Glasgow Herald, in annotating this game before the close of the tourney, made the following comment on this move :—‘‘ If the present game is a fair specimen of Mr. Finlinson’s play, he should have a remark- ably good chance of carrying off the first prize in the tourney. Few players, we fancy, would care about tackling him at the odds he receives in the present partie.” (d) The position is peculiar. This seems the only move for White. (e) If K moves, Black checks with B at Kt 6, winning Q. (f) Here, as at move 17, White plays without due consideration.

*See p. 174 Vol. I. of H. C. M.

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GAME II. Remove White’s Queen’s Rook. (Evans Gambit.) WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Watkinson. Mr. Finlinson. Mr. Watkinson. Mr. Finlinson. 1.PtoK 4 1. P to K 4 17. Rto K Kt sq17. PtoK R3 2. KttoKB3 2. KttoQB3 18. R to K Kt 4 18. Q to K R4(c) 3. BtooQB4 3 BtoQB4 19. Bto K 2 19. Q takes K P 4,.BtoQ Kt4 4 BtksQKtP I 20..QtcoQB2 Kt 4 5. PtcQB3 & BtoQB4 21. P to K B 4(d)21. Q to Q3 6. Castles 6. P to Q 8 22. BtoK B3 22. P takes P 7 PtoQ4 7. P takes P 23. KttoK 4 23. Q to K B sq 8. P takes P 8. Bto Q Kt 3 24. B takes K B P24. R to K Kt s 9 KttoQB3 9. KttoQR4(a) I 25.BtoQ6(e) 25. R takes R(f 10. BtoQ3 10. BtoK Kt 5 26. B takes R 26. Q to K Kt 2(g) 11. PtoQ 5 11. B takes Kt 27. Kt to K B2(h)27. K to Q Kt sq 12. PtakesB 12. KttoK B3 28. Bto K 7 28. B takes Kt (2) B4 138, Kt toQ2 29. B takes R (7) 29. Q takes K B(x) 14,.KtoRsq 30. QtksQ BP(ch)30. K to R sq 15. P to K 5 15. P takes P 31. Q toQ B 8 (ch)31. Kt to Kt sq 16. P takes P 16, Castles(QR)(d) I 32. Q takes Q, and Black resigns,


(a) A very strong defensive move in most of the Evans variations. (0) Kt takes P would he followed by 17. R to K sq, &c. (c) A good move, threatening P to K B 4. (d) This is, apparently, risky play on White’s part, but if the P is captured, B takes P in reply, opens up an embarrassing attack. (e) The position is somewhat remarkable. If Black play here Q to K sq, which a Rook-player ought to have done, White takes Q B P with B. (f) Again, a player receiving such large odds has no right to make moves of this kind. If White capture the Q, he is actually mated on the move. (g) Good again, menacing all sorts of unpleasant things. (hk) We see no better move. White must provide against the check of Q at Q R 8, and it is evident that Black dare not capture the Kt, under penalty of checkmate. (7) If Black had played here R to K Kt sq, White’s game must have fallen to pieces immediately. (j) A forlorn hope, the result showing that a game of Chess is “ never won until it is lost.” (&) Fatal! This terrible blunder must have been very annoying to Black, as this was the deciding game of the tournament, and if he had won it, as he really deserved to have done, the first prize, a bronze group value £4, would have fallen into his possession.


The correct solutions of Problems XV. and XVI. have been received from J. J.. and D. W. O., Glasgow; J. S., Sunderland; and A. W., London. The correct solution of Problem XVII. has been received from J. J., and D, W. O., Glasgow; J. S., Sunderland; J. H. F., Newcastle-on-Tyne ; A. W., London ; and T. Y., Huddersfield. . The correct solution of Problem XVIII. has been received from J. J., and D. W. O., Glasgow ; J. S., Sunderland; A. W., London; E. D., and T. Y., Huddersfield. *,* The game played between Messrs, Young and White at the last meeting of the West Yorkshire Chess Association is in type, but is unavoid- ably held over.

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Pudderstield College Magazine.


Or all the watering places in the north Scarborough is certainly the most deserving of notice, inasmuch as it has been long and justly celebrated as the “ Queen of watering places.” The town is pleasantly situated on the Yorkshire coast, and is a favourite resort for the most fashionable families of the northern counties. The gardens and promenade of the Spa stand prominently forward as places specially devoted to enjoyment. Here, on a fine summer evening, assemble the visitors in great numbers ; and it is certainly a splendid sight to see the crowded colonnade, the people walking to and fro on the terrace and balcony, with here and there a group deep in conversation, while all the while the band discourses sweet music from the orchestra. Looking over the fortress-like walls we behold a sight still more beautiful and enchanting. Before us lies the German Ocean, dotted all over with boats and vessels ; on our right in the distance are blue hills, and on our left the harbour, situated on a promontory crowned with one of those monuments of ancient times, a castle in ruins. The Spa may be said to be situated partly on the sands and partly on the cliff. The gardens are chiefly resorted to. by lovers of solitude, amongst whom— two counting as a sweet unit—must be classed the lovers of each other, by whom the winding avenues and secret arbours are preferred to the general bustle and clatter of the Spa below. Higher up and. beyond the gardens is the South Promenade, which commands a beautiful view of the sea. Leaving this fashionable place we descend to the sands, which, in the daytime, are usually crowded with children. At one and the same time we may see here children amusing themselves, nursemaids chattering, seaweed-gatherers, hawkers, organ- grinders, donkey-boys, perhaps even the local preacher, vainly en- deavouring to strike up a hymn, but only succeeding at length in drawing the attention of a gaping servant girl or an idle donkey- boy. To see, in the midst of that great multitude, such a man, singing, or trying to sing alone, cannot fail to amuse us, in spite of a feeling that we are irreverent. Looking to our right crowded rocks meet our eyes ; and on our left the sands seem full of life. Wandering here and there is the world-renowned Punch-and-Judy show, now and then stopping to exhibit to an admiring crowd its thrilling and wonderful tragedy. In the M

Page 222


afternoon numbers of pleasure-boats line the shore, waiting to be filled with parties who will dare the briny deep. Farther on is the pier, at the end whereof stands the lighthouse. On the other side of Castle Hill are the North sands, said to be lighter and pleasanter, though they are not so frequently visited by children, perhaps on account of the difficulty of reaching them. For those living on the North side who do not wish to take a long walk every day to the South, the pier, stretching out into the sea, and serving both as a landing place for steamers, and as @ promenade, is a substitute for the Spa. Walking about a mile along these sands we come to Scalby Mills. At that place swings are provided for the young people who visit it, and part of the old building forms refreshment rooms, wherein the visitor may taste the famous Scalby cakes, and any drinkable he may wish to purchase. Through this picturesque little place runs a small affluent of the Derwent. Round the next point we come to a beautiful little bay everywhere full of rocks. One of the most beautiful bays near the South shore is Cornelian Bay, which can be reached either by the road or over the rocks. Boys naturally choose the latter, and so, too, do many ladies, who generally use a sort of path that has been worn by the passing of many a dainty foot. The greatest fun in clambering over those large masses of rock is when by slipping one falls splash into the middle of some pond close by. Besides many beautiful cornelians, we may also find there sea hedge- hogs, and fine white sea-weeds; though to get at these is often an affair of no little difficulty and danger to those unaccustomed to such work. One beautiful summer morning in July, my companions and myself strolled on to the rocks, which were already crowded with men, women, and children of all sorts and sizes. The attention of everyone seemed absorbed in his or her employment ; and no one noticed that the tide was fast coming in. On a sudden, while looking around me, I saw that we were surrounded, and that if we did not immediately get, away it would be a sad state of affairs for us. We ran hither and thither in order to find a way of escape, but all that met our view was “water, water everywhere.” At last I noticed a place over which I thought I could jump. Acting upon the impulse of the moment I jumped, and went splash into the water, enveloping myself for a second or two in a cloud of spray. However, 1 was none the worse for this, and my companions having crossed in a wiser way—namely, by taking off their shoes and stockings,—we lingered awhile on the sands to watch what those left on would do. Everyone looked flurried, and many frightened. Children were crying and women screaming. The gentlemen found pleasant employment


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in carrying the ladies over, some of them having what Yorkshire folk call “a good armful.” A man and a woman especially attracted my notice. The former was wading waist-deep in the water ; the latter, in a somewhat shallower place, was knee- deep, trailing her dress over the rippling waters. At last, when the tide had risen pretty high, and a good many persons had been already landed safely, a cart went in to fetch the rest, and the sea closed over the rocks on which they had been. ,Scarborough is not wanting in interest from an historical point of view. Its castle was the scene of many a deed that marks the page of history. In the reign of Harold it was taken and burnt by the Norwegians sent by Harold Hardrada. Piers Gaveston, the favourite of Edward II., having aroused the anger of the barons, was obliged to flee to Scarborough, in whose castle he sought protection ; but sensible of the weak condition of his garrison, he was obliged to surrender himself prisoner. The town itself, too, is ancient and interesting, especially the part near the piers, and at the foot of Castle Hill. But, to my mind, the objects of greatest interest are the castle and its sur- roundings. Herefrom we have a magnificent view of the sea-coast, cliff, and ocean. As we look seawards we have on our right the famous Flamborough Head ; and, on a clear day, when a strong breeze blows from the north or east, we may see the spray thrown up there by the waves that break in thunder on the rocks at its base. Before us stretches away the vast and “ many-twinkling” sea, which cannot fail to recall to every lover of poetry the grand and glorious stanzas wherewith Byron closes his Childe Harold ; two of which, as they never can become trite or stale, I here subjoin as a fitting close to my paper :— I ‘*Roll on thou deep and dark-blue ocean, roll ! Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain. Man marks the earth with ruin—his control Stops with the shore ;—upon the watery plain The wrecks are all thy deed, nor doth remain A shadow of man’s ravage, save his own ; When, for a moment, like a drop of rain,

He sinks into thy depths, with bubbling groan, Without a grave, unknelled, uncoffined, and unknown.

Thou glorious mirror, where the Almighty’s form Glasses itself in tempests ; in all time, ‘Calm or convulsed—in breeze, or gale, or storm, Icing the pole, or in the torrid clime Dark-heaving, —boundless, endless, and sublime, — The image of Eternity—the throne Of the Invisible ; even from out thy slime, The monsters of the deep are made ; each zone Obeys thee; thou goest forth dread, fathomless, alone.

A. B. Burrows. mM 3

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In an article of mine on Tennyson in the June number of the Magazine, the Jdylis of the King was referred to as a poem de- serving of more extended notice than was possible in the limited space then at my command. Speaking of Tennyson’s poetry as a whole, I took occasion to remark that there was often behind all and pervading all a deeper and a hidden meaning, a nobler and a purer teaching than appeared upon the surface, not visible at all perhaps to the careless reader, but abundantly rewarding the earnest student of Tennyson’s works. Nowhere, perhaps, has this deeper meaning, this higher teaching been more clearly indicated or more fully shown than in that exquisite poem, The Idylls of the King. And let it be clearly understood at the outset, that by the Idylls I mean all. the Idylls, and not merely the four which came out by them- _ selves some years ago. Dim, vague, mysterious, is the Coming of Arthur, as it foreshadows the difficulties of the task the King had undertaken, and leaves us in the uncertainty of anticipation with the echo of the marriage blessing ringing in our ears when

“ Holy Dubric spread his hands and spake, ‘Reign ye, and live and love, and make the world Other, and may thy Queen be one with thee, And all this Order of thy Table Round Fulfil the boundless purpose of their king.’”

Then come the legendg of the Table Round and First of Enid and Geraint, a tale of love and jealousy, and woman’s faithful- ness, a tale told of the time of ancient British Myths, but which might doubtless find its counterpart in our Huddersfield of to-day. The Idyll begins by telling how

“ Had married Enid, Yniol’s only child, And loved her, as he loved the light of Heaven. And as the light of Heaven varies, now At sunrise, now at sunset, now by night With moon and trembling stars, so loved Geraint To make her beauty vary day by day, In crimsons and in purples and in gems.”

I shall not, however, attempt to tell the tale which all have read, but merely point out a few of the touches which show, to my mind, the hand of the master. Geraint found and woo’d and won his betrothed bride, in what we are accustomed to call “reduced circumstances,” and: exacted from her a promise to ride with him to court, and “ there be wedded with all ceremony.”


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‘‘ At this she cast her eyes upon her dress, And thought it never yet had look’d so mean. _ For as a leaf in mid-November is To what it was in mid-October, seem’d The dress that now she look’d on to the dress She look’d on ere the coming of Geraint.” This true woman and true wife is suspected by her husband. He has overheard her railing at her own unworthiness, and he believes “herself against herself,” so is miserable, yet afraid to speak out boldly, and set the doubt at rest. ‘OQ purblind race of miserable men, How many among us at this very hour Do forge a life-long trouble for ourselves, By taking true for false, or false for true.” But in this case the true is manifested as true, though not till husband and wife have suffered much from his mistake, and, as they ride away from the land of Doorm, the poet tells how she . . ‘¢ Put hand to hand beneath her husband’s heart, And felt him hers again: she did not weep, But o’er her meek eyes came a happy mist Like that which kept the heart of Eden green Before the useful trouble of the rain.” In the contrast of position to the story of the true woman, we have that of the false in the next Idyll. It has been some- times said of Mr. Tennyson’s poetry that it wants the fire of passion, that it does not stir the feelings, and make the blood — boil. One might almost think our poet meané to cover a sarcasm in this Idyll. Here we find indeed “warmth and colour,” the words intended to convey the emotions, such words as one can hardly read without a thrill, such words as one might fancy welling from the fountain of true love, and these words Mr. Tennyson puts into the painted lips of a harlot, the incarnation of selfishness, the “ wily Vivien!” Such words he does not put into the mouth of the pure Enid, her words are few and true and tender, but this other has the power of counterfeiting love, and had “set herself to gain” the great and famous sage of those times, “ Merlin, who knew the range of all the arts.” ‘¢ For Merlin once had told her of a charm, The which if any wrought on any one With woven paces and with waving arms, The man so wrought on ever seem’d to lie Closed in the four walls of a hollow tower, From which was no escape for evermore ; Nor could he see but him who wrought the charm Coming and going, and he lay as And lost to life and use and name and fame. And Vivien ever sought to work the charm Upon the great Enchanter of the Time, As fancying that her glory would be great According to his greatness whom she quench'd.”

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I am not sure that the charm died with Vivien. But turn we to Elaine, ‘Elaine the fair, Elaine the lovable, Elaine the lily-maid of Astolat,” and here we have another tale of woman’s love, of one who, seeing Lancelot, the greatest of the knights, had “loved him with the love that was her doom.” Here, too, we have a portrait of Sir Lancelot of the lake. This bravest of the knights, as every reader of the Idylls must know, was guilty against his lord the King. For when the Queen was coming to her husband from her father’s court, Sir Lancelot had been sent to bring Her to Camelot, and ever as they came they talked, and day by day grew more acquainted, till acquaint- ance ripened into love, and still their duty warred against their love, and then they met the “blameless King,” and the Queen to find her journey done,” thought the King “cold, high, self-contained, and passionless,” and all her thoughts went back to Lancelot, the most gallant knight of all the court, beloved of ladies, but when Elaine first saw him great and guilty love he bare the Queen, In battle with the love he bare his lord, Had marr’d his face, and mark’d it ere his time. Another sinning on such heights with one, The flower of all the west and all the world, Had been the sleeker for it: but in him His mood was often like a fiend, and rose And drove him into wastes and solitudes For agony.” Or, as he says himself, when narrating his adventures in search of the Holy Grail : ‘‘ But in me lived a sin So strange, of such a kind, that all.of pure, Noble, and knightly in me twined and clung Round that one sin, until the wholesome flower And poisonous grew together, each as each, Not to be pluck’d asunder ; and when thy knights Sware, I sware with them only in the hope That could I touch or see the Holy Grail They might be pluck’d asunder. * * * And while I yearn’d and strove To tear the twain asunder in my heart, My madness came upon me as of old.”

But if I quote everything I should wish, I shall fill the whole number of the Magazine. The last of the Round Table Legends describes the flight of Guinevere, and the King’s visit to her in the convent, and her repentance, and the sad farewell of the broken-hearted Arthur, mourning over the failure of his plan for the regeneration of mankind, for he had collected from all sides gallant knights, ‘‘ A glorious company, the flower of men,

To serve as model for the mighty world, And be the fair beginning of a time.”

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And thus the King describes the oath with which he bound them: ‘*T made them lay their hands in mine and swear To reverence the King as if he were Their conscience, and their conscience as their King, To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden onhy , cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her ; for indeed I knew Of no more subtle master under heaven Than is the maiden passion for a maid, Not only to keep down the base in man, But teach high thought, and amiable words, And courtliness, and the desire of fame, And love of truth, and all that makes a man.” And last we have the Parting of Arthur, only slightly altered from what was originally published in 1842, under the title of Morte d'Arthur. Dim, hazy, uncertain is the end, like the beginning veiled in mystery. A beginning without a beginning, an end without an end, the career of the British Monarch seems like the course of the summer sun rising in the east amidst the clouds which disperse as day advances and the full light of the noonday sun breaks forth in all its glory and its strength ; but as the evening hours draw nigh, and the sun approaches the western horizon, his rays become again obscured by earth-born clouds, until at last he sinks to rest in crimson glory, making: the heavens resplendent with his gorgeous colouring. The spirit of medizeval literature was realistic. The unseen was typified by the seen, and the latter was described in such detail as to lead the unwary to believe it was described simply for its own sake. Like the anthropomorphism of Genesis and the Psalms, things spiritual were clothed in the garb of things temporal, and the mythical was so involved with the historical, that it is often impossible to say which is which, or to separate them without injuring them both. This realistic spirit of medizval literature Mr. Tennyson has caught and made his own. He carries us back into an imaginary past, and clothes legendary names with feeling flesh and blood, yet, while describing semi- mythical events with the minuteness of a romancist, he has behind a deeper, higher purpose, not told in words, a noble teaching, not expressed, but pervading all his works, and readily discernible by all who will take the trouble to study his poetry. For my own part I never lay down the Idylls without feeling the better for having read them, the better for dwelling upon the high aims and noble deeds of the King, the purer for reading of the truth and purity of Enid, and the more charitable from seeing how the noblest of the knights was led astray. J. SPOTTISWOODE CAMERON.

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On the confines of the vast forest of Ardennes, in a lonely valley watered by an affluent of the Meuse, there lived, a hun- dred years’ ago, a miller, who had been a widower for a long time, and who had an only daughter. His mill was the source of a fortune, that was said to be considerable, but his treasure was Marian, whom he loved tenderly, and who, in her turn, adored her father. Laborious and active as she was beautiful and graceful, the miller’s young daughter had the entire management of the household ; workmen, servants, and journey- men were delighted to obey her, for she was good and henevolent, and gentle towards everyone. To her everything connected with the mill was perfectly familiar ; and in her garden she handled the spade and the rake as skilfully as the most practised gardener. The forest of Ardennes was never at any time very safe, and from its large extent has never admitted of a very efficient patrol; thus it was then infested by a band of the worst kind of brigands. Dreadful stories were related of travellers rifled and killed, houses attacked and plundered, and numerous robberies and murders committed by these wretches ; consequently every- body kept on his guard as much as possible. The band— composed of villains who regarded neither law nor gospel—was commanded by a scoundrel named Cartouche, far more cruel than the rest, whose crimes, as yet unpunished, had given him a terrible renown. The miller, although he was by no means timid, had taken every precaution against a night attack. All the doors and windows were made so as to resist the efforts of anyone who wished. to enter the house by force ; moreover all the servants were well armed, and an enormous maastiff, a faithful friend of the master, guarded the approach to the house. The generosity and kindness of Marian often drew to her poor people and beggars, who always received, on presenting themselves at the mill, a good meal and a little money. Amongst those who thus had recourse to her charity, there was one who, lame and almost blind, inspired more pity than the rest, and who, on account of his infirmities and his misery, had always, when he asked for it, the hospitality of the house, and often passed the night there. This man was a traitor. Nobody suspected him but the dog, whose instinct scented the robber in the disguise of the vagrant, and which always growled, barked, and wished to leap at his throat whenever he came to the mill. Marian’s father had often to go abroad to sell his flour and buy corn, and he was sometimes even compelled to pass the night in the town wherein he transacted business. It was a night on which it was known he would not return that the robbers chose

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for attacking the house. The beggar found means to poison the dog; and when all the dwellers in the mill were plunged in early sleep, he opened the door to his infamous accomplices. The room where the servants slept was soon discovered, and the unfortunate occupants were mercilessly slaughtered. Having got rid of the only ones who could resist them, the robbers no longer cared to keep silence. The noise that they made awoke Marian. She dressed hastily, lit a candle, and going boldly to the part of the house where she heard the uproar, she at once opened the door. A score of assassins, with horrid looks, ‘laughing fiercely and stupidly, armed to the teeth and covered with blood, were completing their frightful work. One of them, perceiving some one still alive, rushed towards Marian with his sword raised, and aimed a blow at her head. A hand, however, arrested the stroke ; it was that of the chief. The subordinate robber, with a frightful oath, wished to strike again ; but Cartouche, with a powerful kick, sent him sprawling to the other end of the room. Astonished at _ this unheard of action on the part of their bloodthirsty captain, they stopt and seemed to await an explanation, _ which was given by Marian herself, who rightly guessed why the chief of the robbers had spared: her. “Brave captain,” said she, ‘and you brave soldiers listen to me. You see that I, like you, am courageous. I could easily have fled from this house of which I know all the outlets and corners ; but I have come to you.. In coming here I was struck by the warlike figure of the valiant chief who commands you! I admired him ! Several stupid peasants have long sought me in marriage ; but I have always refused them. I like men of courage! I adore heroes! Captain, you are the man whom I have chosen for my husband! I shall delight to go in search of adventures and to face perils with you! Soldiers! do you accept me as the wife of your captain?’ Intoxicated with joy and love—if the base instinct of a brute can be called love—Cartouche folded the young girl in his arms, and clasped her to his breast. All the robbers cried, ‘“ Long live the captain’s wife! Hurrah !” “ Now,” said Marian, “let us pillage the house. My father is an old miser. I know where he has heaped up his gold ; I will - show you the treasure; ay, and the good wine in his cellar, too.” “Long live the wife of Cartouche! Hurrah!” again cried all the robbers. They did not, however, forget their ‘principal The miller’s daughter opened all the cupboards, gave them her father’s money, brought out the wine, and the joy of her new companions was soon at its height. “You have not done yet,” said she at length to the chief and hismen. ‘You have no idea that the silver and gold that I have just given into your hands is not the whole of the hoard

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of my old miser of a father; and that the largest sum of all is not yet in your possession! “The wife of your captain could not have been thus imposed upon. Come; I will show you the chief treasures of the house ; my father has shut them up in some boxes inside the cellar.” Immediately all the robbers, whose eyes flashed with greediness, rose tumultuously and rushed after Marian. She led them into a large vaulted cellar, the bottom of which was reached by a stone staircase, wherein, on the floor, there were indeed, amongst a lot of casks, several enormous boxes hooped with iron. Each of her new subjects wished to be first, and they all threw themselves eagerly upon these new-found riches. ‘ Do not be in such a hurry,” said the young wife, “ you must wait a little ; I have forgotten the key. I will fetch it.” She went upstairs, and returned soon after with a large key in her hand, crying, “I have it.” Now Cartouche, a man of caution, had placed a sentinel at the top of the staircase, in order both to hinder the robbers from stealing away with any of the treasure, and also to prevent a surprise. Marian came running, and, meeting with the robber placed as sentinel at the entrance of the cellar, she pushed against him so violently that he rolled swearing to the bottom of the staircase. Quick as lightning she shut the door, turned the key, and piled against it everything she could lay her hands on, in order to prevent the robbers from forcing it open. Fortunately the door was made of oak, and the lock was very strong. Without stopping to recover breath, our young heroine then ran outside the house to a barn filled with straw and hay, and resolutely set it on fire. It was not a moment too soon ; her strength and energy were exhausted ; she fell down in a swoon in the middle of the yard, in front of a barred aperture, through which the robbers, shut up like wolves in a trap, could perceive her. Soon the barn was on fire; the raging flames rose high towards the heavens, and bore to the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages the terrible news of a fire. The noise that was made around her awoke the girl from her swoon, the peasants from the neighbourhood having come to give their assistance ; and amongst them was her father. An explanation was soon given ; the brigands were arrested, and soon had to suffer the well-merited punishment of their crimes. Marian, the good, pure, and courageous young “ maid of the mill,” never married, her lips, as she said, having been defiled by contact with those of the detestable robber, to whom she had given a kiss in order to save her life and her honour. [This old story, to be found in old German grammars and elsewhere, is here taken from the form in which it has been given by Cassell in his Modern French Reader.—EnIvoR. I J. H. ey.

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NatTuRE seems to have made a law that nothing, whether animal or vegetable, shall increase beyond a certain point. We find evidence of this in the fact that one species of animal preys upon another ; and this is continued to such an extent that every species gets preyed upon by some other ; even if not by some wholesale destroyer, still by some parasite, or other apparently petty annoyance. Thus we see that ‘* Great fleas have little fleas upon their backs to bite ’em, And little fleas have lesser fleas, and so ad infinitum ; While the great fleas themselves, in turn, have bigger fleas to go on, And these again have larger still, and larger still, and so on.” Thus also herbivorous animals of one class prefer a certain plant for their food which others will not touch. For example our despised friend, the donkey, chooses a prickly thistle for his food, though some wise people think he does so only because he’s an ass. Evidently this is so provided, that all plants may be preyed upon by some animal or other. Again, thrushes and blackbirds greatly relish the red berries of the mountain ash, which to man are injurious, if not deadly. Many species of. birds feed on the larvee of insects, and of these a large number live on caterpillars ; but all British birds with probably only one exception prefer smooth to hairy caterpillars. But our cuckoo likes the hairy ones best. Owing to this fact the cuckoo and her mate the wryneck are very much valued in Germany, where the crops are frequently destroyed by caterpillars. And I cannot but think that if the habits of birds were more diligently studied, others which are now unmercifully slaughtered would be found to have some important redeeming quality. Yet there are those amongst us, and their number does not decrease so fast as one would like, who look upon naturalists as cruel, hardhearted men. They could scarcely make a greater mistake. The study of the natural sciences tends to soften the heart, rather than to harden it. Some few years ago a friend of mine used to kill every spider he came across, as being a “nasty, dirty thing.” But after attending an entertainment, similar to that described on pp. 75 to 78 of this volume of the Magazine as having been given by ‘ Uncle Dan,” my friend began to see that there were some good points about his “ nasty things.” And now he looks upon them as one of the most interesting groups of:the animal kingdom. If one animal preyed upon another without any restrictions, many species would be exterminated before their time ; but foreseeing nature has kindly made-provision against this, If

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we ramble through the green fields in spring we find numberless varieties of caterpillars, of every colour and size. Upon exami- nation, however, we find that these different hues are not distributed indiscriminately. Let us take the light green coloured larva of the common “garden white” as an example. This caterpillar feeds upon almost anything green. But if we collect a large number of these caterpillars from different localities and from plants of various shades of green, and compare them together, we find that their colour is not quite alike, but that those which were feeding on a light coloured plant are of a lighter shade than those which were taken from a darker leaved plant. And not only so, but we see also that the general colour of the caterpillar varies with the colour of the plant on which it feeds. A friend of mine tried an experiment with these caterpillars. He divided a large cucumber frame into two compartments, and placed in each some caterpillars of this species. Those in the one compartment he fed on young lettuce whose leaves would of course be of a lighter colour ; and those in the other he fed on older plants of the same kind. The results of this experiment were as follows :—Those caterpillars that were fed on old plants changed their colour to that of the plant itself, while those that . fed on young plants, being of that colour already, underwent no appreciable change. My friend intends to repeat his experiments this season, substituting for the old plant a young one of a darker leaved species. Now the object of this change of colour—this keeping to the colour of the plant on which the caterpillar feeds,—is probably something like this. Nature has not furnished these animals with any weapons of defence, but has provided them instead with the means of concealment. This seems the more prudent when we think about the subject, for what means of defence would be effective against their devourers, the birds. What is the poor caterpillar to do to save its life? Hvidently it must try to hide itself. This it does half-consciously at least, because several seem perfectly aware of their power. And just as among the Rotifera, some species are known to secrete a shell the colour of which varies with the colour of the water in which they live, somewhat similar may it be in the case of the caterpillar. Perhaps the chlorophyll of the leaves may so act on the tissues of the caterpillar as to produce its own colour. Whatever be the explanation, the fact is there ; and it is pro- bably best interpreted by saying, that by caterpillars keeping to the colour of the plant on which they feed, their chance of escaping the sharp eyes of the birds is considerably increased. At least as this is the case with ourselves, we may not unreason- ably suppose that it is so with birds.

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To take another example, the larve of the Pepper Moth and its allies feed on the rosetree. They are brown insects, looking exactly like dead twigs, and often go by the name of “ the sticks,” or “ stick-caterpillars.” When they are fixed to a branch by their prolegs, with their bodies raised in the air, it would be almost impossible to tell that they were not bits of broken branches, were it not for the constant moving of their heads, as if to reconnoitre. If they perceive that they are being watched, they remain motionless in the same position. Thus it appears that they are to some extent conscious of their ability to escape detection. The beautiful larva of the Fox Moth affords another example, feeding, as it does, on- heath, which it greatly resembles in colour. This species, however, is not so easily studied, as it is difficult to rear in confinement. I have as yet only had one of these caterpillars in my possession. My father brought it from Ireland, and I kept it for six months, when it escaped through some neglect. It had a heath plant to feed on, and I often had great difficulty in finding it, so nearly was its colour the same as that of the plant. I cannot end my paper better than by the following weighty words of Professor Roscoe :—‘ Nothing is unimportant in science, and the most childish thing has often taught a lesson to the greatest philosopher.” GEORGE BROOK.

to @ueries.

14, (Vol. i, p. 222.) By J. H. Hasrines.

To detect alum (which is a double sulphate of aluminium and potas- sium, or of aluminium and ammonia) is a very difficult matter. The bread has to be converted into ash, and- that tested for alumina; and since phosphoric acid is present in bread, the detection of alum is very difficult indeed, as a small portion of alum serves the baker’s purpose, which is to convert unsound flour into flour that bakes as if it were sound,

51. By B. H. S.

1. Mule is derived from the Latin mille passus, which means a thou- sand paces. . 2. In Anglo-Saxon times the large counties of York and Lincoln were each divided into third parts called Tredings, which became cor- rupted into Ridings, and this division is still preserved in the former county. (1. The Roman mile (mille passus or passuum) was 1000 paces, or 5000 Roman feet (each 11°6456 English inches), or 1618 English yards, which is 142 yards less than our mile. .

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2. The word Ridings—that is trithings or thirdings—which is cor- rectly applied to the three divisions of Yorkshire, is said to be used no- where cles in the British Isles except Tipperary, where it is incorrectly used to designate the ¢wo parts into which the county is divided. We are told, however, that in SourH Norway it is common enough to meet with such land-divisions as thridjungar (thirdings), halfur (halvings), and fiort- jungar (quarterings ).—EpiTor. }

51. II. By T. T. WikINson.

1. The word is derived from the A. 8. mil; French mille; a contraction of the Latin mille passuwm, a thousand paces, which formed the Roman mile. 2. Riding is one of the three divisions of the county of York, and is a corruption of the A. S. thri-thing ; thri-ding; a third. part from thry ; thri; which mean three.

68. I. By T. T. WILKINSON.

There is some difficulty in correctly answering this query. From the context it appears that Achilles is angry, refuses to assist in the siege of Troy, and Ajax aspires to achieve the honour of fi Hector, who is the only Trojan hero worthy of the prowess of Achilles arious means are tried by which to appease the wrath of the Grecian hero, but without success, until Ulysses convinces him by a most powerful appeal to his principles of honour. Ulysses urges that Achilles ought not to rest upon laurels already won, that time obliterates the remembrance of great deeds, that mankind look only to the present, that love, friendship, charity, &c., are subject to Time’s corroding influences, and that he ought to rouse himself, and by valourous actions keep alive his well-earned fame. He is reminded that ‘‘things in motion sooner catch the eye than what not stirs,’’ and hence the necessity for constant action. I should, therefore, infer that Shakspere alludes to those emotions of the mind, and actions of the body, that command the attention and approbation of the human race, whether civilised or savage; and should explain ‘‘touch” as mean- ing influence, affection, emotion, &c., and should derive it from the French toucher, Italian toccare, allied to the Gothic tekKan, Latin tango, and Greek thinggano, to touch, to make, to vibrate, &c. Do, or say, something which calls into action one of theye general principles, or emotions, and this Couch makes all the world vibrate.

58. II. By A. W. Barrstow.

One touch of Nature makes the whole world kin, That all with one consent praise new-born gauds, Though they are made and moulded of things past.

‘*One touch of Nature” here seems to mean one natural defect, or the sense of natural imperfection. The thought seems to be that our nutural infirmities remind us of our relationship to each other. They show us that we cannot live alone, but that our happiness depends toa great extent upon the help and sympathy we get from others. The context plainly points to this meaning of the phrase. It is human nature to admire finery, and so ** All with one consent praise new-born gauds.”’ Almost the same thought is expressed in this other well-known line, fellow-feeling makes us wondrous kind.” The idea of defect in the word towch is by no means confined to this example. In almost every case but that wherein it is used in a simple physical sense, the word touch has the secondary force of defect. In

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museums and other exhibitions we are often requested not to touch, there- by implying that a touch would harm. We say of a man who is deficient in sense, ‘‘ He is a little touched ;” and with a similar meaning it would appear that Bacon uses it in the following passage: ‘‘Pestilent diseases are bred in the summer, otherwise those touched are in most danger in the winter.” And we have also the word contagion from the same Meso- Gothic root fekan, passing directly into English from the Latin, whilst the other reaches us through the French. Here again we have the idea of defect, or stain, as represented by the word tdche. It is also quite possible that the word atéaque, meaning a touch of disease, is in some way related to the word in question. We have also touch-wood, which is rotten wood. Zouwch-stone is a stone which was used for testing gold, or for dis- covering its defects. From these few examples it will be clearly seen that whatever may be the literal meaning and the real derivation of the word touch, it does in many cases imply defect or stain. And the fact that the words may be accounted for in other ways does not in the least degree upset this view. The line quoted is one with which everybody is familiar. We all appreciate it. We feel that there is something in it, but it is only when we begin to search that we find some difficulty in understanding it. If we take the word touch in a mere physical sense, the beauty of the line is gone. It is reduced to a very ordinary commonplace, equivalent to saying all those who have the same parents are akin to oneanother. If we take the meaning here suggested, a meaning which is, I think, proved to exist in other phrases, the line retains its beauty as a clear and short expression of the mainspring of sympathy. It is from a firm belief that with the ordinary signification the line would never have become so well-known, and from a greater desire that the force of the line should not be injured by an interpretation which is manifestly opposed to the context, that I have been led to take this view, in which I trust I shall have the concur- rence of most of my readers.

Wes G@ueries.

65. By C. E. JamEs. What is the exact derivation and meaning of the often-used phrase,

‘* A brown study ?” 66. By W. J. C. MILLER.

Required an account, with names and dates, of the invention of (1) the metronome, (2) the musical notes in general use, with (3) the reasons —if any such can be found—why the latter obtained their remarkable forms. 67. By J. H. Hastines.

What is the derivation and meaning of Jerusalem in ‘‘ Jerusalem

Artichokes ?” 68. By J. B. KniGuHr.

What are (1) The Travellers’ Song, (2) Prompt. Parv. [Promptorum Parvulorum], (3) The Edda, referred to in the Answers to Queries 14, 38, 39.


The distance between the Isle of Man and Great Orme’s Head is about forty miles ; therefore if the earth is spherical, the curvature of the ocean between the two places would be about three feet ; yet a person with his eye on a level with the beach at either place can, by the aid of a telescope, see people on the other beach. How is this to be accounted for ?

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70. By J. H. What is the derivation of the words (1) Yacht, (2) Colonel, and how did they obtain their present pronunciation ? 71. By A. MELLIBs.

What is the origin of ths expressions ‘‘Go to Bath,” ‘‘Go to Jericho,” &c., when one person is vexed with another !

Bolution of

59. By A. H. E. M., E. H. Gop-WARD.


74. By J. W. Bowgs.

My first we often call for; my second most of us think very highly of ; my third is useful to fishermen ; and my whole is an article of household furniture. 75. By Emma Hirst.

Square the words TuLir, LILAc, Roses.

76. By W. J. C. MILuER.

In walking up the Vale of the Yarrow from Selkirk to Tibbie Shiels’, which stands at the head of St. Mary’s Loch, I found that when I had . gone a mile more than one-seventh of the whole distance I came to

‘* Where Newark’s stately tower looks out from Yarrow's birchen bower ;”

a mile beyond half-way therefrom to'the lake I found the Gordon Arms, the only inn along the valley ; thence I had to walk a mile more than the distance from Selkirk to Newark before I came to St. Mary’s Loch ; and beside the lake it was a walk of five miles to Tibbie Shiels’ :—required the distance from Selkirk to Tibbie Shiels’.

77. ProposeD By C. FEUGLY. Plus on court aprés moi, moins on peut m’ attraper.

78. DriamMonp BY A. CROWTHER.

My first and last are consonants; my second and eighth minerals ; my third and fifth the names of families ; my fourth a plant ; my seventh a verb; and my sixth belongs to a cow.

79. DiamMonp By H. 8. Brooke.

My first is one-fifth of my third ; my second what most people possess ; my third a name that figures in song ; my fourth is dear to the hearts of the French ; my fifth should not be indulged in too much ; my sixth pla an important part in modern mathematics ; my seventh we ought to cultivate ; my eighth is what is much wanted in many places ; my ninth what some people are often troubled with; my tenth is almost always painful ; my eleventh gives strength ; my twelfth is too often associated with my fifth ; and my thirteenth one-fifth of my eleventh.

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a Sait


ma x 2s -

an a =

White to play and mate in three mov


ai ae ae ee 2a ee 2 I ei ae I a aoe Be

White to mm mov ve and win.

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MR. HOWARD STAUNTON. Born, 1810. Drep, JuNE 22np, 1874.

By the death of Mr. Staunton, the world of Chess has lost its greatest modern exponent. As a player, he was both profound and brilliant ; as a critic, subtle and pains-taking ; as an editor, able, if at times dogmatic. When we think of this splendid combination of qualities, we may safely say that the present century has not seen his equal. We speak of him here only as a Chess-player, but he took very high rank in the world of letters ; and as a Shakspearean scholar, and a student of the English dramatists of the Elizabethan age, he was almost un- rivalled in our time. Some men are Chess-players and little else, but Mr. Staunton kept Chess in its proper place, and never allowed it to interfere with his more serious avocations. His end was sudden. Shortly before noon on Monday the 22nd of June, he was found dead in his library chair, with an unfinished letter to the Atheneum lying on the desk before him. He had lived a laborious literary life,.and he died in harness. Mr. Staunton’s name has been so interwoven with Chess, that to write his history it would almost be neces- sary to write the history of the game for the past thirty or forty years. Our limited space will only allow of a mere sum- mary of his doings. His fame chiefly rests on his celebrated encounter with M. St. Amant, in 1843, of which we gave an account in our sketch of that distinguished Frenchman in our last volume.* In our opinion, however, his genius shows quite as pro- minently, if not even more so, in his contests on even terms and at odds with such players as Cochrane, Popert, Horwitz, Harrwitz, Stanley, Mongredien, Williams, and others. These are to be found in the Chess-Player’s Companion, wherein Mr. Staunton brought together the majority of the recorded games played by him between the years 1840 and 1850. Although these fine games can scarcely, in our estimation, be placed on a level with those of Morphy’s (the only published collection of any single contemporary player with which they can be for a moment compared), the play on the part of his opponents seems to be of a sounder description than much of that by which the great American was confronted, the games as a whole being well worthy the study of all Chess amateurs. This work had been preceded in 1847 by the Chess-Player’s Handbook, an admirable epitome of the theory of the game ;

* See p. 74, vol. 1, of H. C. M.

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and this was supplemented in 1860 by the Chess Praxis, which gave all the new discoveries in the openings up to that date. We understand that Mr. Staunton had been engaged for the past two or three years on a still further revision of these volumes ; but whether any part of this is in a sufficiently ad- vanced state for publication we are not able to state. In 1852 Mr. Staunton edited the Chess Tournament, a col- lection of games played at the famous gathering of Chess- players in the great Exhibition year ; and these volumes, with the Textbook, which is merely an abridgment of the Handbook, comprise, we believe, the whole of his serious contributions to Chess literature. In 1841 Mr. Staunton commenced the Chess-Player’s Chron- ticle, which continued under his editorship for about fifteen years, when “declining health and a more assiduous devotion to the higher and nobler portions of literature” led him to retire from his onerous labours. In 1865, however, he again came to the front with the Chess World, a magazine which was principally a compilation from other sources, and was dis- continued in 1869. Besides all this, Mr. Staunton had the sole charge of the weekly Chess column in the Illustrated Lon- don News since its commencement in 1842, for which, if-we are rightly informed, he received a very handsome stipend. Some idea may be formed of the labour which devolved upon him in this connection, from the fact that his correspondence, as he himself stated to the writer of this article, averaged seven hundred letters weekly. If we think also of the vast number of games and problems which must have passed through the editorial sieve, a very small proportion, doubtless, being up to publication mark, and the thousands of answers to correspondents, many of them re- quiring considerable research, it is self-evident that his post of Chess Editor was no sinecure. It cannot be denied that Mr. Staunton sometimes wielded the immense power which his position gave him with too despotic a hand; and he certainly managed, at one period or other of his career, to be in hot warfare with almost every Chess-player of note in his time. His treatment of Anderssen, of Lowenthal, of Harrwitz, and more recently of Paul Morphy, has been severely criticised by competent authorities, and we cannot, in the majority of these cases, defend his conduct ; but, taking him as a whole, he stands head and shoulders above most of his contemporaries, and his name will for long years be a household word among the disciples of Caissa. Personally We owe much to Mr. Staunton. A quarter of a century ago we studied Chess more, almost, as a science than

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an amusement. We happened at that time to have a consider- able amount of leisure time at our disposal, and having ob- tained a copy of the Handbook we went through it twice from back to back, and any little skill in the game we have since attained to, we attribute chiefly to the solid foundation then laid. It has been our good fortune for years to have been in friendly communication with Mr. Staunton, the last letter we received from him bearing date only a few days before his death. His comments on passing events in the Chess world were generally very racy, and anything in the shape of cant or humbug met with his marked animadversion. We only saw the great man once, for it has not been our lot to move about much in the world—we resemble the oyster very much in that respect—and our knowledge of Chess-players in general is more by letter than by personal observation. It was at the Manchester meeting of the Chess Association in 1857, and Mr. Staunton was doing battle, in conjunction with Messrs. Boden and Kipping, against Herren Anderssen, Horwitz and Kling. The game was a consultation one between Eng- lishmen and foreigners. It commenced on a Thursday at twelve o'clock, was continued until eleven in the evening, and then adjourned. .It was resumed early on Friday, and prolonged to seven o'clock, when, dinner intervening, play ceased for the night. Next morning the foreigners resigned. Mr. Staunton took the lion’s share of the analysis, and he cer- tainly looked the lion as well. He was then a very fine-looking man, of imposing pre- sence, with a grand, intellectual forehead, and the leadership of English Chess seemed to sit easily upon him. As we write, the clock strikes the witching hour of mid- night. We look out of the window, and lo! Coggia’s comet (tail, millions of miles in length—weight, according to Tyn- dall, probably between two and three oz. !) gleams brightly in the northern sky. Will the fame of our hero decrease in lustre like that comet, and then pass away, leaving no visible trace behind? Nay, rather will it shine brighter and brighter in the constellations of Chess as time advances, giving inspiration and delight to Chess-players throughout ages to come.


We have received copies of the Watertown Re-Union, and of the Hartford Times, both containing favourable specimens of American Chess columns, We have to thank the latter for a favourable review of the Huddersfield Coliege Magazine. I

Solutions of Problems, &c., stand over this month for want of space.

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Suodershely College Magazine.


THE valley in which Bolton Abbey* stands is one of the finest in the district. Hill, dale, river, crag, cascade, wood, and glade, vie with each other in giving beauty, grandeur, and picturesque variety to the whole locality ; and ever since the Rev. William Carr went over the grounds in company with the late Duke of Devonshire, and erected seats at every change of view, the Priory, the woods, and the Tower, have become famous. Besides the many enchanting views up the banks of the Wharfe, there are others equally pleasing on the Addingham side. The late Queen Adelaide was very fond of looking up the vale from this side; and the “Queen’s Seat” attests the good judgment of the consort of our Sailor King, William IV. The chief glories of Bolton, however, may be said to lie on the north. In front of the spectator there is a smooth expanse, dotted with elm and ash of the finest growth; on the right the stately oak, through which the millstone grit throws up its jagged points; and on the left a full grown copse. Still farther forward are seen the aged groves of Bolton Park, the growth of centuries; and farther yet the barren and rocky distances of Simon’s Seat and Barden Fell. Where the valley closes, the Wharfe is overhung with deep and solemn woods; and it was here that Mr. Carr selected some of his most admired views. A tributary stream here rushes from the “‘Valley of Desolation,” and, after tumbling down a waterfall, ‘mingles its waters with the Wharfe. The Strid must be scen to be appreciated. The chasm is flanked on each hand by a broad margin of millstone grit, full of rock basins, or “ pots of the lin,” which bear witness to the angry restlessness of the torrent; for though the Wharfe is here nearly lost to the eye, its deep and solemn roar, like the voice of the angry Spirit of the waters, is heard far above and below, amidst the silence of the surrounding woods. Barden,—that is to say the Boar’s dene or valley,—is not mentioned in Domesday Book, but it occurs soon after in a charter of donation signed by Alice de Romillé. The Forest of Barden stretches for four miles along the banks of the Wharfe; from the confines of Burnsal to those of Bolton. There “An interesting description of a visit to this part of Wharfedale is given by J. H. Hastines, on pp. 218—216 of Vol. I. of the Magazine. N

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were originally six lodges for the accommodation of the keepers and the protection of the deer; and in the time of Thomas, Lord Clifford, A.D. 1437, two others were added. Henry Clifford, the “Shepherd Lord,” a man of retiring habits, enlarged one of these lodges, about 1480, and made it a residence for himself and a few attendants. In A.D. 1572 the hall and kitchens at Barden Tower were furnished; but the bedrooms were reported as empty, so that the Tower was only an occasional residence. There was then in it an “old chariot with two pair of wheels bound with iron, and chaynes belonging thereto,” valued at thirty shillings; and this appears to have been used for conveying the Cumberland family from Skipton to Barden and back, when they went a hunting. The two last earls neglected Barden, and when Anne, Countess of Pembroke, succeeded to her property, the Tower had become On June 2nd, 1657, she signed a contract for the repair of the Tower; whereupon some walls were pulled down and others rebuilt ; so that when she had done, the place was in a tenant- able condition, and the chapel fit for the assembling of the religious, The repairs cost her upwards of £100. This restora- tion was duly chronicled by the Countess in the followmg inscription over the principal entrance:—‘“This Barden Tower was repaired by the Lady Anne Clifford, Countesse Dowager of Pembroke, Dorsett, and Montgomerie, Baroness Clifford, West- moreland and Vesey, Lady of the honour of Skipton in Craven, and High Sheriffesse, by inheritance, of the County of West- moreland, in the years 1658 and 1659, after it had layne ruinous ever since about 1589, when her mother then lay in it, and was great with child with her, till nowe that it was repaired by the God’s name be praised. Isaiah, c. 58, v. 12.”* Three years later she also restored the Park of Barden; but all her repairs and restorations were destined to be of short continuance. The right to the estates of Barden became the subject of litigation, and the suit was finally decided in 1676 in favour of the Earl of Burlington. This decision elosed a family contest which had lasted from 1605, a period of 71 years! In the year 1774, Dr. Whitaker saw Barden Tower entire; but the lead and timbers of the roofs have since been taken away, and the ruins are now only second in picturesque beauty to those of the Abbey of Bolton. The Chapel is still kept in repair, and is occasionally used for public worship. There are several fine views around Barden; and one especially, of the old bridge and adjoining thickets ought not to be omitted by visitors. * The verse here referred to runs as follows :——‘‘ Thou shalt raise up the

foundations of many generations ; and thou shalt be called the repairer of the breach, the restorer of paths to dwell in.”

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Tue Archbishop Conrad of Hockstenden, wishing to build a cathedral that should surpass all the churches of France and Germany, ordered the most celebrated architect of Cologne to sketch some designs. The name of the artist is lost to fame, for a reason that will presently appear. For tradition relates that as the man of science was pacing the banks of the Rhine, pondering over his plans and drawing cathedrals in his mind, he reached a place called the Gate of the Franks,—where at the present time some mutilated statues are still to be seen,— and there sat down. In one hand he held a wand, with which he went on drawing and effacing in the sand plans of the cathedral. The sun was just setting, and the waters of the Rhine were reflecting the glories of its last rays. ‘ Ah!” said the artist, on seeing the sun set, “A cathedral whose towers were raised towards-heaven would still reflect the glories of day when the river and the town were buried in night. Now that would be beautiful indeed!” And he recommenced his draw- ings on the sand. Not far therefrom was seated a little old man who seemed to be watching the architect with great attention. Once, thinking he had found out the plan that he was seeking, the artist cried out, “ Yes, that’s it.” The old man muttered very quietly, “ Yes, that’s it: that is Strasburg Cathedral.” He was right. The artist thought himself inspired, but in truth the design was only one that he had remembered. He then effaced this plan, and began to draw others. Every time the artist thought he had succeeded in drawing a plan that corres- ponded to his idea, the old man murmured sneeringly “ Mayence, Amiens,” or some other town noted for its cathedral; where- upon the artist perceived with vexation that his inspirations were all furnished by his memory. ‘“ Zounds!” cried the artist, wearied with his sneers, “I should like to see what could be done by you, who know so well how to criticise others.” The old man said nothing, but continued to sneer. This piqued the artist. ‘‘ Let us see,” said he, “ Try now;” and he held out the wand that he had in his hand. The old man looked at the artist in a very peculiar manner; then taking the wand, he began to draw lines in the sand; and in doing this he displayed such intelligence and profound knowledge architect immediately cried out, “Oh! I see that you know our art: do you come from Cologne?” ““No,” replied the old man dryly, . giving the wand back to the artist.“ Why do you not go on?” said the latter. “Why,” said the old man, “You would then take my plan of the cathedral and have all the honour of it.”’

N 3

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‘Listen to me, old man,” said the artist, ““We are alone:”—for the river bank was by this time deserted and the night was getting darker and darker,—‘I will give you ten golden crowns if you will complete the plan before me.” ‘Ten golden crowns to me?” said he, drawing from under his cloak an enormous purse and tossing it in the air, whereupon it gave forth a pleasant sound that showed it must have been full of gold. The artist stepped back a few yards; then advancing with a fierce and determined look he seized the old man by the arm, drew his dagger, and cried out, “Finish the plan, or you shall die?” “Violence against me?” replied the old man, freeing himself with surprising force and agility, then seizing the artist in his turn, stretching him on the ground, and also holding over him a dagger. “Alas!” cried the unfortunate artist in consternation. ‘‘Well,” replied the other, “Now that you know that neither gold nor violence avail anything against me, you may take the plan that I have sketched before you, and have all the honour of it. “How?” cried the artist. “Give me your soul for eternity.” The artist uttered a loud cry and crossed himself ; whereupon the Devil (for it was he) immediately disappeared. On returning to his senses the artist found himself stretched on the sand. He got up and went to his lodgings, when the old woman who attended on him, asked him why he was return- ing so late, but the artist did not answer her. She gave him his supper, but he could eat nothing. He went to bed, but his dreams were full of apparitions wherein he always saw the old man and the admirable lines of the plan be had begun to draw. The cathedral that was to surpass all others,—that master- piece about which he was dreaming,—did really exist, there was a plan of it. The next day he began to draw towers, front gates, and naves; but nothing could satisfy him.. The old man’s marvellous plan was the only one that he could be content with. He went to the church of the Holy Apostles and tried the effect of prayers. Vain efforts! That church is small, low, and narrow; what was it in comparison with the old man’s wonderful fabric? At night, without knowing how he had got there, he found himself again on the banks of the Rhine. - There was the same silence, the same solitude, as on the eve- ning before. He went on to the gate of the Franks, and there, sure enough, was the same old man too, drawing on the wall with a wand that he held in his hand. [Each line that he traced glowed like fire, and all those flaming lines crossed and mingled in a thousand ways; and yet in the middle of that apparent confusion were the most beautiful forms of towers, steeples, and gothic spires, which shone for an instant and then vanished. Sometimes these burning lines seemed to arrange

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themselves so as to form a regular plan, and sometimes even the artist thought he was going to see shining out the complete design of a marvellous cathedral; but alas! the image soon became confused, and everything grew indistinct. ‘Well, do you want my plan?” said the old man. The artist sighed deeply. ‘Do you want it?” repeated he, drawing on the wall lines of fire in the shape of a beautiful gate, which however, he immediately effaced. “I will agree to what you wish,” said the artist, beside himself with delight. “To-morrow then at mid- night,” said the old man. The next day the artist awoke with a lively and joyous mind. He had forgotten everything save that he was going to have the plan of the cathedral that he had been so long dreaming about. He went to his window. It was a glorious summer’s morning. The Rhine lay before him, spread out in the form of a crescent, with its waters shining in the rays of the morning sun; and there, too, lay Cologne, sloping gently from the hill to the river-bank, and from the bank to the waves that bathe the foot of its ramparts. ' “Let me see;” said the artist to himself, “Where shall I build my cathedral?” and he looked for some suitable place. As he was thus occupied with thoughts of pride and joy, he saw leaving the house, dressed in deep black, his old servant, who had also been his nurse. “Where are you going?” he asked. “To church,” replied she, “to a mass for the deliyerance of a soul from purgatory.” And away she went. ‘A mass of deliver- ance,” cried he, immediately shutting the windows and throwing himself on his bed in an agony of remorse. ‘A mass of deliverance! but for me, alas! no prayer or mass can be of any avail. Lost! lost ! for ever! and that too of my own free act.” In this state his nurse found him on her return. On her asking what ailed him, he did not at first reply; whereupon she began to pray with such fervour and tenderness, that the artist, unable to resist, told her the promise he had given. The good old nurse remained motionless during the recital. Was it possible to sell his soul to the Devil? Then he did not remember the promises of his baptism and the prayers she had offered for him before. She must go immediately to confess, She told the priest the whole affair. He began to reflect. “A cathedral that would make Cologne the wonder of Germany and France!” “But, my father,” rejoined the nurse.—“A cathedral _ to which they shall come from all quarters of Europe in pilgrim- age!” After having thought and pondered over the matter for some time, the priest gave her a silver reliquary and said, “My good woman, here is a relic of the ten thousand virgins. Give it to your master, that he may take it with him when he goes to the rendezvous. Let him try to get from the Devil the

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wonderful plan of the church before having signed any agree- ment ; and then let him show this relic.” It was half-past eleven when the artist quitted his house, leaving his nurse in prayer, having also spent a good part of the night in prayer himself. He had under his cloak the blessed relic that was to be his safercuard. At the place appointed he found the old gentleman, who on that night had not deigned to disguise himself. “Fear nothing,” said he to the trembling artist, ““Come forward.” The architect approached him. ‘Here is the plan and here too is the agreement that you must sign.” The artist felt that this was the critical moment; he prayed fervently and recommended himself to God; then seizing with one hand the marvellous plan, and in the other holding the sacred relic, he cried aloud, ‘“‘In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and by virtue of this holy relic retire! Get thee behind me Satan!” and whilst saying these words he crossed himself again and again. The Devil seemed stupified for an instant. ‘A priest has advised you ;” said he to the artist ; ‘ this is a trick of the Church.” He remained a few minutes more trying to think of some scheme whereby he could get back his plan, or else put an end to the man who had so daringly outwitted him. But the artist kept warily on his guard, holding the plan safe in his breast, while he covered himself with the relic as with a buckler. “I am beaten,” said Satan, ‘but I know how to avenge myself, in spite of priests and relics. The church you have robbed me of shall never be completed. And as to you, I will efface your name from the memory of men: you shall be for ever forgotten and unknown.” ‘The artist walked home sadly, although in possession of the wonderful plan. However next day he said a thanksgiving mass. Then he began the work of the cathedral; and as he saw the beautiful structure gradually rising day by ' day, he hoped that the predictions of the Devil would prove false. To keep his name in remembrance, he determined to have it engraved on a copper plate fastened in the porch. Vain hope! Very soon dissensions arose between the Archbishop and the citizens, and interrupted the progress of the work. The artist died suddenly, and under circumstances that made people believe the Devil had hastened his death. Since that time many attempts have been made at different periods to finish the cathedral, but all in vain. Vain, too, have been all the efforts of the learned men of Germany to discover the name of the architect. The cathedral remains unfinished and the name of the architect remains unknown. The Prussian Government has ordered the building of the cathedral to be resumed, but it does not seem likely that this attempt will be successful. A mysterious power hinders it from being finished,—a power that

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can neither be conquered nor deceived by relics or by prayers,— and that is the want of money. How many millions are required to complete the work is not known; but it is a sum so large as would seem to confirm and perpetuate for ever the curse pronounced by the Devil. [This is a free rendering, or adaptation, of an article by Saint-Marc Girarpin. _Epitor. I J. H. Lisrer.


In one of our recent Queries (No. 55, on p. 172,) information is sought respecting any interesting walks or excursions that may be had near Huddersfield. In answer to this Query a day’s excursion by rail and a six days’ walking tour are described on p. 248 of this number of the Magazine; and we purpose giving here what may be considered as an answer in greater detail to the same Query. To those of our readers whose good fortune has not yet taken them to Blake Lee, our advice is ““Go!” We have been there and still would go; and if any reader of this article cannot go in person, let him at least place his imagination under our guidance for a few minutes, and make the journey with us as we recall the memories of a happy day spent this summer amongst the hills. The intelligent reader either is, or ought to be, aware that the village of Marsden lies upon the Manchester line some seven miles distant from the good town of Huddersfield. The railroad, after various curves and changes of gradient as it winds up the valley of the Colne, finally disappears into the bowels of the earth, for a three and a quarter miles’ run through the “backbone of England,” about a mile beyond the station at which the Marsden folk alight. Close to the place where the metal highway thus makes its exit from the upper air, the canal also, having gradually narrowed itself to the dimensions of a slender barge, passes through the mountain side into the regions of eternal night. To the right of this vanishing point of the waters is to be seen, at the base of the hills, a reservoir, to the right of the reservoir a mill lead, and to the right of the mill lead a tramway. Passing some quarter of a mile along this stony tramway we come to a corn mill with its accompanying offices. Keeping to the tramway, but leaving behind the reser- voir and the corn mill, and having on our left a little stream, we pass on about the eighth of a mile more to Blake Lee. Just before we reach the gate that leads up to the house, we take care to glance over the wall upon our left, which separates us

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from the purling brook below, and are rewarded by a little piece of scenery well worth the walk for its own sake. The stream flows over layers of flat rocks, leaving deep pools with sharp stony edges. On either side, amidst the grass of the banks, grow purple foxgloves and tall male-ferns, overshadowed by ashes, sycamores, and elms. A one-arched bridge, moss-grown and venerable, spans the tiny stream ; and beneath the bridge we spy a grace- ful cascade, where it is evident that Art has lent her aid to Nature, Upon our right a grove of fine trees attracts the attention, and the choice is offered of a broad carriage drive or a narrow footpath, both well-shaded and inviting, either of which will lead us to our destination. Preferring the latter, we presently pass through a little gate, then cross a hayfield, jump over a sunk fence, and ascend into the garden of Blake Lee. The garden is small but furnished with several seats, on one of which we sit down under a walnut tree and complacently survey the valley below. A magnificent view spreads out before us. We have wandered amongst many lovely scenes elsewhere, but have seldom seen anything of the kind to surpass the prospect we are now gazing upon. An amphitheatre of hills surrounds us on three sides, whereon dark moorlands, with edges clearly cut, contrast with the deep blue sky. Before us opens out the winding valley, conveying to our mind, by its tortuous- ness and gradual widening, the idea of immense distance, and yet withal by its defined outline suggesting thoughts of placid and protected repose, suitable for philosophic contemplation such as Rasselas might have enjoyed in the Happy Valley. Immediately in front of us, in the valley, we see the grove of trees by the stream that we have just left, and peeping out from among them the whitened roof of the corn mill, just so much concealed as not to mar the beauty of the scene, but yet sufficiently visible to add a human interest to the landscape. Beyond the grove lies the reservoir, suggesting on this hot day ideas of coolness and refreshment; and again beyond rises precipitously the hill into the side of which we had but just seen the train plunge headlong with a savage snort. Lower down, and further back, are the hills from which our busy town is soon to be supplied in part with water ; and melting into the distance, blending with the far off mountains, those watery and yet airy castles, ceaselessly changing and yet ever beautiful, the clouds. But, descending from the clouds, we send one of our number to negotiate with the mistress of the house to supply us with the decoction of the fragrant leaf that China contributes to aid in the civilization of western barbarians. Having the good fortune to be acquainted with a lady occupying the largest

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sitting room in the house, and our pleasant conversation without having been interrupted by the not altogether disagreeable news that tea was ready within, we are happy in partaking of good tea in fair company. When even the sweets of the tea table fail to tempt us to apply again to the non-inebriating cup, we determine upon a walk and set out in search of adventures. Having surmounted a fence, crossed a brook, and hurried through a field, we climb a high wall, then a steep hill, and have from its summit a splendid view, the western sun shedding a softened light upon the scene, the shadows of the passing clouds relieving from all chance of monotony the green trees and fields ;—anon ® quarry, or a scar, or a precipitous roadway glancing brightly in the sunbeams. Descending at length reluctantly, we still more reluctantly bid adieu to these fair scenes ; when lo! as we turn to depart the sun also is taking his leave, and as he vanishes out of sight the western heavens become resplendent with dazzling brilliancy ; and stellate cloudlets, lit up on every side by silvery rays, float above a broad expanse of molten gold that “beggars all description” but defies forgetfulness, and makes, in the calendar of our life, a red letter day of our visit to Blake Lee.


An old man sat.on the low porch seat, and grieved for his help-meet one ; Then his grandsons nestled round his feet, and a smile on his pale face shone, The west wind wafted its balmy breeze, and the brooklet babbled hard by ; The sun lit up the quivering trees, as he sank in the western sky. Then the old man mused on days of yore, of the time when cares sat light ; When merry feet danced the greensward o’er, and his every hope was bright. Then thoughts of youth and manhood’s pride, as the fitful breeze passed on, Till they circled round a faithful bride, by his worth and affection won. The clouds now past o’er the sun’s bright face, and shadowed hill and dale ; "T'was an emblem just of the old man’s race, as he pressed through life’s rough vale, To one dark spot his thoughts now turned, when the battle was well-nigh

Won ; - He closed his eyes, which the salt tears burned, and whispered “‘ Thy will e done.” Towards the future next his musings bent, and a smile o’er his pale face past ; Faith saw the crown of a life well spent, for the haven was reached at last. Then the children clasped their grandsire’s knees, but the world had vanished from sight ; And soft winds sped through the bending trees, as they murmured his last ‘‘ good night.” I T. T. WILKINSON,

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Some time ago I was called on at school to supply a composition on water. I did my best and, though perhaps I should not own so much, thought I did very fairly. I wrote about the various sorts of water, and said a few words in praise of its value as the element whereby personal cleanliness was secured. Now, a little while before, a friend had told me about a school- boy, who, having to write a paper on my subject, had frankly confessed that, since he had heard that Ashantee boys only washed themselves once a year, he very much wished he was an Ashantee boy himself. The story was, I thought, too good to be lost ; so [ inserted it in my composition. When I had written it out, I thought it only right that my friend should know what service I had got from his story, for I followed it up with a strong expression of my liking for a copious use of the cleansing fluid. To my great surprise, the answer to the letter that enclosed the copy of my composition contained a short paper, professing to have been written by a genuine Ashantee boy, who had heard of the contempt wherewith his country’s custom in this respect had been treated, and who was resolved to defend himself and his playmates against all comers, even though they might hail from so famous a country as England. The defence was given in the form of a composition on water,

and, as sent to me, ran as follows :— ‘‘ This fluid is found to be almost as common and abundant in the world, and is certainly about as great a plague, as human naughtiness. Not content with swimming ships therein, or getting fish from its depths, some restless mortals have invented a method of making it serve as an instrument of torture, and have actually recommended its frequent application to the skin of the human body. Very possibly this device has the same origin as that of wearing prickly cloth or hair-shirts, or sleeping on spikes, as recommended by certain saints of the Romish Church. This at least is certain, that much more has been heard of this cruel practice since the time of the rise of the Inquisition. By the fanatics whose lunacy takes this direction it is alleged that cleanliness is a sweetener of the life channels, a sure and certain way to the elevation of men’s tastes and, in some measure, to that of their whole character! They would have us think that the production of so much discomfort and downright misery as the contact of water occasions to one’s bare skin, is compensated for by a feeling that they call being wholesome and clean! As though things did not do best in their natural course and order, these wretched self-torturers have invented this theory as a contradiction to Providence, and an outrage on all the rights and privileges of our race! Ignorant—wilfully or otherwise—of the precious protection which the delicate covering of our bodies gets for itself by being let alone, and of the excellence of the coating that arises from perspiration mixed with earth, and which, in the course of time, becomes so substantial and close-fitting of these advantages, or else blinded by their dreary delusion, these miserable mortals sacrifice all these benefits to their horrible infatuation.


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That there may possibly, in some cases, be a slight advantage in an occasional, but very moderate and strictly-limited application of water to the person, may indeed be admitted. But then, how little would suffice! As the most devoted shaver is usually content to practise his razor on his upper lip, and spares all the remainder of his face and the whole of his head, 20 let all prudent men, if they must dabble in water at all, do it carefully and only within the most guarded limits. Certainly the usage should never be allowed to affect more of the body than is visible. Why be particular about parts which nobody sees? Let every rational person find out how little in this way may be made to serve, and how seldom even that little is really required. I might urge, furthermore, the expensiveness of this . atrocious custom; that its devotees find themselves obliged to incur heavy expenses in the purchase of soap, towels, and other absurd appurtenances,—expenses such as folly and extravagance in any direction are sure to bring in their train. But to close my paper, and fortify my views by the very highest authority, let me remark that the Chinese are the most ancient and wonderful nation on the face of the earth, and that theirs is commonly called the Celestial country. From their treasures of wisdom the proverb that has for ages been held in the highest repute is this :—‘ You should wash your hands, but only wipe your face.’ No doubt the march of discovery will bring about a time when even this lesser torture may be dispensed with, and when men and women will be content to be preserved from cold and heat by the admirable compound that covers every body which has not been deprived of its providentially- wrought and inexpensive adornment and envelope.” Such was the Ashantee boy’s defence of his darling custom. I can only express a hope that his sentiments are not those of

any of the readers of the Huddersfield College Magazine. ArtTHurR R.


WE issue this number of the Magazine early enough to be able to announce that the first of a series of yearly Athletic Sports in connexion with the College will be held in the College Field, Bradley Lane, on the afternoon of Saturday, August 29th, beginning at 2 o’clock ; when about thirty prizes,—consisting of silver cups, medals, &c.,—may be competed for by any of the College boys, and some of them, also, by any members of the Huddersfield Athletic Club. A full and detailed programme of the proceedings, with the conditions and regulations for competitors, has been drawn up by Mr. T, A. Purvis, Professor of Physical Education at the Huddersfield Athletic Club ; and as a copy of the programme is to be sent out with this number of the Magazine, we content ourselves here with calling attention to these Athletic Sports, soliciting in their aid the countenance and support of our sub- Scribers, and wishing them a complete success.

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WE remark here, in answer to many inquiries, that we shall always welcome with pleasure any communications suitable for our pages from “ old boys,” or from any other subscribers who may take an interest in the Magazine. Short articles will be especially acceptable. Of the value of the Magazine as a means of intercommuni- cation between the present and the “old boys,”—as serving pleasantly to connect those at the College with those who have long left it, and thus foster that esprit de corps which it is so desirable to establish and maintain,*—a most gratifying example has just come under our notice. An “old boy” who describes himself as an “ expatriated Briton, but yet a Yorkshireman to the back bone, and a Hud- dersfield College boy to boot,” writes a very encouraging letter from NEw JERSEY, and sends therewith a substantial contribu- tion in aid of the funds of the Magazine. He promises, moreover, a short article for our pages, adding that his “ expe- riences during the past eleven years have been varied enough to supply abundant material.” This is one out of many similar instances that have come under our notice. We hope that many more will occur hereafter. All communications should be sent to W. J. C. Parkfield, Westhill, Huddersfield.

to G)ueries.

34. I. By J. H. Hastrnas.

6. Joseph Priestley, an eminent Divine, Chemist, and Natural Phil- osopher, was born in 17338, at Fieldhead, near Birstall, and educated at Dr. Ashworth’s Academy at Daventry. He was successively minister at Needham Market in at Nantwich, and at Warrington. While Tutor to a Seminary of Dissenters at Warrington, he published The History and Present State of Electricity, which procured his election to the Royal Society, and the degree of Doctor of Laws from Edinburgh. At Warrington also, he first showed his political opinions in an Essay on Government. From this town he went to Leeds, where he made some important discoveries concerning the properties of fixed air, for which he received the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1772. Oxygen was discovered by Priestley in 1774; the discovery being thus just 100 years old. He made Oxygen from Red Oxide of Mercury, and called it dephlo- gisticated air. It was also discovered not long afterwards by Scheele, a

* We have urged the claims of the Magazine in this respect before (see p. 141 of this volume.)

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Swedish chemist, who called it empyreal or vital air. The term oxygen was given to this gas by Lavoisier, sometime after its discovery. In 1776 Priestley communicated to the Royal Society his discovery that as air passes through the lungs, it parts with its oxygen to the blood. He next removed to Birmingham, where he again became minister to a dissenting congregation, and wrote his History of the Corruptions of Christianity. But it was the French Revolution that afforded him the widest field, and he did not fail to display his warm sympathy therewith. This excited the indignation of the High Church party ; riots followed, in which the mob destroyed by fire Priestley’s house, his library, his manuscripts, and all his apparatus. Hereupon, he removed to Hackney ; and he went there- from, in 1794, to Northumberland in Pennsylvania, where he died in 1804.

34. II. By W. J. C. MILuEr.

6. In addition to what is contained in the foregoing answer, it is worthy of remark here that on the first day of this month (August) the centennial anniversary of the discovery of oxygen was celebrated in Leeds, —where many of the experiments that led to this great discovery were made,—by various demonstrations and speeches, in honour of Priestley’s memory ; and in Birmingham,—a town from which, 83 years before, he had been ignominiously driven amidst the execrations of an infuriated mob,—by an assemblage of the most eminent men of the town and neigh- bourhood. to witness the unveiling of a statue of the great philosopher. Of the value of Priestley’s discoveries it would be almost impossible to form too high an estimate. His éloge before the French Institute was pronounced by the celebrated Cuvier ; and many a philosophical writer of other nations has paid a fitting tribute to his memory. One of these writes of him as follows :—‘‘ The very air we breathe he taught us to analyse, to examine, to improve ; a substance so little known, that even the precise effect of respiration was an enigma until he explained it. He first made known to us the proper food of vegetables. To him pharmacy is indebted for the method of making artificial minera] waters, as well as for a shorter method of preparing other medicines ; metallurgy for more powerful and cheaper solvents ; and chemistry for a variety of discoveries which new- modelled that science, and drew to it and to this country the attention of all Europe. In every philosophical treatise his name is to be found, and on almost every page. They all own that most of their discoveries are due either to the repetition of his discoveries, or to the hints scattered through his works.” Like Newton, Priestley seems to have been a man of singular modesty. Though both so greatly enlarged the boundaries of science, yet neither was ever vain of his discoveries. Newton attributed his ‘‘ solely to industry and patient thought,” reminding us ef the famous doctrine that genius is a transcendent capacity for taking pains; and Priestley, in speaking of his discoveries, said that most of them had occurred to him in this way,—‘‘in looking for one thing, I have generally found another, and sometimes a thing of much more value than that which I was in quest of.” Of the many great men to whom this West Riding has given birth, no one has, perhaps, done so much for Science as Priestley. Faraday came of an old Yorkshire family, long settled at Clapham Wood Hall, near the icturesque Craven village that nestles at the foot of Ingleborough ; but araday himself was born and lived and died in London. In early life Priestley resembled, in one respect at least, the “‘ village preacher” of Goldsmith’s charming poem, of whom it is said that ‘* A man he was to all the country dear, And passing rich on forty pounds a year ;” for we are told that from his Suffolk congregation Priestley received only thirty pounds a year.

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55. By A. R. Wriaeurt.

Several interesting walks or excursions may be readily made from Huddersfield. I here give a brief outline of two of these. 1, A day’s excursion to York. Start by rail eight o’clock in the morning, look over the Minster, the Roman Catholic chapel close beside it, the ruins of the Abbey, the Museum, the Castle, and the many other objects of interest in this fine old city, walk round it on the walls, and return to Huddersfield soon after six 2. A six days’ walking tour in Derbyshire. Walk the first day to Holmfirth, thence over Holme Moss to Woodhead, and on to Glossop. On the second day walk by the Snake inn and over the hills to Castleton. On the third day examine the caverns and other objects thereabouts till noon, then go by Little Hucklow, Eyam dale, Cucklett Delph (for Mompesson’s famous church), Middleton, and on to the Peacock inn at Baslow, On the fourth day visit Chatsworth House and park, Edensor, Haddon Hall, and walk thence by Rowsley and Matlock Bridge to Matlock Bath. On the fifth day walk through Via Gellia to Dovedale,.and up this river-valley to Hartington. On the sixth day walk by Druidical circle to Bakewell, and thence return by rail to Huddersfield. [We shall be glad to receive, in further answer to this Query, accounts of other interesting walks that may be had near Hudders- field. We have given one such, a little more in detail, on pp. 241-243 of this Number of the Magazine. EnpirTor.]

68. By Mercy HIBBARD.

In the middle ages CATHAY was the name given to the whole empire of China. When one thinks of the steady march of civilization in Europe, as compared with the fossil-like existence of China, it does not seem wonderful that the poet should say Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay. [The name CATHAY, for what we now call China,—along with our first owledge of the country,—was introduced into Europe in the thirteenth century, and is still in use amongst the Russians. e original form of the word was Khitai, and it was derived from the Khitans, a tribe that occupied the northern portions of the empire at the time of the invasion of the Moguls, Epiror.]

Wes Gueries.

' 72. By ARTHUR W. BaArrRstTow.

About what time, and under what circumstances, did the word Conundrum first make its appearance in our language ? _

73. By M. P. THompson.

What is Loadstone ; whence did it get this name; and where and how is obtained ?

74. By J. E. Worta.

Why are certain series called Arithmetical, Geometrical, Harmonical Progressions ¢

Page 255


75. By R. WRIGHT.

Required the origin and meaning of the following custom that formerly existed at Westminster School. Every Shrove-Tuesday the head baker used to go into the School and throw a pancake over the screen that separated the Upper from the Lower School, and the boy who happened to secure the pancake whole, received a gratuity on presenting it to one of the officials, Is this ancient custom still kept up? — 76. By A. Marry.

Required a brief account of the Gypsies, their origin and history.

77. By THomas Hattram.

If all objects are imprinted on the retina in an inverted position, and both eyes form distinct impressions of every object, how is it that things appear in an upright position, and not double ?

78. By A. D. Srock. What is laughing-gas, and how may it be made ?

79. By W. J. C. MILuEr.

What is known respecting the nature and constitution of (1) comets, (2) nebule, (3) the milky way ?

Solutions of Wu33kes. 60. By C. E. Marspen, J. M., R. B., H. E. M., A. M., J. W. 63. By L. MavrogorpatTo, G. F., J. B. K., H. E. M., J. W.


69. By J. Frencu, H. E. M., A. B.

__Every eleven wethers yield a tod of wool, which is worth twenty-one shillings ; hence the wool from 1500 sheep would be worth

169° of Q1s.=£143 38. 71. By A. S. Benner, W. H. T. A., J. B. K. Constantinople ; Nile, Sot, Entice, Topic, Coal, Onset, Attention.

77. By JESSIE OasTon. L’Ombre.

Page 256




I am a word of 9 letters; my 4, 5, 2 is a graceful tree; my 6, 4, 1 often shelters what has little im it, but much on it of my 2, 4, 7,3; my 8, 7, 8, 9 young ladies long and sigh for; and my whole boys are by no means fond of.


My first is the half of a husbandman’s tool ; My next is one half of a row in a school ; ‘Add then a conjunction—in Latin I ween,— Now affix its reverse ; and my whole will be seen. I The name of a writer is thus brought to view, Well-known in these pages to me and to you.

82. Diamonp BY A. JowITT.

My first and last are consonants ; my second is the theme of many a song; my third and fourth towns famous respectively for a beautiful cathedral and for manufactures ; my fifth is what all should possess ; and all who fail to solve this Puzzle will be my sixth.

83. By R. C. DENT.

IT am a word of 10 letters ; my 1, 2, 8, 4, 5, 9, 7 makes a light ; my 8, 9, 7, 8 belongs to a bird; my 10, 2, 1 is an animal; my 8, 2,10 a sticky substance ; my 4, 5, 9, 6, 7, 9 something often liked ; my 1, 2, 10, 8 a paper; my 4, 2, 10, 8 something often connected with a donkey ; and my whole is a town in England.

84. By J. K. Kaye.

I am pretty and useful in various ways, Though by me men often end their days ; Take one letter from me, and then will appear What most young men are fond of each day in the year ; Take two letters from me, and then without doubt You'll be what remains if you don’t find it out.

85. D1amMonp Pouzziz, By HARRIETTE EK. MILLER. I

My third is of great importance amongst the Ritualists ; my second what we all have an aversion to become; my fourth a picturesque river ; and my first the initial, and my last the final, of my third.


Men cannot live without my first, ’tis used by day and night ; My second is to all accurst, abused by day and night. My whole is seldom seen by day, and never used by night, "Tis dear to friends when far away, and hated when in sight.

[Of this Charade,—which is attributed to the late Bishop Wilberforce, —it is believed that no Solution has hitherto been published.

Page 257


CHESS. PROBLEM XXIII.— By the winner of the Third Prize, value £10, in the British Ches iation Problem Tourney ; Hoe ardua

wi: ne ah

2 a boo ane

White to play and mate in three moves.


2 Le a wn a a sath ae “mi 7 oy amie ate oe “es 7

White to play and ma ate i in four moves.

a ts



Page 258



THs following is the game between the leading players in the - Wakefield and Leeds Match, contested at Huddersfield on the 16th of May last. It will be found to present many points of -

interest. (King’s Gambit declined.) WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr, Young, Wakefield. Mr. White, Leeds. Mr. Young, Wakefield. Mr. White, Leeds, 1, P to K 4 1PtoK 4 28. K toQ 3 28. Kt to K 4 (ch) 2PtcKB4 2BtQB4 29. KtoQB2 29. KttakesP (ch) 8. KttoK B8 3. PtoQ3 30. K to Q Kt sq 30. Kt to K Kt 3 4. BtoQB4 4 KttoQB3 31. BtoQ Kt2 31. BtoK 4 5. PtooQB3 5. BtoK Kt 32. Q to Q 3 32. BtoK B38 (/) 6 PtoQ Kt4 6 BtoQ Kt3 33. Ktto K B38 33. R to Q sq 7,.QtoQKt$ 7.QtoK B3 84.RtoQsq 34.QtoK2 8. PtoQ8 8. P takes P 35. Q B takes Kt 35. Q takes P (ch) 9. PtoQ 4 9. B takes Kt 36. RtoQ Kt2 86. Qto K 2 10. PtakesB 10. KKttoK2(a) I 87. BtakesB 37. R takes Q (g) 11. Kt toQ R38 11. Castles (K R) I 38. BtakesQ 38. R takes R (ch) 12. BtoQ Kt2 12.QtoK R5(ch) I 39. KtoB2 89. R to Q 2 13. K to K 2 13. Q R to Q sq 40. BtakesR 40. Kt takes B 14, QRtoK Ktsq 14. QKttoK4(b) I 41. KtoB8 41. PtoK Kt8 15. Q R to Kt2 (c)15. Q Kt to Kt 3 42. Rto K Kt2 42. RtoQ 8 16. BtoQ Bsq 16. P toQ B38 R4 48.PtoQ Kt 3 17. B to Q 3 17. QRtoKsq(d) I 44.PtoKR5 44. K to Kt 2 18. KttoQB4 18. BtoQ B2 45. PtakesP 45. P takes P 19. KttoQ2 19. KttoK B4 46. KttoK 5 46. PtoQB4 20. Ktto Bsq 20.QtoR6 47. KttoQ3 47.RtoK B38 21. RtoB2 21. KtfmB4toRS5 I 48. R to Kt 4 48. Kt to K 3 22. Rto Ktsq 22. PtoQ 4 49. BtoQ 5 49, Kt to Q 5(h) 23. PtoQB4 23. P takes K P 50. K to Q 2 50. K toR 3 24. PtakesP 24.QtoQ2 51. Rtakes BP 51. RtoQ 8 25.QtoQB3 25. PtoK B 4 52. KttoK5 52. Kto Kt 4 26. KttoQ2 26. P takes P 53. R takes Kt (7) and wins. 27. Btakes P 27. Kt to B4 (e) The game lasted nearly five hours. NOTES. (a) Kt takes Q P appears to give Black a winning advantage, even at this early stage of the game, in all the variations we have examined.

(6) Well played. The attack now begun, properly followed up, must have won the game for Black. (c) The capture of the Kt would lead to immediate disaster. (d@) The K R should have been posted on this square. The assault would then have been difficult to parry. (¢) P to K B 6 (ch) here, leads to some very critical variations. White evidently dare not take the P, and wherever the K moves, B or Kt to K B 5 accordingly, seems to obtain a winning position. (f/f) R to K 2 would have been of more service at this point. The move in the text loses a piece. (g) Taking the B with P seems to offer more resource than the exchange of Queens. () If White now takes Pawn with Kt,- Black retakes with ‘R afterwards checking at K 7, winning a piece. (7) The speediest way of bringing matters to a conclusion.

Page 259



Many and various have been the opinions recently expressed respecting the great player who has so lately left us. One eminent critic in a well known sporting paper has made an elaborate attempt to depreciate Mr. Staunton’s reputation as a Chess-player, while another Chess organ, in strange contradiction to its former (mal) practices, styles him “the greatest Chess- player that England has ever produced.” Under these circum- stances it was peculiarly gratifying to us to see the following remarks in The City of London Chess Magazine for August :-— Of all the notices of Staunton which have appeared anywhere, that in The Huddersfield College Magazine for the present month commends itself to us as most in accordance with the facts of the case. As we did not happen to have read this notice before ours, in the present number, had gone to press, we were surprised and naturally pleased to find the views of the writer so much in unison with our own. We have been requested by several of our subscribers to give a specimen of Mr. Staunton’s play, and the game we have selected is a very brilliant one at the odds of Pawn and two moves, with Captain Kennedy. The notes are by Mr. Staunton. As these odds are perhaps unfamiliar to some of our readers, we preface the game with a portion of the remarks given as an introduction to the analysis of the opening in the Companion. These are very instruetive odds; the attack they afford is sufficiently werful to stimulate the inferior player to the utmost; and, on the other hand to call into action all the skill and patient self-possession of his opponent, who for a long time, if the most is made of the opening, has quietly to submit to a galling fire from his enemy’s forces, which he must be content to bear until the gradual development of his own Pieces enables him to change his defensive tactics, and become the aggressor. There are no odds, however, so deceptive. An Amateur, promoted from the ranks of the Rook or Knight players to a ‘ Pawn and two man,’ is so surprised at the apparent facility with which he can prosecute an assault, that he is very apt to overshoot his mark, and in the endeavour to crush his opponent in the outset, permits the attack to be wrested from him before the game

is half developed. (The Pawn and Two moves.) (Remove Black’s King’s Bishop’s Pawn from the board.) WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK.

Captain Kennedy. Mr. Staunton. I Captain Kennedy. Mr. Staunton. 1PtoK4 1. 13. KtoRsq 18.Q KttoK 4 2,PtoQ 4 2. P to K 8 14.Q BtoK R414. QKttoKKt5 & KBtcQ3 8. PtoQB4 15. KttoQR4 15. KKttksKP(a 4, P takes P 4. QtoQR4(ch) I 16. BtksQ 16. KKttksK BP(ch 5. QKttoB3 65. B takes P 17. KtoKtsq 17. K KttoR6 (double 6. K KttoK2 6.QKttoB3 ch) (0 7. Castles 7.K Ktto B3 18. KtoRsq 18. QKttoK B7 (ch) (c) 8. K KttoK Kt3 8. Castles 19. R takes Kt 19. Bik ew ) 9 PtoQR8 0. Q to Q 4g 20. K to Ktsq 6 (d) 10. op te 10. B oe t3 21. QtoQ Ktsq (e) . to t511. BtoQ5 . 12. K KttoK2 12.BtoQKt3 I And Black mated in three moves.

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NOTES. (a) Quite unlooked for, and at once c ing the whole aspect of the e. After this move it is difficult to see how White can avoid loss. 6) He would not have played well in taking the Q at this moment. (c) Black now forces him to capture the Kt. (d) The position is certainly peculiar. It will be seen that if Black, instead of now playing the B to 6, had taken off the Queen, his adversary would have escaped @ winner from the skirmish. (¢.g. ) 20. Kt takes Q (dis ch) 21. B takes B 21. QR P takes B 22. Q Kt takes P, &c.

(¢) His best move, probably, now was B to K Kt 5, challenging the exchange of Bishops; in that case the following moves would have

occurred : 21. Bto K Kt 5 21. Kt takes Q (dis ch) 22. B takes B 22. Kt takes B And Black has gained the exchange and two Pawns.


WHITE BLACK. 1, 1. K takes Kt or P to R 4 (a)

Qt.QB 2. Kt to K BY and Q mates next move.

(a) If 1. K toQ 8; then 2. Q to Q B 6 (ch) and mates next move. If 1. P takes Kt; then 2. Q takes P and mates next move.


1. Q to K 8 (ch) 1.KtKB4 2. P to K B 4 and mates next move.


1. BtoQ3 1. B takes B (a) Reto Kt 4 tae 2. K takes Q 3. Kt to Kt 4 (mate) (a) If 1. PtoK 5; then 2. Ktto Kt 4(ch) 2. KtoK 4 3. Qto K R 2 (mate). If 1. BtoQ B6; then 2. Kt takes B (ch). 2, KtoQ BS. 3. B to K 4 (mate).


to Kt 6 (ch) 1. K to B 6 (best) K Kt sq 2. P takes R (ch)

1R 2. R to 8. K takes Q -8. K to Kt 6 4.K _K 5. P d

wm C0 ss

to B Bé to K 8 tbecoming a Queen) an wins.

Tilo Glorrespondents.

The correct solutions of Problems XIX. and XX. have been received from D. W. O., Glasgow ; and J. S., Sunderland. The correct solution of Problem XXI. has been received from A. T., Newport ; D. W. O., Glasgow ; and E. D., Huddersfield. "Whe correct solution of Position XXII. has been received from A. T., Newport ; and D. W. 0O., Glasgow.


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