The History of Lockwood and North Crosland (1980) by Brian Clarke

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While it may be unlikely that this book will be of interest to anyone outside the immediate area covered, there is just the possibility that some copies may go further afield, maybe to members of the Lockwood family now residing in other corners of this world of ours. For their benefit some explanation of the geographical position of our township its due.

Lockwood is situated in the County of West Yorkshire one of the northern counties of England and it is approximately 185 miles north of London, 25 miles north west of Sheffield, 25 miles east of Manchester and 21 miles south west of Leeds. Lying at the foot of the valley of the River Holme, a dale which compares favourably with the more famous Yorkshire Dales to the north in terms of beauty. Lockwocd, in the middle ages and earlier looked to Almondbury, 2 miles to the north east as its market town. During the early to middle 19th century Lockwood was an independent township within the West Riding of Yorkshire, but, along with Almondbury it amalgamated with Huddersfield (1% miles to the north) in the sixth decade of the 19th century to become part of the County Borough of Huddersfield. More recent changes in local government have made Huddersfield the centre of the Kirklees Metropolitan County area, which has a popula- tion of about 380,000 and an area of 160 square miles. As will become evident to the reader of this book, the basic industry of this area ts textiles, mainly woollen, although in by-gone years a few cotton and silk mills existed. Following the industrial revolution, engineering, originally in support of the textile industry, grew until today the numbers employed in each of these industries is about equal. The five and six storey textile mills, built of dressed local sandstone, are the trade- mark of the area and local stone was the main material used for all buildings until around 1930 when red brick came into fashion. Although an industrial area, there is still a great deal of agricul- tural land in Kirklees, devoted mainly to dairy farming and here again the local stone is very much in evidence. Hedgerows and thickets between fields are practically non-existent, for the fields are divided by dry stone walls, some stretching for miles in an unbroken line. As the land to the south-west rises into the Pennine mountains, the “‘back-bone of England”, the landscape changes to heather and bracken and this area is used for sheep farming. Compared to the Alps and Andes the Pennine range hardly class as mountains, Kirklees at the lowest point being but 300 feet above sea level and at the highest 1,800 feet. However, the valley sides are steep and road grades in the area are often 1 in 6 (17%). At the head of the various valleys in the area are man-made lakes supplying the water requirements of the towns below. These reservoirs, many of which are used for sailing and fishing, add to the beauty of the landscape and this beauty can easily be seen from the hundreds of miles of footpaths which criss-cross the area passing through woods and fields, from valley floor to moorland tops.

In my research into material for this book, I have been assisted by many people and to these ! wish to express my sincere thanks, particularly to Mrs. Haigh and her staff at Kirklees Local Studies Library. For support and advice I thank Councillor Clifford Stephenson, Alderman of the former County Borough of Huddersfield.

B. Clarke, Lockwood, October 1980.

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Original Workhouse, Life in the Workhouse, Crosland Moor Workhouse,

St. Luke’s Hospital.


Court Leet, Lockwood Vestry, Lockwood Local Board, Lockwood Sub



Swan Lane, Lockwood, c.1890 Lockwood Bar, c.1910 Toll House, Lockwood Bar, c.1910 Lockwood Bridge, c.1906 Blackmoorfoot Road, c.1890 Lockwood Road, c.1930 Steam Tram at Lockwood Bar, c.1882 Electric Tram in Bridge Street, c.1930 Lockwood Brewery, c.1895 Fenton Memorial School, Rashcliffe Moorend Comprehensive School Lockwood Musical Festival, c.1905 Children at Jumble, c.1880 Woodfield House Brewery House Original Red Lion Inn The Workhouse, (St. Luke’s Hospital) Town Hall

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Where is Lockwood? Although it will be agreed that Lockwood Bar is in Lockwood, the former boundaries include areas not now associated with the township. Also, while there has been a village of Lockwood for many hundreds of years, for the greater part of history the area was known as the Township of North Crosland.

Areas are usually defined by the local government boundaries or by the Parish boundary. In the case of Lockwood both these bodies were formed during the last century and each had different boundaries. The area of the Township of Lockwood was from the junction of the rivers Holme and Colne, along the Colne westward through Longroyd Bridge to Paddock Foot, then along Manchester Road to Pinfold, rising up the hillside to Crosland Hill, across to the Sands House, down past Butternab to the River Holme and following the river back to the junction with the River Colne. I

The original parish of Lockwood had the same boundary from the junction of the two rivers to Butternab. From there the parish boundary took a straight line across the valley to include Hall Bower, down to Daisy Royd and Stile Common, returning to the River Colne. The size of the original parish has contracted over the years as new churches were built and new parishes formed at Newsome, Armitage Bridge, Rashcliffe and Crosland Moor. Today the Parish of Lockwood is contained within an area from Mount Street to Yews Hill Road, above the railway tunnel to the station, along Yew Green Road, Moor End Road, Woodside Road to Butternab, down through Woodfield Cemetery, across the valley to Blagden Lane, along Barcroft Road, Lockwood Scar and Whitehead Lane before re-crossing the valley to Mount Street.

This book in general is confined to the area between the rivers Holme and Colne (i.e. Rashcliffe, Longroyd Bridge, Moor Bottom, Crosland Moor, Crosland Hill, Dungeon and Lockwood) with some references to Salford and Taylor Hill.

From the geologists point of view, Lockwood covers two distinctly different types of terrain, the Crosland Moor side being on Millstone Grit, hence the large number of quarry workings, some dating back to ancient times. To the Newsome side of the river the land covers the Lower Coal Measures and in the not too distant past many small coal mines were worked along the hill side. In ages gone by the land of Lockwood has undergone many changes in appearance. At the end of the last Ice Age, about 6,000 B.C., the lower parts of the valley were beneath Lake Calderdale. Even up to two or three thousand years ago the valley floor was a swampy marsh whilst the hill- sides were thickly wooded with scrub land forming the plateau above. Now of course, stone and brick have largely replaced all the natural features of our area.

Of the people living here prior to 900 years ago very little is known. Traces of a Neolithic Camp have been found on the hillside between the River Holme and Primrose Hill and earthworks of a small British Camp, pre-dating the Roman invasion can be found just outside our area, beyond Butternab Road. The main Roman outpost in this district was at Slack, Outlane, which was occupied between the years 11 and

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Assuming that a settlement was made here at Lockwood some 1,300 years ago, it would probably consist of just one farm. Exactly where this farm would be no-one will ever know but, considering that the land near the river would be swampy and the hillsides covered in trees, the original settler would look for some reasonably flat area that could easily be cleared. In this case the earliest cultivated area would possibly be around the present Swan Lane, being near the stream that ran down from Dryclough.

In that time the main town in our area was Dewsbury. The church there was founded around 700 A.D., and was probably a Minister attached to an Abbey. It is fairly certain that at that time a road or track passed through Lockwood, coming down from Almondbury and going up Swan Lane, through Milnsbridge towards Elland.

In 867 A.D. the Danes invaded England but there is no evidence that they entered our area. During the period 930-945 A.D. Norse settlers began to infiltrate, having arrived via

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1464—William Dodworth of Schelley granted and to farm let to John Hanson and William his son one place of land in Lockwood for a term of 23 years, paying 10/6d yearly. 1482—Richard Turton to Thomas Wortly, Rodger Amyas, Edmond Kay and Henry de Longley, all lands which he had of Nicholas Fenay in Almondbury, Lockwood and Pontefract. 1489—Rafe Dodworth gave to William, Thomas and Edmund Hanson a certain messuage in Lockwood, here to fore in tenancy of William Gudheire. 1539—Robert, son of John de Bellomonte, knight, grant and confirm to Henry his brother all the Manor of Crossland. 1525—Richard Lockwood of Collersley and Cecilia his wife (daughter of Richard Beaumont) received land from Edward Hirst and Henry Beaumont in Thurstonland and Collersley. 1528—Richard Lockwood, Gent, gave upon his death, all his lands in Lockwood, Crosland, Wharneby, and Thurstonland to his nephews, Robert Coventre, William Jagger, Christopher Walker, Wilfred Hurst and John Baugh.

The Beaumont family again seem to hold most of the land by 1577. An inquisition held into the Manor of Wakefield showed Richard Beaumont as holding the land our Lady Queen Elizabeth as from her Duchy of From then until the present time the Beaumont family continued to hold lands in our area, even though the Manor was sold in the 17th century to the Ramsden family.

The growth of farms was slow over the years and the area enclosed for cultivation small, the main part of the land being common for all, rich or poor, to graze their livestock on. The mid

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The remaining 225 acres were divided up between well over a hundred land owners, some ‘estates’ being only two poles in area (for the metricated reader 40 poles or perches = 1 rood, 4 roods = 1 acre).

The large holding by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway was the estate of Thornton Lodge.

Most of the local land remained in private estates until the 21st April, 1954, when Huddersfield Corporation purchased the Lockwood, Rashcliffe and Little Royd, Sunroyd and Spring Gardens, Mount Pleasant and Moor End Estates.

(*The date of these

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HOWARTH — A small suburb of Lockwood, founded by a family of the name of Howarth in 1589 but first mentioned as a residential area in 1777. The remains of this hamlet now lie hidden under the railway line and that part of David factory that originally was William Whiteley’s. The only remaining link is Howarth Lane which runs from Swan Lane towards Moor End. LANE END — That area of Crosland Moor aenerally referred to today as ‘Park Road’. The area is first mentioned in 1632, indicating a home built at the end of Thorntons Lane.

LOCKWOOD — Meaning the enclosure by the wood. Of Anglian origin and dating from around 630 A.D. As with Crosland, the name was later taken by a family living in the area. LOCKWOOD BRIDGE — Although the first bridge was built around 1200 A.D., the earliest record of houses in the area was not found until 1742. By 1776 the same area was being referred to as Salford. LONGROYDBRIDGE — The bridge was built around 1500 A.D. and the name of the area was in general use by 1560. The spelling of this word has varied over the years, from Longerode- brygge to Longroidbrig and all possible permutations between. The modern word coming into use around 1780. The meaning of the word is simply the bridge by the long field. MOOR END — Prior to the North Crosland Inclosure Act 1799/1802 all the land above Moor End was open common land. The first mention as a residential area was in 1764. NABCROFT

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Concrete evidence of the people who lived in the area of Lockwood does not appear until very late in terms of the long history of this planet. In the previous chapter we touched on the evidence of pre-historic remains found on the edge of our township, indicating that ancient man of four thousand and more years ago used our area as a hunting ground. It is not too hard to imagine this ancient hunter crouching concealed in the rushes, where now Lockwood bridge stands, waiting for his prey of deer or boar to come to the water to drink. A flash of flint tipped spear and the hunter would have food to carry back to his family on Crosland Moor.

The Romans came and conquered but again no evidence exists of any settlement here. Certainly, the straight line of route between the Roman fort at Slack (Outlane) and the Brigantian settlement at Castle Hill would indicate that Roman troops would have made use of the ford where the bridge now stands and hopefully, one day the odd Roman coin may be dug out of the river mud to add proof to this probability.

The Roman Empire collapsed and our country was invaded by many races but our area remained mainly untouched by these events. Eventually the Angles took control of this area, somewhere around the year 630 A.D. and it was around this time that the area was named Lock- wood. But who said

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Other names to make an early appearance in our area were Crosland, Beaumont and Moor. It is not possible to be certain that people of the same name were in fact members of the same family for the correct names always included ‘‘of’’. For example, John de Crosland might or might not have been related to William de Crosiand. However, as the population was still very small the chances are that people of the same name/area were of the same family. The details of the petty disputes of these times were recorded in the Wakefield Court Rolls and apart from giving some idea of the people living in the 13th century they also throw some light into the values, both monetary and moral, of the period. The names of the Lockwood family appear quite often in these records, more often as Jurors than defendants. The Court itself was divided into two parts, the Court proper dealing with serious offences and the Tourn dealing with minor matters, although sometimes the positions appear to be reversed. A selection of entries from

the records is given below although not all refer to the Lockwood area. At the Tourn of Hyperum held at Rastrick on the 23rd May, 1275, John Lockwood was a

Juror and the type of cases heard covered theft, unauthorised building, burglary, diversion of a footpath (fine 2/-), removal of a fence (fine 12d), unauthorised footpath (fine 4/-), Villeins leaving the Manor without a licence (order for arrest). Also at this Court, Maude Crosland was fined 6d for brewing and selling ale without a licence.

At the Court at Wakefield at Whitsuntide 1275, John de Ravensfeud held two stots (young bullocks) seized at Lockwood and taken to Wakefield as strays. Christina, daughter of Richard de Kirk was ‘deflowered’ without a licence, incurring a fine of 6d. The wife of William de Bellemonte (Beaumont) was fined two shillings for allowing forty goats to escape onto the Lords land.

At the Tourn at Rastrick, held 23rd November, 1284, Peter de Nettleton who had broken the head of Thomas Edward was fined 6d. Thomas, for the same offence was also fined 6d.

On the 20th July, 1286, a complaint was brought against Peter Tyrsi saying he had put his sons to book learning and had married off his daughters. The Jury did not know if he had licence to do this and they were to make further enquiries. (This entry shows that learning amongst the lower classes was not encouraged). The town of Crosland was fined 12d for the non-attendance at the Tourn of Adam de Lockwode and Adam himself was also fined 12d. John, the son of Roger was fined 6d for violating Christina, the daughter of Richard, one of the Earls villeins. (Missing Jury service cost 12d, raping a peasant girl cost 6d). John, son of Cicely de Croslande complained against John, son of Hancok de Collersley (Cowlersley) for drawing blood.

At the Court held at Holy Trinity 1285, John de Dychton complained that Sara de Herte- sheved (Hartshead) wounded his horse with an axe, the horse died and he claimed the value of

twenty shillings. On the 24th June, 1286, the case was heard of John de Lynthayt (Linthwaite) —V—

Dysonisia de Mallesheved (today known as Mole’s Head, a small hamlet

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it was reported to the Court in June 1307 that Alice, wife of John Kyde of Wakefield was abducted by night by the servant of Nicholas, the Parish Chaplain of Wakefield, on the Chaplain’s horse and by his command and with the consent, she was taken to Ayllisbiry with goods belonging to her husband, to wit, 11d taken from her

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The Lockwoods of Lockwood are probably best remembered in history for their part in the Elland Feud. There are many detailed accounts and stories of this affair available in Kirklees Library and therefore only a brief outline is given here. In 1341 (some accounts say earlier) John de Ellande and his men came into our area one night and murdered John de Lokwodde of Lokwodde Hall, Hugh de Quarmby and Robert de Bellemonte at Crosseland Hall. An obituary written at the time describes de Lokwodde as

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The tale of the Elland Feud shows that by the year 1300 the Lockwood area contained a number of isolated farms but as yet no village had formed. The ‘well-to-do’ farmers, now supple- menting their incomes as Clothiers, such as the Lockwoods and Croslands, lived in substantial stone houses, while the poorer people lived in timber and wattle buildings. In the Subsidy Roll of 1379 there are thirty adults listed in North Crosland and 22 in Crosland Fosse. (The names listed suggest that Lockwood of today was included in the Crosland Fosse area), with 16 houses in the first area and 15 in the latter. The names of these ancient ancestors were, North Crosland: Henry and Joan Benneman, William & Agnes Armitage, Gilbert & Agnes More, Thomas & Alice Conehall, John & Agnes Denton, John & Emma Rouley, Adam & Joan Disconson, John & Agnes Milner, Richard Crosland, Thomas & Agnes Goldhill, William & Agnes Ardiand, Roger & Joan Day, John Hungate, Richard & Agnes More, Richard & Joan Benild. In Crosland Fosse: William & Isabel Burgh, William Burgh junior, William & Isabel Walker, Thomas & Isabel Lockwood, Thomas Cros- land, John & Alice Denton, Simon & Emma Akirland, William Lockwood, Thomas Sclaster, Adam Dison, John Bautre, John Brydeley, John & Isabel Smyth, Elizabeth de Lynwayte, Cristiana Appleyearde and Matthew Walkerre. One may wonder how accurate this list is, for, with one exception, no children over the age of sixteen were living with their parents, which, for a farming area, iS surprising.

By this time the Manorial system was breaking up and the percentage of people classed as Villeins was quite small in this area. A Survey of 1340 showed only nine villeins and 53 free and term tenants in Almondbury. In the final stage of the Manor system the population was divided

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The 16th century was a time of greatness for England and a time of change. The first major upheaval in this period occurred in 1534 when that merry monarch, Henry VIII had upset the religious applecart by breaking away from the Church of Rome. Following this he closed down most of the religious houses, throwing thousands of monks and tens of thousands of lay workers onto the labour market, thus filling the country with wandering paupers and due to this and to international factors a rate of high inflation was caused. A Cost of Living Index (prepared by more learned persons than the compiler of this work) for the period shows that, taking a base figure of 100 in the year 1451, the index rose by 1565 to 290 and by 1586 to 350. While jumping ahead of the period being covered in this section, it might be of interest to quote index figures for other years: —

1607 = 450 1764 = 700 1940 = 1.500 1615 = 550 1783 = 800 1942 = 2,000 1631 = 600 1795 = 1,000 1949 = 3,000 1711 = 889 1805 = 1,500 1951 = 3,500 1756 = 602 1851 = 961 1954 = 4,000

A calculation, done by the staff of Kirklees Reference Library shows that between 1540 and 1979 the cost of living or comparative cost had increased by a factor of 100. Based on this, a sheep worth 2/- in 1540 was worth in today’s values £10. Forty years on a sheep cost 6/4d. which, again converting to today’s value, was worth £30.

Henry was followed in 1547 by Edward VI. He died in 1553 and was succeeded by Mary I. Mary restored the (Roman) Catholic religion and during these times if you said the wrong (religious) word in the wrong place you were very likely to be burnt at the stake, a fate shared by many hun- dreds during Mary’s reign.

One year after the period being covered started, Mary was ousted in favour of Elizabeth I, “‘Good Queen While national events hardly touched on the lives of local people never the less this was a period of great events for England, the days of Sir Francis Drake, and the Spanish Armada, of Sir Walter Raleigh and his introduction into the country of potatoes and tobacco, the days when the ‘New World’ was becoming popular in terms of emigration. Certainly the possibility of war with Spain had a physical sign seen by our ancestors, for it was at this time that a beacon fire was prepared on Castle Hill, part of a chain of beacons throughout the land, to be lit if and when Spain invaded. As the reader probably knows the Spanish Armada was destroyed in July 1588 without the loss of a single English ship, classed as the greatest English victory until the Battle of Britain of 1940. This was a period of prosperity, a time in London of Shakespeare, of high fashion when men dressed in all the colours of the peacock and women bared their bosoms ina manner that on occasion outdid anything of today’s fashions. On the ‘Home Front’ Elizabeth took steps to combat inflation, unemployment and vagrancy.

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APPLEYARD of CROSLAND HILL — Starting with Abel and Esabella who died in 1595 and 1591 respectively, there were fourteen descendants living in 1652. A well-established family, the earliest trace found is in the Wakefield Court Rolls in July 1286. An instance of youthful marriage is found when on 2nd February 1578, 13 year old Richard Appleyearde took 8 year old Elizabeth Waterhouse as his wife.

ARMITAGE of DUNGEON — Thomas, born 1573, moved from Longroyd Bridge to Dungeon upon his marriage in 1597 to Joan Parkin of Marsden. Of their five children, John the eldest son remained at Dungeon, marrying Elizabeth Hawkyard of Linthwaite in 1618, being joined by John Foster who married Hester Armitage in 1627.

ARMITAGE of LOCKWOOD — A total of 39 people are listed in this family, springing from George and Joan Armitage, born in the early 1500’s. The probable site of the Armitage home was the substantial farmhouse which once stood near the present-day junction of Victoria Road and Swan Lane.

ARMITAGE of LONGROYDBRIDGE — The head of this family, William, was a brother of George of Lockwood. Another numerous family, 38 people being named, only two male mem- bers were still alive and living at Longroydbridge at the end of 1652.

ATKINSON of LOCKWOOD — George Atkinson came from outside the parish, arriving Lockwood in 1596 upon his marriage to Grace Hanson. There were no male children and the line passed to John Heptonstall who married George’s daughter Grace in 1627.

BATTY of YEWS — Thomas Batty came to Yews from Overthong around 1606. Although not listed, he probably married into the Hanson family or the Fayrebanke family. Of his three children, two died in infancy, the other, Jane, married a Francis Hinchliffe and went to live out at Hol me. I

BEAUMONT of BYRKES — Commencing with Jacob, born in 1495, he had a son also named Jacob, whose first wife, Alice, bore no children. Alice died in 1569 and 10 months later Jacob married Elizebeth Armitage who gave him eight children, her last two confinements produc- ing twins. All the children left Byrkes upon marriage except Humphrey who married Elizebeth Beaumont in 1606, however, they had no children and this line came to an end in 1627.

BEAUMONT of LOCKWOOD — Starting with Henry, born in 1540, he had the misfortune to be the only person in our area to die from the plague in the outbreak of 1563. This gave rise to one of the very few entries of general comment to be found in the Parish Register, noting that Henry was buried by his wife, Elizabeth, then four months pregnant and by his daughter, also Elizabeth. The line continued through the second child, William, and through his son Nicholas.

BINNS of LOCKWOOD — This was not a permanent Lockwood family and two separate lines occur. The first to be mentioned is Richard who married Joan Armitage of Lockwood in 1579, staying in the area for a year or so before moving to Thorpe. Richard had a child by Joan the year before their marriage and this son, also Richard, in later years married into the Armitage family of Longroyd Bridge.

The second family, consisting of Robert (born in Thorpe in 1585 and probably a son of Richard), his wife Sara whom he married in 1632 and their son John, born 1636 were described in 1636 as living at Highgate, being the earliest reference to the cottage still standing in Hanson Lane. Robert was therefore probably employed by the Beaumonts of Whitley as a gamekeeper for Dun- geon Wood.

BINNS of LONGROYDBRIDGE — Richard, son of Richard, originally of Lockwood but brought up at Thorpe, married Mary Armitage of Longroydbridge in 1619 and settled in with the Armitage family. Of their six children, four died while small children. BLACKBURNE of BUTTERNAB — Michael Blackburne married Mary Croslande of North Crosland in 1637. Mary died in 1650 and following her death there is no further trace, suggesting that Michael and his two children, Mary age 13 and Michael, ten, left the area. BLACKBURN of LOCKWOOD — Information is very scant on this small family. Hum- phrey arrived in Lockwood from another parish somewhere around 1584. His marriage is not listed but he was friendly with both the Feelde and Fayrebank families. His son Edmund married Mary Brooksbank of Lockwood in 1609 but they moved to Armitage Bridge. Of Humphrey, his wife


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and daughter, Jane, there is no further mention and they probably left the parish.

BLACKBURNE of LONGROYDBRIDGE — Only one entry for the baptism of Susan, child of Humphrey, on 29.9.1639 exists for this family.

BOOTHROID of LOCKWOOD — Thomas, born at Longroydbridge in 1580 married into and lived with the Hirste family of “The Green’ in today’s Meltham Road. Of his son, George, born in 1608, nothing further is known, probably leaving the parish to marry.

BOOTHROID of LONGROYDBRIDGE — Asmall family starting with Thomas (father of the above Thomas) who married Joan Beaumont in 1573. Their other son, George, carried on the line, passing to his son Thomas.

BOYES of LONGROYDBRIDGE. Richard came from Linthwaite, had one son, also Richard who married Joan Hanson of Lockwood. This marriage was childless, bringing the line to an end.

BRAMMELL of LONGROYDBRIDGE. Othnelis Brammell came from Huddersfield, had two children, Mary who married John Tetterton of Longroydbridge, and William who married Ann Berry of Hag in 1631. At the end of the period William had two sons to carry on the line.

BRAY of DUNGEON. Only two entries relate to this family, the second being of interest in that it refers to Armitage Mill, the ancient Fulling Mill, usually known as Dungeon Mill, standing near the present Park Valley Mills.

BROOK of YEWS — Starting with Edmund, born 1593 at Longroidbrigge, he married Ann Crowdar, also of Longroidbrigge, in 1625. They had eight children, the first being born before the wedding day. Both parents died within a day of each other, leaving a youngest child of two months and the oldest, Edmund aged 16. Within three months of his parents’ death, Edmund married Rose Tunnacliffe and by 1655 they had three children.

BROOK of LOCKWOOD — Related to the Brooks of Yews and Longroidbrigge, John born 1621 at Longroidbrigge married Dorethy Armitage of Almondbury and they had five children.

BROOK of LONGROIDBRIGGE. Stemming from brothers, Edmund and John, born in the early

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CROSSLANDE of NORTH CROSLAND — Closely linked with the Crosland Hill family, the original North Crosland family died out in 1624. A second line moved in from Crosland Hill, headed by Thomas, born 1562, who married Dorethy Kaye of York in 1588. They had eight children and the seventh, Nathaniel, born in 1602 provided the line to which Crosland Hil! Hall returned. Nathaniel became a Captain of Horse in the army of Charles I during the Civil War, dying in 1644, the line passed to his son Thomas, born 1627, to his son Thomas born 1650, and he, inheriting the hall, sold it in the year of his death, 1707, to Matthew Wilkinson of Greenhead.

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FRAUNCE of LONGROIDBRIDGE — Originating from a Frenchman named Janyn who in 1379 was a servant of Henry de Rissheworth of Hipperholme, our local branch starts with Thomas, born around 1520 who had three sons. The sons all married and brought their families up in the same area. Later generations moved out of the area but there were still 13 members of the line at Longroidbridge at the end of the period being covered. GLEDHILL of CROSLAND HILL — Henry married Margaret Croslande of Crosland Hill on 21st December 1574, leaving it a little late, for their son, John, was born forty days later. Moving to Pymrode in 1576 a later generation returned to Crosland Hill around 1650.

GLEDHILL of NORTH CROSLAND — Edward, who had married Joan Langefelde in 1565 arrived in North Crosland around 1580. Three of his four children died unmarried, the fourth, Dorethy, married John Haghe of Longroidbridge in 1611.

GODDARD of NORTH CROSLAND — John married Elizabeth Fayrebanke of Yews in 1624. Originally living at Milnsbridge, the family lived from 1629 to 1631 in North Crosland. GREENE of BUTTERNAB — John, born at Holme in 1600 married Beatrix Croslande in 1625, moving into the Crosiande land at Butternab. GREENE of LONGROIDBRIDGE — Jacob, brother of John, arrived at Longroidbridge in 1628, having married a local girl. Jacob had an affair with Elizabeth Lockwood, resulting in an illegitimate child in 1632, following which the family moved to Overthwong.

GREGSON of LOCKWOOD — The original Richard lived and died at Almondbury but his widow, son and daughter-in-law moved to Lockwood.

HANSON of CROSLAND HILL — Thomas was born in 1578 into the ancient family living at Lockwood. Upon his marriage in 1606 to Agnes Scolfeild of Lingards Wodde the family set up home at Milnsbridge but moving to Crosland Hill by 1618 where the third child, Robert, was born.

HANSON of LOCKWOOD — The earliest trace of this family dates back to the year 1307 when Roger, son of Hanne, farmed at Fixby, a branch of this family settling in Lockwood around 1464.

HANSON of YEWS — A branch of the Lockwood family with probably both farms adjoining in the present-day Moor End district. A branch from this family settled in Farniey Tyas in 1624.

HANSON of LONGROIDBRIDGE — Richard, born around 1490 at Lockwood, lived with his wife Margaret at Longroidbrygge but, as there were no children the line died out.

HODGESON of LONGROIDBRIDGE. — Only one entry exists, that of the baptism of an illegitimate child, John, in 1563 to Mabel Hodgeson.

HAWKEYEARDE of NORTH CROSLAND — John married Joan Hoile in 1568 but the Marriage was childless.

HAYGHE of CROSLAND HILL — Starting with William born 1575 at Longroidbridge, he married Ann Woodeheade of Netherthong in 1590. Four children resulted and their eldest son, Edmund, who married Susan Croslande of

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HEMYNGEWAYE of LOCKWOOD — Thomas, who died 1558 produced only two daughters one a spinster died 1588, the other moving away upon her marriage in 1589. HEPTONSTALL of LOCKWOOD — John married Grace Atkinson of Lockwood in 1627. Of their four children only John married and he and his family moved to Thwonguebrig (Thongs- bridge) from where his wife came. HINTCHLIFFE of LONGROIDBRIDGE — A family name originating in Cartworth town- ship, this particular branch came from Holme in 1633. HOILE of LONGROIDBRIDGE — John, born outside the parish around 1570, was des- cribed as ‘bailiff’, probably being a Constable appointed by the Court Leet. He had four children, the line continues through Edward, born 1607.

HORSFALL of LOCKWOOD — Two brothers with separate families lived in Lockwood with a third brother at Nabcroft. Richard had five children, two sons marrying but leaving the area, John to North Crosland and Richard to Almondbury. Edward had nine children by Lucy Brookes- banke whom he married in 1562. Of these only Abraham married and he moved to Almondbury.

HORSFALL of NABCROFT — George had only one son, also George, and he moved to Lingarths with his wife, Sybil Howarth of Lockwood. The marriage appears to have been childless.

HORSFALL of NORTH CROSLAND — John of the Lockwood family married in 1609 into the Croslande of North Crosland family. The sons of the union died unmarried.

HORTON of LOCKWOOD — Originating in North Crosland, Abraham was born in a branch which had moved to Marsden. His first wife Dorethy died in June 1618, after producing two children. Abraham remarried in September of the same year, his second wife, Mary, having eight children. It was at the time of this second marriage that the family moved to Lockwood.

HORTON of NORTH CROSLAND — Commencing with John, born 1507 and who lived to be eighty, his son Edmund made his home at Marsden and his son, John, eventually moved to Nabcroft.

HORTON of NABCROFT — John, mentioned in the previous entry, originating in Mars- den spent most of his life outside the parish, coming to Nabcroft in 1610.

HOWARTH of LOCKWOOD — Founders of the area of Howarth, today buried beneath the railway and David factory, the only remaining link being Howarth Lane, running from Swan Lane towards Moor End. Two brothers head this family in the mid 1500’s.

HYRSTE of LOCKWOOD — This family probably were the inheritors of the original Lockwood Hall, which, according to some historians, is the house now known as The Green, standing in Meltham Road. Starting with William who was a nephew of the last of the direct line of the Lockwood family, the line passes through two Edwards to Robert, born 1583.

HYRSTE of LONGROIDBRIDGE — Probably connected with the Lockwood family, the link is not clear. Starting with John, born around 1520, the last male heir was his grandson Edward.

JACKSON of DUNGEON — Thomas was born, married and died outside the parish, only residing at Dungeon between 1615 and 1636, during which time he had five children.

KAYE of LOCKWOOD — All Kaye’s in our area are descended from John Kay of Wakefield who acquired the Manor of Farnley Tyas around the year 1379. The Lockwood branch in the period being covered commenced with Henry, born around 1500 and who died in 1564. By 1650 he had 13 descendants living at Lockwood and other male lines had established homes at Liphill, Thick Hollins and Meitham. One small breath of scandal occurred when a great grandson of Henry, having lost his wife in 1629, had an illegitimate child by Widow Kippax in 1641.

KAYE of LONGROIDBRIDGE — Arthur, from outside the parish, marricd Elizabeth Beaumont of Okes in 1599 and settled at Longroidbridge. Their one daughter married Michael Hayghe of Lockwood in 1624. Of their two sons, Arthur and his wife settled at Almondbury. The other, William, married into a local family and continued the line on the home farm. KAY of YEWS — Another Arthur, born 1580, headed this family, the line passing through his son John to his grandson William, born 1639.


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KEPAX of LOCKWOOD — Richard, complete with family, arrived in Lockwood from out- side the parish in 1629. Thomas, son of Richard, died in 1639 and his widow, Susan, had a child by Edmund Kaye in 1641. LITTLEWOD of LONGROIDBRIDGE — Richard, born 1598 at Oldfield married into the Fayrebanke farm in 1624 but the following year he, his wife Jane and baby son Richard moved to Meltham. LITTLE of LONGROIDBRIDGE — Jenkyn, born 1470 appears to have had only one son John, born 1498 and he moved to Almondbury. LOCKWOOD of DUNGEON — Headed by John, born 1512, the male line had died out by the early 17th century. Two remaining females, Joan and Mary both marrying into the White- head family, John of Castle Hill making his home at Dungeon. LOCKWODDE of LOCKWOOD — The earliest record of this family dates back to 1236 and throughout the middle ages they were a family of some importance, frequently being jurors at the Manor Court of Wakefield. From research carried out by Clr. Clifford Stephenson of Almondbury, it is fairly certain that all persons of the name Lockwood owe their beginnings to our township. LONGBOTHAM of LOCKWOOD — Coming from outside the parish, Abraham and his wife arrived in Lockwood around 1640, three children being born to them. LONGBOTHAM of NORTH CROSLAND — Although listed as North Crosland, Anthony who married Joan Blackburn of Armitage Bridge in 1634, did not stay long in one place. Their first child, Agnes, was born at Marsden, Anthony, 1636 at North Crosland, Elizabeth 1637 at Crosland Hill and the fourth child, Grace, died at Lockwood in 1647. LONGLEY of LOCKWOOD — John, at the time of his death in 1569 was described as ‘Bailiff’, being the local Constable. The marriage was childless, his widow, Joan, died in 1586. MARSDEN of CROSLAND HILL —

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SYKES of LONGROIDBRIDGE — Starting with Jacob of Lyngards Wodde who married Mary Armitage of Longroidbridge in 1593, from his two sons he had fourteen grandchildren, making for a strong family line. SYKES of YEWS — Only mentioned in 1634 and 1636 upon the baptism and burial of Jacob. His father, John, was born in Lingards in 1614. TAYLOR of DUNGEON — William, born 1602 at Coates had an illegitimate child by Susan Firth in 1632 and then married Grace Armytage of Armitage Bridge, 1634. TAYLOR of NORTH CROSLAND — Acompact family starting with John and Joan, born around 1528, they had two sons. Roger had a childless marriage with Jane Crosland. Although John had six children, four died at an early age and of the other two, Susan born 1590 and Edward born 1600 there is no further trace. TETTERTON of LONGROIDBRIDGE — John, from outside the parish, married Mary Brammell of Longroidbridge in 1616. Sometime after 1623 the family left the parish. THORNELL of LOCKWOOD — (By 1615 named Thornhill). Headed by John, his brother Brian married Jane Kaye of Woodsome Hall, making a link with one of the ‘noble’ families of the district. THORNTON of LONGROIDBRIDGE — Thomas, born 1590 at Netherton, married into a Longroidbridge family, although the event is not recorded. THORNTON of LANE END, NABCROFT — Avery large family. How many houses or farms they occupied at Nabcroft is not known but as there were five families in the early

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The Virgin Queen died in 1603 and the throne passed then to James VI of Scotland, thus laying open the path to the foundation of Great Britain, although it was not until 1707 that the British Parliament was formed. The year 1605 was the time of the Gunpowder Plot, still remem- bered every 5th November. This was a period of growing religious unrest, with Roman Catholics on one side and Puritans on the other and an ill defined Church of England in the middle.

Charles I ascended the throne in 1625 and partly through his disputes with Parliament and partly through fears that he might cause the country to revert to the Roman Catholic faith, civil war broke out. This war touched on the lives of our local people, many went to fight, most on the Royalist side. army ravaged our area and carried out widespread plundering. The war ended in 1646 and the ‘Commonwealth’ government was formed which later, in 1653, developed into a Dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell, with our ancestors living in a society which, on the surface, disapproved of worldly pleasures. However, restoration of the Monarchy was not far away for in 1660 Charles returned and soon another period of moderate prosperity commenced.

How did our ancestors live? What did they own, what were their homes like? At this distance in time one can only give a general idea of conditions. It has been said of the reign of Elizabeth that the entire population of England was ill for half the year, the upper classes from over-eating and the lower classes from under eating. We had none of the over-eating class in Lock- wood and the people we have to deal with are the farmer cum clothier and the labourer. Again, it is hard to generalise for this period of nearly one hundred years was, although a time of inflation and high unemployment, it was also a time of rebuilding and improvement in living standards for many.

if we look at a local farmer of substance, such as the Appleyard or Crosland families, we know their houses to be built of solid stone, probably built at the beginning of this period (such as Crosland Hill Hall). The great fireplace of these houses was then a new innovation for, up to the end of the 15th century the fire central in the middle of the hall with a hole in the roof as a hope- ful outlet for the smoke was still standard practice. The roof would, on the better houses, be of stone slabs, still popular on early 19th century property. There is reason to believe that on less imposing buildings thatch was used. As late as 1772 the Overseers of the Poor for Crosland built two houses on Common Land at Green Gate Knowle and these had thatch roofs. (The cost of building these two houses came to £7. 19. 11 M., including two fireplaces at 21/-, 2/6d for foundations and 2d a yard for thatching). There was also a custom of white-washing the exterior stone work. When the custom started is not known but the practice continued until the early part of the 19th century. (A lime pit existing in the Dockery until! well into that century). Glass was a very expensive commodity and only the wealthy Could afford glazed windows. In fact the word ‘window’ is derived from ‘wind-eye’, indicating the draught to be expected from these apertures. So, the farmhouse of 1560 would have no glass windows but would have heavy wooden shutters to keep out the cold night air. The ‘hall’ of the house was gradually losing its importance and newer houses were divided into smaller rooms to give greater privacy, the parlour becoming the main downstairs room.

Of the interior, the walls would probably be plastered and in some cases even painted with murals, although in our area the farmer/clothier was probably too busy earning his living to bother with such frills. The ground floor would, in the better houses, be of stone flags, the upper floor being of wood planks, both being devoid of any form of covering.

The furniture, contrary to film and television sets, would be sparse by modern standards. Needless to say there would be no colour television in one corner with hi-fi stereo in the other. Even a chair was the height of luxury and if there was one at all it would be reserved for the head of the household. Any chair would be of solid timber, straight backed and minus any upholstery for added comfort. The rest of the family would have to make do with stools or chests, the chest serving the double purpose of seat and storage space, for the cupboard was also a rare feature for general storage although there would be one for food. Certainly there would be a table, maybe even a second one of the trestle type, both of rough cut timber. Pots, pans etc. would be the minimum number for the members of the family. Kettles and cooking pots would be of iron, spoons and ladles of lead (the modern knife and form were yet to be invented). Plates would bea mixture of wood (trenchers) and pewter, drinking vessels would be of pewter.


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Upstairs would be the beds, everyone would have a bed, even though it might be shared with four or five others. The main bed was of course for the farmer and his wife but even this was probably a small cramped affair with a solid wood base on which the mattress lay. Sheets were a luxury but there would be a coverlet and no doubt a bolster and pillows. Possibly, if there had been a good harvest, the farmer might have invested in one of the new fangled beds which had a web of ropes to support the flock filled mattress. For a few more shillings he might even have a canopy over and curtains around the bed, more in the hope of keeping out draughts rather than to give privacy to the events of the marriage bed. The younger children would sleep in the same room as the parents (up to six a bed) and their bed would be of low construction so that during the day it would tuck away under the main bed.

The prosperous farmer would eat and drink fairly well. Of drink, tea, coffee and cocoa were things of the future and the whole family would sup of home brewed ale, probably mulled in winter, milk being served to the younger members. Breakfast at six or seven would consist of cold meat, pottage or a couple of rashers of bacon, home-made brown wholemeal bread and ale. Dinner, taken about 11 a.m. would include possibly meat or fowl with cabbage, peas and parsnips, followed by tea at 6

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not grow anything to cut costs but had to pay in hard cash for all his supplies, or more generally, do without. The house (or hovel) of the labourer was usually a single or at best two roomed affair, built of a timber frame with a lath and wattle infil. A floor of packed earth on which to lay his rush packed mattress with a shaped wooden log to serve as a pillow. Meat at every meal was not for him nor his family, black rye bread and oat cakes being his staple diet. Of pleasures and pas- times, the same were available to him as to the farmer/clothier, the only difference being that the

labourer could not afford them. Who were the people living in this era? A document in the Whitley Beaumont file dated 1st

August, 1502, gives what is probably a comprehensive list of the major farmers cum clothiers in our area at that time. This document is an agreement regarding Common Rights between the Beaumonts and Ralph Dodworth (this family had left our area by 1560), William Kay (connected with the Kays of Woodsome), Richard Lokewodde, Nicholas Fyney (by 1550 had moved to Fenay), John Appyleyerde, Thomas Hanson, John Lokwodde, John Dyson, Henry Kay, Edmund Hanson, John Hanson and John Hermitage

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The Croslands remained the wealthiest family in our area for some considerable time but, this very wealth meant that eventually Crosland Hill became too ‘provincial’ and the main stream of the family, with it’s wealth left the area before the end of the 17th century.

Contrasts are also found between Wills. Robert Kaye in his, dated 1665, left in cash £262, which included twelve pence to each of his servants (but doesn’t state how many servants he had). In contrast, Thomas Spivie in his Will left in cash the total sum of one shilling, which he gave to his nephew William.

The Haigh family were improving their fortunes during the 17th century. William being the owner of the Dungeon Fulling Mills together with various lands and also woods below Butternab, which provided the timber for the repair of the Mills, in particular, the two water wheels. In his Will of 1676 William also gave away £200 in cash.

With the information gleaned from the parish registers, wills, the Beaumont file and other sources, something of a picture of local life of some four hundred years ago can be built up. No doubt as in any age there were good days and there were bad days, weeks on end when nothing of interest happened in the township. No doubt in the evenings the youth of the area would gather on the village green (today’s area being at the junction of Bridge Street and Meltham Road) to exchange tit-bits of gossip. The Fairbank family would provide plenty of this, with more illegiti- mate births than legitimate births in the family. Other wrong-doers would also cause gossip, such as William Kaye of Ewes, Labourer, who was charged at Wakefield Court in July 1640 that on the 16th May he assaulted and maltreated at Quarmby James Walker and took from him 10/2d in money and two mares valued at £5. William pleaded guilty and was fined two shillings. An event that no doubt had the entire township worried about the possibility of widespread deaths from that horrific disease bubonic plague, was the death of Henry Beaumont in September 1563. The entry in the parish register stated

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compared with the end of the 18th century and on into the 19th century when a figure between I ten and sixteen became common. It is a temptation to think that in the 16th/17th centuries many still-births were not recorded, yet the parish registers bear many entries of the burial of unbaptised babies, sometimes even the word foetus being entered where the baby was premature. This indicates that in general parents were keen upon having a Christian burial for their off-spring. From this it would seem that, while we know from contemporary literature that the higher social classes had knowledge of birth control methods, this knowledge was also available to the class of people inhabiting our area. This knowledge would appear to have been lost in the years running up to the Victorian period, with its double standards and narrowmindedness in matters of sex, which of course resulted in the staggering increase in population throughout the land in the 19th century. Another factor to emerge from study of the registers is the high number of marriages within a family group, e.g. John Broadhead married Elizabeth Broadhead, 13th July, 1614. Whether marriages of this kind were arranged to preserve land and estate within a family unit or, being related, friendship developed into love, it is not possible to be certain. Arranged marriages were still common in this period but it was a custom that was dying out and many local Wills advise sons to take a wife ‘‘where they

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William Dawson of Dodlea in Lockwood, Gent., who departed this life 26th September 1732 age 72, also Mary his wife, daughter of Joseph Haigh of Netherton, died 18th April 1718 age 50. Also William their son who died 2nd April 1722 age 26. Also Joseph their son who died 4th March 1709 age 6.

Batty of Crosland Hill and Dryclough who are eminent in Law. Daniel Batty of Crosland Hill, Gent., died October 1760 age 57. Anna his wife died 1784 age 74. John Battye of Crosland Hill their son, died 6th June 1795 age 65. John, son of Daniel and Ann Battye of Dry Clough, died 26th April 1810 age 12. Anna, wife of the above Daniel, died 10th October 1831 age 68. Ellen Crosland Battye, daughter of Daniel and Anna Crosland Battye of Lockwood died 21st February 1836 age 14 months.

Joseph Sykes, son of Joseph, died 5th June 1726. Sara his daughter died 31st December 1727. John his son died 4th January 1727. Anne his daughter died 30th April 1728. Joseph his father died 22nd May 1765 age 78.

William Clarkson died 24th April 1740 age 53. William his son died 18th October 1779 age 18.

William Sykes of Lockwood died 18th April 1759, age 72.

Anne North, wife of John North of Lockwood died 29th May 1761 age 73. Matthew, son of John died 19th May 1768 age 61. John, son of Benjamin died 26th August 1763 age 11 months. Benjamin, son of Benjamin died 26th August 1768 age 5. James, son of Benjamin died 5th January 1770 age 5 months. Ellen, wife of Benjamin died 5th January 1794 age 62. Benjamin son of John died 5th April 1795 age 70. William son of Benjamin died 7th January 1821 age 49. Margaret, daughter of Benjamin died 14th July 1831 age 57.

Paul North of Lockwood died 24th February 1763 age 22 weeks. Richard Rushton died 5th July 1768 age 4 years. Elizabeth first wife of George North died 18th October 1803 age 62. Ann, second wife of George North died 18th August 1816 age 77. George North died 11th December 1817 age 77 years.

Mary Sykes, daughter of John of Lockwood, died 9th February 1779 age 9 years. John died 19th May 1799 age 70. Alice, wife of John died 16th March 1802 age 72.

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Joseph Armitage Merchant John Dyson Clothier Daniel Battye Clothmerchant John Fairbank " Joseph Hirst Clothdresser John Haigh Butcher John Hewitt Joiner Joshua Hall Blacksmith Benjamin Ingham

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The Industrial Revolution and the subsequent forcing of home industry workers into the large mills, commenced with the invention of the Spinning Jenny in 1764, followed by the Water Frame in 1767, the Mule in 1779 and the Power Loom in 1785. The new kings of industry were not slow in exploiting the working classes and their treatment of children will forever remain a black spot on the history of this country. Two classes of children were employed, the ‘free’ children from the local area and the ‘apprentice’ children who were actually bought, for cash, by the mill owners from the Workhouses. The apprentice children were purchased at the age of five years and kept in bondage until 21 years old, not that many lived that long. The ‘free’ children fared little better, a five year old child being expected to work from 5 a.m. until 8 o’clock at night or until 10 o’clock if the mill was busy. To help them keep awake they were not allowed to sit down and the overseer, complete with a whip was always on hand to ensure they worked each and every minute of the day. If the children were lucky they would have half an hour for breakfast and the same for dinner. The working week was seven days but on Sundays they only worked from 6 a.m. to 12 noon cleaning the machines. These are the conditions that actually existed here in Lockwood, the mills still standing today are where these children suffered. The names of Lockwood men, mill owners, can be seen on petitions to Parliament pleading that any reduction of the hours worked by the children, or any improvement in the conditions in which they worked would do serious harm to their profits. It is hard in our day to imagine little girls and boys of five and six years of age crossing Lockwood Bridge from their homes in Waterside at 3 o’clock in the morning to start work at the mill. Ona diet of salted beef, oat cakes or wheaten bread their thin bodies would hardly be fit to survive the day ahead, but survive it and many more to come they must unless relieved by death. Before a Commission of 1831 a Samuel Colson said this regarding his own children. ‘In the busy time they start at 3 in the morning and are kept busy until half past ten at night. They have a break of a quarter hour for breakfast and half an hour for dinner but they have to clean the machines during these breaks. They are not allowed to sit down while at work and should they be slow or talk they are whipped by the Overlooker. We get them home about 11 and give them supper but they often fall asleep with the food in their mouths. My wife dare not go to bed at all for the children must be wakened again by 2

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5.30 a.m. of anyone under 21 years old but still the power of inspection was lacking and mill owners were still laughing all the way to the bank. The year 1847 was the year of the now famous “10 hour bill for which Richard Oastler did much good work and which, with public opinion behind it, at last forced the mill owners to abide by the law of the land. So gradually an end came to shame of this country but many thousands did not survive to see the day. Of those that did most were maimed for the remainder of their life, many who had taken the law into their own hands had paid severe penalties before magistrates who often had a vested interest in the factory system.

Of the law breakers the Luddites were probably the best known, although they were really more concerned with the lack of jobs brought about by the new machines rather than the long hours and bad conditions. This organisation was formed at the Cropping Shop of John Woods at Longroyd Bridge and they carried out many acts of vengeance against both machines and Masters throughout the West Riding.

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Peace rejoicing came to Lockwood on the 25th May 1856 when a bullock and a sheep were roasted whole in the street at Lockwood Bar. Talking of food, the housewife of those times would pay for beef, 5%d per pound, mutton 4d per pound, pork

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May 23rd saw an event of local importance. On that day the very first road locomotive in the Huddersfield area made its first run. This predecessor of Pickfords or Wynns huge engines for abnormal loads was built at the Lockwood

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A free ride to Huddersfield turned into a somewhat longer journey for John Taylor, black- smith, of Swan Lane. On 16th May 1865, he tried to jump into the guard’s van of a passing goods train, missed his footing and was run over by seven waggons.

A macabre, by today’s standards, event took place on the 10th September 1864, ending the life of a former Lockwood man. This man, named John Sargisson had been found guilty, together with another named Joseph Myers of the murder and robbery of a Mr. Cooper. Although his former employers in Lockwood, Mr. Bentley Shaw and Mr. James Schofield, spoke in his defence, the death sentence was passed. Execution in those days was still a public event and on the day mentioned grandstands erected around Armley Gaol, Leeds, were crowded, as was every house, mill and factory roof top for up to a mile away. The total gathered, described as in a holiday festive mood, was estimated at over 10,000. At 9

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Tales of the doings of some Lockwooders around 1870 still survive. Such as Hiram Todd who, one day going for a shave at the barber shop of Elijah Carter at the bottom of Swan Lane. Hiram had only a in place of the required fee of 1d.

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As a result of calling at every pub on the way to Kirkheaton, they were all well oiled by the time they arrived and the Vicar had to have the church cleared before the ceremony could proceed in peace.

Imports undercut home produce when in January 1877 American meat was on sale for the very first time. English meat cost as much as 1/2d (6p) a pound for choice cuts whilst the American meat could be had for 9d per pound, or rough cuts between 5d and 7d a pound.

Lockwood ratepayers met at the Mechanics Institute on the 2nd January 1877 to consider a proposal to build a Smallpox Hospital at Crosland Moor. The vote went against the proposal, however the project went ahead (See Chapt. XV).

On 28th February 1879 occurred the death at the age of 65 of Henry Taylor. According to reports of the time, this native of Lockwood was the true inventor of the Sewing Machine. In early life Mr. Taylor was a hand loom weaver and later a tailor, when he started experiments with two needies and created a lock-stitch. He then constructed a wooden sewing machine but was beaten to the market by an American, Elias Howe.

On 13th October 1883 the inhabitants were treated to the spectacle of a grand parade. The occasion was the opening of Beaumont Park by Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany and his Duchess, Princess Helena Fredericka Augusta of Waldeck-Pyrmount. Prior to the procession through Lock- wood and prior to the usual lunch in (Huddersfield) Town Hall, the Duke and Duchess had been treated to refreshments in the railway station Refreshment Rooms.

In these days of ever rising prices it might be fitting to give details of prices which our great grandmothers were paying at Wallaces in 1891: Golden Syrup 1%d, Sugar 1%d, Currants 3d, Dates

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day which didn’t finish until 6

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Dr. MacGregor’s was one of four medical practices of the period. In Swan Lane Dr. MacKensie lived and practised. He was later joined by his son, who amused passers-by as he marched up and down his garden practicing not medicine, but the bagpipes. In Meltham Road a Dr. Hall set up his practice in the previous century. He made his house calls in a horse-drawn carriage, driven by his coachman. In due course Dr. Hall took on an assistant, the dapper young Dr. Baldwin, who made his calls on a bicycle. Eventually Dr. Baldwin succeeded to the practice, the house, the carriage and the coachman. These were soon converted to one of the earliest local motor-cars with a chauffeur (the late coachman). Dr. Baldwin claimed to have brought more than 2,000 babies into the world and that in those days meant personally delivered, and I was one of them.

The local dentist was Parker Lodge in Salford. He charged 6d (2%p) for a

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Although the wheel was invented a very long time ago it was little used for long distance transport in this country after the collapse of the Roman Empire. There were of course wheeled farm carts but it was not until the 16th century that carriages in any number were used on our roads and even then they were not very popular. A Bill brought before Parliament in Elizabeth I reign sought to restrict the number of ‘‘the new abomination”, coaches and it was not until 1555 that the first Highways Act came into force, making provision for roads to be repaired once a year. In general, those that must travel did so by horseback and goods were moved by packhorse. In consequence of this the reader must bear in mind that when the word ‘road’ is used it may refer to a track little more than a footpath in width.

it is known that as early as the year 600 A.D. a road existed through Lockwood, possibly having existed for hundreds of years before then. This road came from Wakefield and Dewsbury to Almondbury and from there to Lockwood, then over the hill to Milnsbridge and onwards to Elland. The actual route between Almondbury and Lockwood isn't known, Lockwood Scar up to Ashes Lane and down Kaye Lane is the popular choice, but in later centuries the main route between these places ran via Longley, which in terms of contours is a better route. This probably remained the only road in our area for some considerable time, carrying both long and short distance traffic.

Around 1200 A.D. it is believed that the first bridge at Salford was built to span the River Holme. Originally of wood, the bridge was no doubt repaired many times before being replaced with a stone bridge c.1450. This bridge was washed away in one of the frequent floods in the Holme Valley in 1653, not being rebuilt until 1654/5. Further rebuilding took place in 1706 and 1768. A new bridge was constructed in 1833 to the plans of Mr. Abbey of Royd House, Swan Lane, (father of J.H. Abbey who became Borough Surveyor to Huddersfield Corporation). The present bridge was built in 1908/9, the stonework being by Abraham Graham & Sons and the girderwork by W.C. Holmes & Co. (now Peabody Holmes Ltd.).

When the name ‘Holme’ was given to the river is not known, for documents of the 13th century refer to the river as ‘Caldwaldene’. Besides frequently flooding the river has also changed its course during recent history. In the 1611 Survey of the Manor of Almondbury it was stated “John Lockwood of Linthwait holdeth by Copy a messuage, a barn, half an oxgang and six acres of land, meadow and pasture called Ye Bottoms and payeth by year IV’s. Of ye wch said half oxgang and six acres of land a great parth thereof hath been taken away along agoe by ye Water there and now lyes on ye other side of ye Water above Lockwood

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By 1750 all that remained to be added was the maze of side streets and today's main roads, that is Woodhead, Meltham and Manchester roads. The roads of this period and of previous times were often in a bad state and very narrow by our standards. Lockwood Road, which today takes four lanes of traffic, was still in 1750, just wide enough for one cart with oncoming traffic squeezing past with difficulty. Road surfaces were often a sea of mud in winter and hard deep rutted surfaces in summer. Various Acts have been passed throughout history for the upkeep and repair of the highways, relying upon the Parish Council for implementation, these in turn having no Highways Department relying on the common people to do the work, a situation which pre- vailed up to 1836. In 1555 laws were passed enforcing all persons to work for up to six days a year on road repairs. The surfaces of the roads was only hardened earth supplemented by small stones and it was only in the late 18th century that any roads were built to a specific design and the now old-fashioned cobble stone did not appear in our district until around 1870. An indica- tion of the general state of the roads is that the top section of Lockwood Scar, part of the oldest road in our area, was only fit for pack horses until 1826 when a proper road was made by unem- ployed textile workers (for the princely sum of 9d per day). The first ‘break-through’ for a modern road system came in the early 1 700’s with the Turnpike Acts. Briefly, these allowed for a Trust to undertake the remaking and the keeping in good order of a road and in return, the Trusts were empowered to charge (Toll!) people for using the road, hence the Bars on our roads (Lockwood Bar, Fartown Bar, etc.) being places where a barrier was set across the road and where payment for the next section was taken. In the case of Lockwood Bar, a toll house stood, projecting into the road in front of where lately was Mr. France's barber shop with another toll house in the middle of the present entrance to Swan Lane, with the barrier between the two buildings. Around 1820 these were replaced by a Toll House at the corner of Meltham Road and Swan Lane, the building today being occupied by a dry cleaning concern, ‘Tip Top Cleaners’. On the Meltham Road the first toll bar was just before the entrance to Dungeon Mill, followed by others at Netherton and Meltham Mills. Some exemptions to payment were made, such as Coaches carrying the Royal Mail, clergymen visiting their parishioners, cattle and farm carts passing from one field to another. A sample of the charges in 1820 was: Coaches 4d, Horses and Mules 1d each, Cattle 10d a score, Calves and Sheep 5d

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Minor roads had remained a parish problem all along this time but these too eventually came into the care first of the Lockwood Local Board and later Huddersfield Corporation. By 1800 Lockwood was beginning to grow and clusters of houses, resulting in streets, yards and alleys were being formed. Most of this development was in Salford, around Lockwood Bar and in Swan Lane. The beginnings of Albert Street (then New Street) came early in the last century extending as far as Broadfield Mills from Lockwood. Gradually buildings and side streets crept up the hillside from Thornton Lodge and by 1900 our present road system was complete in the valleys.

One of the last through roads to be constructed was Beaumont Park Road in 1883 in con- junction with the opening of the park. At the same time Hanson Lane was re-aligned at the top, the curve towards Moor End Road previously being where today stand semi-detached houses. Also re-aligned was Butternab Road (or Lane as it then was), the road being widened to its junction with Woodside Road. St. Thomas’ Road, in later years to be part of the ring road around Hudders- field, was constructed in 1886.

Apart from construction of estate roads, the last major road construction work was the widening of Lockwood Road from Folly Hall to Lockwood Bar during 1934. Most through traffic roads have been widened during this century and even so some are still narrow for today’s volume of traffic. Dryclough Road is a notable exception, being remarkably wide for a minor road. The reason for this is that when it was last rebuilt in 1906/7 it was proposed to extend the tramway system from Blackmoorfoot Road to the gates of Beaumont Park, so allowance was made for tram lines to be Jaid, however this proposal was later abandoned.

Reasonable (by our standards) road surfaces did not appear until the latter part of the 19th century, these ‘reasonable’ surfaces being made of stone blocks called sets, sometimes referred to as cobble stones. Swan Lane was partly paved at the upper end in 1887, the lower section at Lockwood Bar not being done until 1893 when granite sets from Newry in Ireland (costing £1.26

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in March 1849 at a total cost of £33,000.00. By today’s standards and inflation, the cost is equal to about £% million. Another comparison is that Huddersfield Parish Church had been built a few years earlier and with all its fine carvings and expensive fittings, had cost £10,000.00, all of which gives some idea of the massive work involved on what today is still the largest piece of railway viaduct in the country.

The whole tine was completed by 1850 and opened on July 1st of that year. Through various mergers, by the time the line opened it was owned by the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Co. (L&YR), whereas the Colne Valley line became part of the London & North Western Railway (LNWR), thus making Huddersfield a joint station. Both were destined to become part of the LMS in the mergers following the Great War and of course British Rail in 1948.

The rai! service at Lockwood in 1850 consisted of eleven trains daily in each direction. Of the south-bound trains, five went to Penistone and six to Holmfirth. In 1856 an express service from Halifax to London (Euston) was added but was short-lived, being withdrawn the following year.

In 1861 the line from Lockwood to Meltham was surveyed and the contract Jet for £62,719.00 plus £2,400.00 for metal road bridges. The first sod was cut at the Lockwood end on 4th April 1864, and after many problems this short three and a half mile single track line was practically ready by July 1868, having taken as long to construct as the whole double track line to Penistone and having exceeded the contract price by £16,732.00. One early problem was the Netherton tunnel which collapsed when an unexpected shale bed was hit, the tunnel being rebuilt egg shaped to withstand the pressure. Goods’ trains commenced running on 8th August 1868, but the line was closed within a month when on 1st September the embankment at the far end of Beaumont Park gave way. To hold the hillside a retaining wall 306 feet long, 60 feet high on 10 feet foundations and 12 feet thick at base was built. Goods services were resumed the following February only to be brought to a halt eleven days later when the embankment near Dungeon Mills (now Park Valley Mills) began to slide, demolishing a row of cottages and a toll bar house and even threatening to block the river. Further retaining walls were built and finally, following the usual Board of Trade inspection the line was opened for passenger traffic on 5th July 1869.

For a very brief spell this line also gave Lockwood a second railway station for on 1st June 1874 a station was opened at Woodfield, complete with a Station House and gas lighting. The site of this station was near the present day entrance to the ‘Nature Trail’ in Beaumont Park. Originally the station was to be named

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Due to the decline in traffic the Holmfirth branch closed to passenger services on 2nd November 1959 and to goods traffic on 3rd May 1965. The Meltham branch was closed to passenger traffic as early as 23rd May 1949 but the goods traffic survived for another sixteen years until, having lost the David Brown Tractor traffic, it was totally closed on 5th April 1965. Now, part of the route of this line provides a ‘Nature Trail’ between Lockwood and Butternab and walking the overgrown cuttings it is hard to imagine that 100 ton steam locomotives could have had space to snort their way up the incline.

The decline in rail use has continued until today Lockwood is just an unmanned halt and the station buildings, booking hall, waiting rooms, parcels’ offices etc. have all been demolished. The service now consists of thirteen trains a day, none on Sundays and now in 1976 there is frequent talk of the line being closed.

During the ‘hey-day’ of the railway, extensive sidings were built at Lockwood to the south of the station. On the west side of the line were the waggon building and repair works of Wm. & Chas. Kaye, later to become Kenworthys and later still Bates. On the east side of the line were the private sidings of William Whiteley & Sons Ltd., which had the distinction of being operated by an electric locomotive as early as 1898 and which made it one of the world’s earliest electric railways. Just one of the standards that carried the overhead power wires can still be seen and part of the track is still visible where it crosses the footpath from Bentley Street to Thornfield Avenue.

Accidents on our local lines have been few and rarely serious, these few being caused mainly by runaway stock.

In August 1865 runaway coaches from Lockwood crashed at Huddersfield despite a brave chase by a porter named Sykes (see ‘’The People’’).

On 28th October 1913 a train of 30 goods waggons ran away in Lockwood sidings and after smashing through the buffers and badly damaging the station signal box they descended into Swan Lane, completely blocking the road.

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hill. It was then discovered that, since leaving Dungeon Wood the brakes had been full on. Further tests with the brakes off showed the engine to be easily capable of hill starts.

The first route to open was Lockwood to Fartown on 11th January 1883, and the first day's takings amounted to £14. The original track was a single line with passing loops at Rash- cliffe, Bath Hotel and Lockwood Bar. The gauge of the track was 4'-7%” which, allowing for the wheel flanges would allow for interchange with the railways 4’ -8%" gauge, however, no inter- change was ever built.

By 1886 bogie cars of 60 seats were being introduced with more powerful steam engines to haul them. In 1887 our enterprising tramways started carrying parcels with certain shops along the route serving as Parcel Depots, the one at Lockwood being near the present traffic lights. By 1924 the cost of sending a half hundredweight anywhere on the system was 8d (3%p) plus the ordinary fare.

The 2nd June 1892 was the date upon which an extension to the Golden Fleece Inn, Berry Brow was opened and by this year the service to and from Lockwood was every half hour (% hour on Tuesday and Saturday afternoons) but no Sunday service. The fare to Huddersfield was 2d inside the car and 1d on the open top.

1893 saw another innovation for, commencing on 20th March, letter boxes were fixed to the outside of the trams, being emptied every two hours. By 1901 over 600,000 letters a year were being posted by ‘tram’ and the only extra charge was 1d if the tram was stopped for the purpose of posting a letter. This service continued through to trolleybus days, being eventually withdrawn in 1939.

In 1890 the line to Park Road was opened, giving our district an additional service and by 1896 the carrying capacity of the cars had increased to 94, making our modern buses look rather small. Also in 1896 a referendum was held regarding Sunday running, the vote going against by 1,429.

The turn of the century was a very busy time with the whole system being converted for electric traction. In 1901 electric trams reached Park Road and in 1902 the Holme Valley line was extended to Honley, the whole line electrified and large lengths of track were converted from single to double track. 1901 also saw the first part of the tramway system to be scrapped and this was the line from

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for shopkeepers at Lockwood Bar.

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It is not possible to cover all the industrial concerns that have existed in our town. Brief coverage is given to the main industries of Quarrying, Coal-mining, Brewing, Engineering and Tex- tiles. Full details of the Soap Works on Albert Street and the Brickworks behind the Swan Inn, which in 1878 was manufacturing good firebricks from a four foot seam of clay and an 8” seam of coal, will all have to await some other book.


Next to farming this must be the oldest form of work done by man. While the quality of local stone has long been renowned, as long ago as the 12th century Crosland Ashlar was partly used to build that great monastic complex at Fountains Abbey, in general early quarries were small, usually opened by a farmer to obtain stone for his house and outbuildings.

Many of these old quarries, such as on Dryclough Road and in Beaumont Park go un-noticed and smaller ones are now just slight depressions in the ground. The need for stone increased over the years, first with the gradual enclosure of the land, requiring rough stone for walling, then, as the population increased, for houses and the large textile mills. From this point stone was required in commercial quantities and the larger quarries on Crosland Hill came into being.

JOHNSON’S WELLFIELD QUARRIES LTD. This Company commenced operation in 1895 and now is the largest quarry in our area. The firm was in a relatively small way until 1912 when Mr. H.F. Johnson became manager and under his direction the firm began to grow in size. At this time a monumental department was opened but this section was cut back in 1926 due to the increasing use of Italian marble for this type of work. However, the Second World War closed the market to the Italians and the firm again expanded in this field in 1940 and has continued to flourish since. The Company employs skilled sculptors who produce very fine carved work for various types of monuments, from simple grave markers to city centre war memorials. In 1927 the Company began operations at Wellfield and this now covers a very large area. Apart from the raw materials for the monumental business, two products come from the quarry, building stone and crushed stone. The crushed stone is obtained from the trap rock which is blasted away to uncover the ashlar stone beneath. The trap rock is removed from the quarry floor by dumper type motor vehicles, although originally a narrow gauge railway was used. On the surface the stone is off-loaded onto a conveyor system leading through the crushing plant where it is converted into various sizes ranging from large rubble for motorway foundations, mediym pieces for sewage filtra- tion plants, small chips for road surfacing, down to fine sand for use in cement work. The ashlar stone bed is of an average 45 feet thickness and is cut from the face, lifted to the quarry top by a system of overlapping cranes and then fed to gigantic saws for cutting to the required size. York stone is in demand throughout Britain and Johnsons have supplied stone for building work at Liverpool Cathedral, Leeds University, Queen School, Scarborough, Edinburgh Univer- sity, Oldham Civic Centre and, nearer to home, the Victoria Inn on Lockwood Road.


No coal mines now exist in our area but for hundreds of years small mines were worked on the east side of the River Holme and as long ago as 1584 a John Lockwood had a small coal mine in the Taylor Hill area. Also, in the same period, the ever present dangers of this occupation were evident as shown by an entry in Almondbury Parish Church register dated 12th March 1575

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WILLIAM WHITELEY & SONS LTD. Although this firm has been out of existence fora number of years it is worthy of mention as one of the larger suppliers of textile machinery. The firm was founded in 1850 and the works eventually covered an area of three acres on a site between Yew Green Road and the railway. By 1890 the firm was employing over 400 people and, accord- ing to their catalogue of the time, supplied in addition to the full range of textile machinery, steam engines, electric generators and electric locomotives. As far as can be established the electric loco- motives were amongst the first in the world but there is only trace of two being produced, one being sold to Hellingley Hospital Light Railway. The other, built in 1898 was used on their own railway sidings at Lockwood, being in use until 1932 and known to the workmen as ‘’The Rubber Pig’’. The factory is now part of David Brown Gear Industries and the former Whiteley family home, Park Cottage, became after the death of William Whiteley in 1901 the ‘springboard’ for the David Brown concern.

HOPKINSONS LTD. This Company is today more readily associated with Birkby, but its foundations lay in Lockwood. It was in 1843 that Mr. Joseph Hopkinson converted two four- roomed cottages at Spring Place, off Lockwood Road into a factory for the manufacture of engineers fittings, especially for steam engines. Within a few years Mr. Hopkinson was renowned throughout the country as a leading expert on steam power and he was the author of a number of books on the subject. In 1852 Mr. Hopkinson patented a new safety valve named the

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Business was expanding and the first gear-cutting machine was purchased from Brown & Sharpe of America in 1897. It also became clear that the East Parade premises could not cope and so a search was on for land with access to the railway and with plenty of space for expansion. At first a site at Paddock was considered, being alongside the railway, but as the LNWR insisted that Browns pay for railway flagmen while the factory was being built this site lost favour.

About 1898 the Brown family, by now quite ‘well to do’ bought Park Cottage, together with the 15 acres of grounds (the word ‘cottage’ is misleading for in fact the house was a small mansion). This house, standing between Park Road and Nabcroft was previously owned by William Whiteley whose factory stood a little further down the hill. Frank Brown moved into the house and very soon a small factory was built in a corner of the grounds. It was at Park Cottage that the present Chairman, Sir David Brown, was born in 1904.

From this point Browns’ main output turned from pattern-making to gear manufacture and in 1902 the gear-cutting machinery was moved from the basement of East Parade to the new Park Works and a separate company formed to handle the gear cutting activities. In the following year the founder, David Brown, died at the age of 60. In his Will the new company was left equally between his three sons while the whole of the pattern-making business went to Ernest.

In the early part of this century practically the whole output of gears was destined for the textile industry, but soon the company were exploiting new outlets which, amongst others, included gearing for motor vehicles and tramcars.

In 1912 it was decided to venture into the motorcar business and the manufacturing rights were obtained for the

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being produced at the rate of tena week. However, before long a disagreement arose between Brown and Ferguson, resulting in Ferguson taking his ideas to the Ford Motor Co. Brown decided to go it alone and his first priority was to build his own engine, the previous tractors being powered by Coventry Climax units. In 1938 the first engine was tested and the new complete tractor was ready for the Royal Agricultural Show held in July 1939. The tractor proved very popular and orders for 3,000 were taken before the show closed.

The success of the new tractor was such that clearly the small space within Park Works would be unable to cope with the production required and so a search was on for new premises. A rela- tively local site was found when the United Thread Mills at Meltham Mills closed down and so this mill was leased, equipment installed and production commenced by late 1939. However, World War II had just started and the tractors had to give way to tank transmissions, again being over- flows from Park Works. Once the war was over production of tractors again expanded, slowly at first due to a shortage of raw materials. The post war period saw the development of some of the implements such as ploughs and cultivators, also of a diesel powered unit and of specialised trac- tors for aircraft towing, now used by many air forces throughout the world. Browns came under pressure by their distributors for a more comprehensive range of implements and to this end the company of Harrison, MacGregor & Guest Ltd. of Leigh was acquired, giving Browns a very wide range to offer their customers. In 1955, when this particular acquisition occurred, the tractor division turnover was greater than that for any other part of the company. Also at this time another new company was formed, David Brown Construction Equipment Ltd., handling the sale of industrial and earth-moving equipment.

Returning to Park Works, as the clouds of war gathered in 1939, production of aero engine gears was increased, the Fairey ‘’Battle’’ bomber being one of the aircraft supplied with D.B. gears. Contracts were also fixed with Rolls Royce for gears for the now famous Merlin engine which in turn powered the even more famous Spitfire fighter. This work, due to shortage of space, was transferred to Meltham in 1940 and at one point in time, at the height of the Battle of Britain, Browns were the sole manufacturers of these very important gears. Had Hitler known this then Meltham would surely have had a visit from the Luftwaffe and had that happened the RAF would have soon run short of fighter planes and in turn the whole outcome of the war could have been changed.

Another high priority during the war was the production of tank gearboxes, mainly for the Churchill and Cromwell models and by 1945 some 10,000 units had been built and a further 6,000 reconditioned.

The Penistone factory played its part in the war, first producing armour plating for tanks and ships, later producing casings for the 12,000 Ib. ‘Tallboy’ bombs with which the RAF were to devastate Germany and finally, manufacturing cables for the ‘Pluto’ oil pipe system, used in the invasion of Normandy. Also during the war there developed at Penistone a specialised foundry for aero engine castings, a department which later developed intricate castings for jet engines.

The Salford (Lancs) Works also did ‘their bit’, turning out over 330 250 Ib. bomb casings a week.

Gears from Park Road went into every possible branch of the war effort, submarines, warships of every size from patrol boats to aircraft carriers, vehicles of all types, armament machines, etc. and a great part of this specialised work was done on the shop floor by women.

In 1944 Browns bought the Muir Machine Tool Co. of Manchester and a little space was obtained at Park Road by moving the Tool Department to the new premises.

1947 saw the second venture into the world of motor cars. A controlling interest was obtained in Aston Martin and within eighteen months these cars were winning International races and they became world famous. Even before the Aston Martin had proved itself Browns had acquired the Lagonda car factory at Staines and this was followed shortly by tt:. purchase of Tickford Company of Newport

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David Brown South Africa was set up in Johannesburg, later extending into Rhodesia, manufac- turing Radicon Gear Units. The same year saw David Browns established in Eire with David Brown Tractors (Eire) Ltd. being formed. In 1955 another factory for the assembly of tractors was built in South Africa. Back in 1951 a selling company was formed in Toronto, Canada, first for. gears and later for tractors and this venture was so successful that Mr. David Brown was created an Indian Chief. By 1958 a David Brown company was in operation in California, USA, and eventually became involved with an American gear company, Foote Bros., following which, both USA and Canadian ventures came under David Brown-Foote Gears Ltd. Australia was next on the list, operations there commencing in 1952.

By 1960 the David Brown organisation had reached a peak of no less than fourteen factories in the UK employing 10,000 people, with another seventeen associated companies scattered across the face of the world. This was no doubt the peak of the company’s power for, while further companies have been brought into the DB sphere, at Sunderland and, more notable, the ship- building firm of Vosper Thorneycroft, gone are the sporty cars of Aston Martin and Lagonda and sold to the Americans is the tractor factory at Meltham. Gone also are the private airfield and air- craft at Crosland Hill and the Corporation headquarters at Durker Roods, Meltham. From an out- sider's point of view in 1977 one might say that David Browns are now concentrating on what they are masters of — the making of gears.

BROOK CROMPTON PARKINSON MOTORS (BROOK MOTORS LTD.). Situated on St. Thomas’ Road, Deadwaters, an area on the edge of Lockwood Townships boundary. The founder of this company, Ernest Brook, was born at Pontefract in 1873. Following ventures into various trades he moved to Stoke-on-Trent in 1896 and later moving on to Cardiff, having jobs in both cities in the electrical industry. In 1902 he obtained the position of electrical manager with T.W. Broadbents. (Now better known for their work in electrical installation, Broadbents were in those days manufacturers of electrical equipment).

Without attempting to go into technical details and reasons, most electrical motors manufac- tured at the beginning of this century were for use on a Direct Current system (DC) but Ernest Brook, looking to the future, could see a growing demand for Alternating Current motors (AC) and so he rented a room in Threadneedle Street, Huddersfield, in May 1904 and commenced manufacturing single phase AC motors. Originally with a staff of two assistants, by the following year twenty workers were employed and the range of products extended to include 3-phase motors. Shortly after this the firm became a limited liability company, trading as E. Brook Ltd. and a move was made to larger premises in Colne Road, Huddersfield.

During the First World War the need for electric motors and more specific items for warfare grew and the Colne Road works were too small to give the greater production capacity required so, in 1916, the company moved to Lockwood, building the first part of Empress Works on St. Thomas Road. The original factory in Lockwood was expected to have a production capacity of 200 motors a week but by the end of the war this had grown to 800 per week and, in addition to this, the works also made shell cases and tank parts. In 1927, when the total number of motors manufactured was in excess of 40,000, the trading title was amended to Brook Motors Ltd. Expansion of the works continued along both sides of St. Thomas’ Roadgnd in 1932/3 a large extension was built for the production of control gear.

In the early part of the century the most general industrial application of electric motors was to replace steam engine power. Every mill and factory had a high-powered steam engine, driving the various machines through a system of drive shafts and belts throughout the mill or factory. So, in like manner, the market for electric motors was for large powerful units. However, as new factories were built or modernised it was proved to be more economical to have separate Power units on each individual machine. To provide for this market, Brooks commenced to manu- facture fractional horse-power motors in 1937. The founder of the firm, Ernest Brook, retired in 1939, the Managing Directorship being taken over jointly by his two sons, Frank and John. The Second World War quickly followed on this event and further large extensions were built at Empress Works. The production now rose to 1,500 motors a week, thousands being used in con- nection with aero engine production, including parts for the famous

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workers serving in the Armed Forces, Brooks recruited former skilled women to wind stator core units in their own homes, over 100 people being employed in this manner and the scheme helped to boost production to over 1,800 units a week.

Motor number 1,000,000 came off the production line in November 1950, purchased jointly by the 2,000 employees of the company, it was presented to the founder, Ernest Brook. Again at this time there was a shortage of labour available locally so an old Flax Mill was purchased in Fen- ton Street, Barnsley, and production commenced there. This was replaced in September 1952 by a new factory at Barugh Green, giving employment to nearly 1,000 people in the Barnsley area.

To make the export of motors into a smooth efficient operation, an American Company was formed in Chicago in 1953, followed by a Canadian company in 1958. A distribution centre was set up in Frankfurt, West Germany, as a subsidiary company in 1965. At home, in this period, a new factory was erected at Honley in 1958 and a factory leased at Rochdale in 1965, bringing the total factory space in use to 1,053,000 square feet, compared to the 250 square feet of 1904 anda workforce of 3,540 compared to the two assistants at Threadneedle Street.

With an eye to the future and the day when fossil fuels eventually run dry, in.1968 Brooks purchased Victor Vehicles of Burscough Bridge, Lancashire, for a foothold in the electric road vehicle market.

Early in 1970 the company was absorbed into the Hawker Siddeley organisation, along with other well-known names in the electrical field; Crompton Parkinson and Brush Electrical Engineer- ing, at which time another new factory of 14,000 square feet area was opened at Doncaster.


Possibly every town of any size has had a brewery at some time, but not many can boast of a brewery as successful as the one at Lockwood. In fact, at one time there were two breweries in the township, for in 1820, besides the well-known Bentley & Shaw concern there was the brewery of H. Alexander & Co. Where this was is not certain but it was probably on the site now occupied by The Changing Lights public house.

BENTLEY & SHAW LTD., LOCKWOOD BREWERY. Lockwood Brewery is the second oldest firm of continuous operation, only the Dungeon Mill having spanned a greater length of time. Although the trading title has changed a number of times and brewing was discontinued a number of years ago, nevertheless the property is still connected with the brewing trade.

It was in 1795 that Timothy Bentley and his family came from The Causeway in Halifax and built the brewery by the Horse Bank Spring, near what is now Meltham Road. How or why Mr. Bentley chose this particular site has not been discovered. Enquiries with the Calderdale authorities have thrown no light upon his family background, but, from the speed with which the brewery was established it is assumed that he was a man of means.

The brewery was a great success, being organised from the start upon progressive lines. One of the reasons for the success was the invention by Timothy of a process which became known as the ‘Yorkshire’ system of fermentation, giving a far superior beer to other brands then available. In fact so successful was the venture, the resulting increase in production led to local residents com- plaining in 1869 that the brewery was taking all the spring water, which they by common right, used in their homes. The brewery then built a stone cistern to hold the ‘night’ water for use by the local people. By the

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By the late 1840's the brewery had its own fire brigade and gas works and the total works covered an area of 70 acres. The family home was built within the brewery grounds, facing the river, although for a period of time the family lived at Dudmanstone House at Berry Brow. The founder of the firm, Timothy, died in 1830, his widow with a number of female companions or servants remained at the Brewery House until she died in March 1863, Betty then being 83 years old. Betty was Timothy’s second wife, his first, Ann, having died in 1797 and she was one of the first, if not the first, person to be buried at the newly built Baptist Chapel in Lockwood. Timothy during his life had not concentrated all his talent and resources at Lockwood, for he also founded breweries at Woodlesford, near Leeds, (to become Bentleys Yorkshire Breweries Ltd) and at Rotherham. Upon the death of Timothy control of the Rotherham enterprise passed to his son Robert and the Woodlesford brewery to his son Henry. Lockwood appears to have remained under the control of Timothy’‘s executors, probably on behalf of his eldest child, Ann, for her husband, William Shaw, became the Manager. Control at Lockwood eventually passed in 1841 to Timothy’‘s grandsons, Henry Bentley, John Robert Bentley and Bentley Shaw.

It was Bentley Shaw who actually managed the brewery and who became a leading and wealthy figure in our local society, becoming a Justice of the Peace and, with John Bentley, a major landowner in Lockwood, Crosland and Armitage Bridge. He was closely connected with the Mechanics Institute movement, the Masonic Order and he had close ties with Lockwood and Rash- cliffe churches. Bentley Shaw’s residence was at Woodfield House which, in 1841, housed besides his family of six, three servants and a coachman (the family eventually totalled three daughters and five sons). Born on 16th January 1816, Bentley Shaw died in 1878 and control of the brewery passed to the next generation of Shaws and Bentleys, the firm becoming a private limited company in 1891. By this time nearly 200 people were employed, over half this number being involved in ancillary work, such as draymen, works department, etc., only 90 workers being actually involved in brewing.

In 1944 Bentley & Shaw Ltd. were taken over by Hammonds United Breweries of Bradford and the familiar ‘“Town Ales” labels gave way to bottles bearing the

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was a good example of our Clothier/Merchant class and he died at the hands of Irish rebels when his ship, full of local cloth, ran aground in early 1574 while on a trading venture to Ireland.

From the family business, carried out in the upper rooms of our local cottages, this industry developed over many years into the huge mills employing thousands of operatives.

As explained in a previous chapter, it was the invention during the later part of the 18th century of various power machines that made the formation of the large mills possible. However, the cottage industry was well entrenched and the changes did not occur overnight. Although the power loom was invented in 1785 and by 1821 there were thirteen woollen mills listed in Lock- wood, as late as 1851 there was an enclave of twelve hand loom weavers in Yew Green.

The textile industry was actively encouraged by the Crown for many years. For instance, a law passed in the reign of Elizabeth I read

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to Buxton Road was un-named but later became Crowther Street. Mr. Berry died in 1855, the title then being amended to Henry Crowther & Sons. Henry did not survive much longer and by 1865 control had passed to his sons, Alfred and William. The name of Alfred, born 1830, will be found in other sections of this book for he became a leading figure in local society, being a founder member of the Lockwood Local Board and later Huddersfield Town Council and the School Board. William was unfortunately killed on 26th September 1865 in an accident with a shotgun whilst in a boat off Scarborough. At this time the firm, now Crowther Bros., was said to be the largest manufacturers in England of doeskin.

An indication of the importance of this mill can be gathered from the early Rate records. In 1871 the rateable value of Broadfield Mills was £1,420. 8s. Od. (including £129 for the old Foundry at the Water Street end of the complex). Compared to this figure the R.V. on the brewery of Bentley & Shaw was only £520. 5s. Od.

Following William’s death, Alfred brought his own sons into the firm, with another change of title to Alfred Crowther & Sons and the firm continued to prosper although a fire in July 1872 caused a set-back with damage estimated at £2,000, which in today’s values is £50,000.

Alfred died in 1882 and at that time the mill, which had expanded along New Street, was divided, the newer parts being in the hands of Alfred’s son, Henry Ashworth Crowther and the future of this section is covered under the heading of Kaye & Stewart Ltd.

In late 1894 a new office block and warehouse was built on land between Lockwood Road and Albert Street and the following March an underground passage was constructed to link up with the mill.

The older part continued to trade under the title of Henry Crowther & Sons, Woollen Yarn & Worsted Manufacturers but went out of existence in 1913.

It was in 1914 that the present company, Gledhill Bros. & Co. Ltd., moved into Broadfield Mills. The firm had started the previous year at Lees Mill, Linthwaite, by Vincent and Joseph Gled- hill, both of whom had previously worked for George Mallinsons Ltd. As one would expect, the company started in a small way but with the Great War starting trade soon flourished. Capital was required for expansion and this was brought in by Joseph Kaye of Kaye & Stewart, again linking the Original firm with the original mill. Joseph Kaye became Chairman, Vincent Gledhill, Managing Director and Joseph Gledhill, Works Manager. As the war progressed more and more contracts for supplies to the armed forces were received and to handle the volume of work additional mills at Springdale and Honley were acquired, and the three mills were working a 24 hour shift system until well after the war had ended. In July 1919 the headquarters of the company were moved from Broadfield Mills to Springdale, but as it turned out this was only temporary, for the depression years were just around the corner.

Gledhills at this time manufactured for the cheaper end of the market, Derby Tweed from heavy cotton and waste cloth and of course cheap cloth for the army. As usually happens ina depression, it was the ‘working class’ market that was hit first and hardest and, coupled with the fall in army contracts, by 1922 the firm had to close both the Springdale and Honley mills, thus returning the headquarters to Broadfield Mills. The reduced size of the firm just managed to keep some thirty looms working with a continual struggle to keep their heads above water. The Gledhill Brothers left the firm they had created, being replaced by Sir Gordon Kaye and Tom Kaye, again from the firm next door.

The turning point for the firm came in 1929 when in June of that year Mr. Pearson Black- burn and his son Herbert acquired a controlling interest. The Blackburns were not interested in manufacturing cheap material but were intent on entering the high class overcoating trade. The change could not, nor was not done overnight, and they had problems in disposing of all the stock of cheap yarn at the right price. Within six months of joining the firm Mr. Blackburn senior died, leaving Herbert to sort out the problems relating to the change over of products. Eventually this was done and slowly through the the firm began to make an impression on the high class market. The Second World War interrupted this progress and once more the looms were turning out cloth for the armed forces. Following the war, the company’s designer Mr. D.M. Cooper put his experience to good use and soon a high class saxony trade was built up.


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In 1947 it was discovered that the structure of the mill was becoming unsafe and to combat this the heavy stone slated roof, weighing many hundreds of tons, and the top floor were removed. At the same time a new two storey mill was built on spare ground alongside the old mill.

Due in part to the close relationship between Kaye & Stewart and Giedhills, for many years Kaye & Stewart had done the finishing work but this ended in 1947 when Kaye & Stewart changed hands. Gledhills installed their own finishing plant and, having a capacity greater than their own needs, commission work was also taken in from various other companies.

Following the Second World War, Gledhills concentrated their efforts in the export market, building up vigorous trade links with North America and the USA in particular. However, around 1960 the USA began to impose tariff barriers, which rose to such an extent that Gledhills were priced out of the market, even though their cloth was of such a high quality that no American mill could match it. It was around this time that the present Managing Director, Mr. Victor Blackburn, joined the Board. The set-back in trade caused by the action of the US government was probably one of the factors that led to the company joining the Parkland Manufacturing Co. group in 1960. The trading title, the management and the work people remained unchanged, and, more important, the product remained unchanged.

Since then, under the leadership of Mr. Blackburn, who is currently Vice-Chairman of the Nationa! Wool Textile Export Corporation, Gledhills have built up an export trade that takes 75% of all the cloth produced, supplying to more than twenty countries, Germany now being the largest customer.

KAYE & STEWART LTD. The history of this company from 1822 to 1882 is covered under the heading of Gledhill Bros. & Co. Ltd.

Upon the death of his father in 1882, Henry Ashworth Crowther, took control of the newer part of Broadfield Mills, which was eventually to become the largest mill in Lockwood.

Henry was joined in 1886 by Joseph Kaye, his brother-in-law, the trading title then being changed to Kaye & Crowther. Another change came in 1896 when Henry retired and John Stewart became a partner, giving the present title of Kaye & Stewart.

From the original building the firm expanded towards the centre of Lockwood and also across the river, the two parts being joined by a total of three bridges.

During World War I the company evolved both in design and shade the original cloth for the Royal Air Force. The resulting ‘Air Force Blue’ is nowa recognised shade, thereby giving Lock- wood another tiny place in history.

The firm was honoured in 1918 when the King and Queen visited Lockwood, Kaye & Stewarts being chosen for a Royal Tour.

The company continued to expand and modernise over the years and by 1934 over 1,000 operatives were employed, their fine worsteds being very much in demand throughout the world. The firm, in common with many others has declined in recent years and in late 1976 it was decided to transfer the remaining business to an associate company at Rashcliffe, Taylor & Lodge Ltd.

DUNGEON/ARMITAGE MILL (PARK VALLEY MILLS — WM. ODDY & SONS LTD) Without doubt the oldest textile industry site in the area, the Dungeon Fulling Mill stands on the boundary between Lockwood and South Crosland (the present mill standing in the latter township).

Rate records from the middle of the last century show that all the houses at Dungeon and the Dye House of the mill were in Lockwood, the remainder of the mill was in South Crosland.

Dating back to at least the year 1612 , and there is strong evidence to suggest that the mill was Originally built sometime in the

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fulling. Following the weaving of the cloth the piece was taken to the mill for all the grease and dirt to be washed out. This was carried out by using a mixture of water and Fullers Earth, although in this area a substitute, stale urine, was used. Every mill had tanks or barrels for the storage of this liquid, which was collected from the surrounding villages. In later days, with the coming of Gas Works, cheap ammoniacal liquor was used. The scouring and subsequent washing was carried out by driving stocks which came down at a slanting angle to swirl the cloth around instead of pounding it. The cloth was then taken home to be dried and burled then once more brought to the mill to be by the falling stocks, pounding the piece in a soapy solution. Returning home again the piece was stretched out in the field on tenters and left to dry.

Most mills, including Dungeon, were ‘farmed out’ or rented to a Miller who then charged the local clothiers for his services. This charge was often fixed by general agreement between all the mills in the area. The existence of the mill encouraged development of the area, and so it was with Dungeon, only six houses (population 23) existing in 1580, this figure increased to 21 houses (population 86) by the year 1700. Customers would of course come from a wider area; Crosland Hill, Yews, Lockwood and South Crosland. A bridge alongside the mill spanning the river no doubt encouraged custom from the Newsome area. No trace of the track or road to this bridge now exists but it probably wound it’s way down from Taylor Hill past Birks Cottage to the bridge.

For the following information, the Compiler is indebted to the late well-known local historian, Mr. Philip Ahier, who carried out extensive research into Dungeon Mill........

There seems very good reason to believe that the land in which the present Mills stand was originally held by the Armitage family; in the archives of the firm (Thornton, Marsden & Co. Ltd.) is a sheet of parchment dated 1625 on which has been transcribed eight earlier deeds, four of them are included in the Armitage Charters. The earliest Deed is dated 1319.

The first document which throws any light on the existence of a mill on the banks of the Holme and in the vicinity of Armitage Bridge is an abstract of the Division Deed dated 13th June 1627, between Edward Haigh of the one part and William Haigh of the other which recites that these two persons with William Hoile of Golker purchased land from the two daughters of Nicholas Armitage and their husbands. The mention of Nicholas Armitage of Armitage suggests that the first mill in the vicinity had been built by some member of this family in the 16th century, if not earlier, by Nicholas Armitage himself. In the Armitage Charters (No.32) is the and Contract of Marriage between John Ermytage, of the Ermytage, Yeoman and John Blackburne of Nether Denbye, husbandman” regarding

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presumably a brother of Nicholas Armitage. From the Compiler’s own research: 1624 Edward Armitage was the Miller).

From subsequent documents there can be no doubt that William Haigh of Lockwood (son of William of Lockwood) ultimately became the owner of the Fulling Mill. William had one son, Joseph, who settled in Netherton and was a noted Cloth Merchant, commonly called Chapman Haigh. Dying in August 1703 he left the

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Further annoyance was caused to the owners and lessees of Dungeon Mill in 1814 by the falling into the river of ‘’a large portion of rock froma piece of steep woody ground belonging to Messrs. Ingham and The accumulation of mud and rubble long portion of the water course and left only a narrow channel for it to flow through”.

It can well be imagined that both the owners and lessees of Dungeon Mill were very much perturbed at the annoyances caused by the action of the owners of the Lockwood Mill, first, their Mill Wheel was constantly out of repair, their buckets were frequently torn off, the raising of the Lockwood Dam caused the river to be in back-water ‘‘and did not permit the Mill Wheel to turn”; several witnesses at the time of the arbitration proceedings stated that in the winter of 1814/15, Dungeon Mill been obliged to stand for three or four days and they were always obliged to stop running when there was the least ‘fresh’ (rapid flow of water) which was not the case before Messrs. Ingham, Akin & Co. had raised their

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(Thus ends the research of Mr. Aheir. Minor sections have been omitted by the Compiler of this Work, but a full transcript is available in the Local History Section of Kirklees-Huddersfield Public Library).

Further research has uncovered a document of 1612 which mentions the Fulling Mill. This was an Inquest held at Leeds on 29th October 1612 regarding the late Nicholas Armitage and it stated that at the time of his death he held land in Netherton within the village of South Crosland known as Crosland Fosse, two cottages, a Fulling Mill and 12 acres of land in Netherton & South Crosland, a burgage house in Almondbury, three houses situated in Quarmby, Lockwood and North Crosland. The Inquest went on to name three daughters as co-heirs: Margaret aged 19 (married to John, son of Richard Regner of Liversedge), Dorothy aged 16, and Mary aged 6.

The Industrial Revolution took 100 years to transform all the hand processes of cloth manu- facture into power-driven operations, so no exact date can be placed on Dungeon Mill to show the transformation froma Fulling Mill into a Manufacturing Mill. There is no doubt that this gradual process occurred during the “‘life’’ of the Wrigley concern and was practically complete by about 1840 although, even then, some of the weaving

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Compulsory and free education are relatively modern ideas, therefore the history of schools in our area does not stretch very far back into the past. Although Almondbury, in whose parish Lockwood was, has its ancient Grammar Schoo! dating back many hundreds of years, Lockwood had no school at ali until the late Even when schools were provided they catered for only a small part of the population.

Early reports of schools are often misleading, for instance, one source in 1833 (Lord

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During the early various bodies tried to provide better educational facilities, but it was generally private individuals who set up schools, many being short-lived affairs and many with staff of no great educational status, these being more ‘child minding’ establishments. The various churches tried to do the best they could in the few hours that they had the children on Sundays, but usually the most they achieved was the reading of the Bible in ‘parrot fashion’. The first important breakthrough came with the National Society, allied to the Church of England, which made grants to church schools, enabling them to reduce their fees, thereby encouraging more working-class children. These schools in turn led the way for the Corporation-supported Board Schools after the middle of the 19th century.

Many areas around Huddersfield had at least one good school by the late 18th century and this is the time we first come across evidence of a school in Lockwood.

MR. SYKES’ SCHOOL Situated somewhere in Swan Lane, this school operated by William Sykes was in existence in 1760 and catered for a wide area around Lockwood, certainly attracting pupils from Newsome. Mr. Sykes was, for a long period of time, Churchwarden at Almondbury for the Lockwood town- ship. Nothing more is really known about this school and research is made confusing by the fact that a schoolmaster of the same name was teaching at South Crosland in the same period of time. it would seem that this school closed down upon the death of William, November 1802.

TOWN SCHOOL The local inhabitants of 1819 felt that a Day School was desirable for the town and a Public Meeting held at the Red Lion resulted in a Subscription Fund being opened and Trustees appointed. By 1821 the new Town School was opened in Swan Lane (the site later to be occupied by the Town Hall, which, in 1977 was occupied by

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Association held their meetings there from their formation on the 3rd September 1866 and, from March 1868 it became the Drill Hall for the Lockwood Troop of Volunteers. The Yorkshire Penny Bank operated a weekly branch there and in addition there was a News Room and a Library available to the local population. In fact the school was also the ‘village hall’ to the Salford part of Lockwood. Education was not free even in the National Schools but, due to the grants received it was cheaper than in the private schools. The fees in 1880 were 3/6d (18p) a quarter which compared to the minimum 4/3d or maximum 13/6d at the Rashcliffe Academy some fifty years earlier, it brought education within the reach of most people. Free education eventually came in 1891 although at this school it was decided to fine scholars a 1d per week if they were late or absent.

Another innovation was that also in 1891 it was decided to add to the Board of Managers two additional persons, who were parents of scholars attending the school, thus giving the school an early form of PTA.

The school building consisted of two wings, each of which could be divided by folding doors, connected by the hall, which also could be divided. A small classroom was later built behind the hall, therefore in theory seven separate classes could be held and indeed were during the Second World War when there was a large influx of refugees from the south. However, for most of its history only three qualified teachers were employed, covering Infants, Junior and Senior Sections.

The school continued in existence until 1959 and the church continued to use the building until 1962 but due to ever-increasing overheads the building was then rented to a carpet cleaning concern.

FRANCIS JACKSON SCHOOL, BUXTON ROAD, LOCKWOOD This is one of the schools referred to in the Report of 1833 as being opened in that year and having nine boys as scholars. The school, consisting of one room 15’6” x

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In 1868 the Borough of Huddersfield was formed and the question of education was given urgent Consideration and a massive school building programme quickly put into operation. As an emergency measure two temporary schools were opened locally. The School Board worked on the following data:

Lockwood Hudds. Almondbury Lindley Children, age 3-5 420 1734 626 321 "age 6-13 1466 5889 1803 1007 Total children 1886 7623 2429 1328 Less those at school other than elementary __91 _852 __85 __ 30 Number requiring elem. educ. 1795 6771 2344 1202 Less 10% for half-timers _180 _677 _234 _120 Number of places required 1615 6094 2110 1082 Existing inspected schools 561 4749 1153 390 " non-inspec. ”

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MECHANICS INSTITUTE, MELTHAM ROAD (Emergency Boys School) Opened on 29th July 1872 for use while Mount Pleasant was being built. The building was rented at £95 per annum and provided accommodation for 400 boys. The school was not used to full capacity for in 1874 only 179 names appeared on the register and the average attendance was


BAPTIST SCHOOL, HANSON LANE (Emergency Girls & Infants School) Again for use until Mount Pleasant was ready, this schoo! opened the same day as the Boys School. The building was rented for £80 p.a. and provided places for 125 girls and 300 infants although neither section was ever full.

MOUNT PLEASANT SCHOOL, MOUNT STREET The site for the school, leased from Josiah Berry for 999 years at £100.6s.8d. per annum, with further building expenditure of £11,300 provided a school for 1,053 scholars. The founda- tion stone was laid on 20th September 1873 and the opening ceremony was performed by Mr. Alfred Crowther (School Board member, owner of Broadfield Mills and a member of the now defunct Local Board), on 9th August 1875. The temporary schools were transferred to the new school on that date.

Although Mount Pleasant is thought of as one school this was only so in later years. Originally three separate schools, later four, each with its own headmaster or mistress directly responsible to the School Board, occupied the Mount Pleasant buildings. Some records of each school, except the infants, have survived the years.

GIRLS SCHOOL Originating in Hanson Lane, the first headmistress was a Catherine Nicholson who received a salary of £130 p.a. Below are a selection of extracts from the school

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4.1.1875 31.5.1875 28.6.1875 9.8.1875 18.10.1875





23.10.1876 30.10.1876 7.11.1876 20.11.1876


24.10.1877 28.6.1878 5.11.1878 11.12.1878

118 scholars now in school. Teaching staff besides myself (certified teacher) one 5th year pupil teacher, one 3rd year P.T. and one candidate. Holiday today due to burst water pipe. Assistant Mistress, Miss Buck, appointed. M. Barraclough (pupil teacher) left, having completed her apprenticeship. Began work in new school (referring to move from Hanson Lane to Mount Pleasant). H.M. School

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Catherine Nicholson left the school on 25th March 1884 by which time there were 399 girls on the register and a staff of four certified teachers and four pupil teachers. Teachers in those days served an apprenticeship similar in many respects to that still practised today in many industrial trades, each apprentice being paired with a ‘tradesman’ or certified teacher.

On 2nd May 1884 M. Emmerson took the post of headmistress leaving in February 1888.

In May 1885 the foundation stone for a new mixed junior school was laid at Mount Pleasant, to be opened a year later on 10th May 1886. This resulted in Standards I and

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INFANTS SCHOOL The log books for this school have not survived and so nothing is known of the day to day events. Apart from repeating that the school originated in the Baptist Sunday School in Hanson Lane and that the first headmistress was Mary Ann Mullins, who was paid £120 a year, nothing further can be said of that period. A Miss Halliday was headmistress in 1904.

BOYS SCHOOL The log books for the Boys School are incomplete, the oldest surviving commencing on 22nd August 1887 at which time Thomas Metcalfe was headmaster, having a teaching staff of five and an average of 222 scholars. Mr. Metcalfe was succeeded in 1898 by Mr. C.W. Lidgate who was succeeded in February 1920 by Mr. H. Crossley. The teaching staff had by then increased to seven although the average attendance had fallen to 184. Mr. S.M. Parker took the Headship in February 1925, followed by Mr. Collomooses who was succeeded by Mr. White.

Of the ‘sons of the schoo!’ two childhood friends of 1908 became two of the last three Freemen of the Borough of Huddersfield, Alderman Douglas Graham and Alderman Clifford Stephenson.

As already shown, the various schools at Mount Pleasant eventually combined to become one school and it was as one complete school that the move to new premises at Moor End was made in April 1972.

Of a general nature regarding the Board Schools, the salary scale for teachers in 1870 was:

Masters: Principals £150 p.a., Probationers £100 p.a. 3rd Class Certificate £80 p.a. Assistants £50 p.a. Mistresses: Principals £100 p.a. Probationers £65 p.a. 3rd Class Certificate £50 p.a. Assistants £40 p.a. Pupil Teachers: Commencing at 13 years old £10 for first year increasing £2.10s.Qd. p.a. Commencing at 16 years old £15 for first year increasing

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22.6.1866 25.6.1866 28.6.1866


9.7.1866 11.7.1866 20.7.1866 2.8.1866

3.8.1866 10.8.1866 15.8.1866 30.8.1866 3.9.1866


22.10.1866 30.10.1866




15.1.1867 23.1.1867



12.3.1867 5.4.1867 2.5.1867

13.8.1867 22.8.1867 3.10.1867



3.2.1868 7.2.1868

13.2.1868 14.2.1868 17.2.1868 21.2.1868

James Eccles ill at home through making whistles out of Mountain Ash during play- time yesterday. Begin hearing the 1st division read in the open air. A ‘thin’ school today due to someone spreading a rumour that we had a holiday. The 1st class boys ask me to take them fora stroll on Saturday. I agree and we start at seven o'clock on Saturday morning for Harden Moss. The children are very noisy, the want of a teacher is greatly felt. (If one assumes that Mr. Crossland was the only teacher one can sympathise with him for the next entry reads:) A very full school, 174 present during the day. Mrs. Marr visits school today, applying for a pupil teachership for her son. Another new mill boy from Mr. Robinsons. Joe Mellor and John Burns are found to have played truant yesterday. They have four cuts (cane) on the hand each and are made to hold two books at arms length for an hour. School rather thin, reports brought about Allen Haigh and others being ill of the cholera. Caution the mill boys about being late. Frederick Burrans commences as pupil teacher. Visit to Marsh Gardens by 119 of the children. George Whitehead and John Beaumont Taylor leave the school (expelled) from occurrences which took place on Wednesday at Marsh. A very thin school, the children are mostly nursing (babysitting)so that their mothers can clean for the feast (Honley Feast). A new boy of the name of Townsend severely flogged for lying and disobedience. We begin to have fires in the three fireplaces. Mrs. Townsend comes to the school and blames me for her son's cap being lost after he leaves school. Several boys punished for fighting with Mr. Sharp’s scholars (see entry on Rashcliffe Academy). The desk was broken open by robbers on Friday night. Flog several boys for going on the ice. Holiday in the afternoon for a tea-party. A boy tells me that Lawrence Calavey is playing truant. I go to the master for whom he works. They turn him away and a boy called Swift takes his place. The boys still persist in coming late so I try a new punishment. Nearly every boy has a whip-top so I tell them that if anyone is ten minutes late I shall take away his top and give it to one who comes the best. I have to reprove the teacher several times for playing with the children. teacher would only be thirteen years old himself). Examination of those under six years old. Sewing and knitting examination. A.candidate from Lockwood School comes to be pupil teacher, a William

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10.3.1868 11.3.1868

24.4.1868 5.5.1868 6.5.1868 26.5.1868

7.10.1868 9.10.1868

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12.7.1878 30.8.1878 6.2.1879



16.7.1880 14.5.1881

2.12.1881 2.4.1883

















(Mr. Kitching left without comment at Easter 1878 and was replaced by Mr. John Rawson on 29.4.1878). Took charge of the school. The order in school is deplorable, talking amongst children prevalent. Had to resort to corporal punishment before any improvement could be obtained. Sent an account to the Board of Guardians for a month’s tuition to Mary Ellen Smith 9/- (45p.). Two groups of children photographed on Thursday. Eva Adams in Standard I! died on Thursday morning, she had made her requisite attendances. (The meaning of this entry is not clear. May indicate that having been a regular attender the burial would be free of charge or at a reduced cost). A great number of children ordered to stay at home by Sanitary Authority owing to Fever. Ellen Woodruff died of the Fever.

(Mr. Rawson replaced without comment on 25th April 1879 by Mr. O.A. Downs who only remained until 30.6.1879 on which date Mr. George R. Bountiff took charge).

Was obliged to cane J. Cookson for writing very indecent language on his slate. Third offence when summoned before the Magistrates for so doing. Mid-summer holiday until August 2nd. (First year of a mid-summer break). Introduce a prize scheme this week for regular and punctual attendance (this being a troublesome point since the school opened). Five shawls stolen from the Girl’s Lobby. Send for a detective. A strike at the mills has considerably reduced the school average, nearly all the half- timers being absent. Attendance irregular owing to preparations for the Duke of Albany’s visit. opening of Beaumont Park). Send in my resignation.

(On 21.6.1886 Mr. Charles Wilde commenced as Headmaster).

Dismissed school at 4.15 for rest of week, room required for a Conservative Bazaar. Receive School Board List, showing this school to have the lowest percentage attendance. Very hot all week, watered the floor frequently. The children sang ‘‘God Save the Queen” in honour of the (Victoria) Jubilee. A case of Typhoid Fever reported. I Re-admitted

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20.9.1900 6.5.1901

6.6.1902 20.6.1902 25.3.1903 3.3.1904 30.5.1904 10.6.1904


3.5.1905 16.5.1905


21.8.1906 24.8.1906


5.5.1911 22.6.1911 24.11.1911 3.6.1912

11.7.1912 23.9.1912 24.8.1916


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30.5.1918 21.2.1919

30.3.1920 9.8.1920

1.11.1922 11.1.1923




20.8.1926 19.11.1926 6.2.1929

14.2.1929 1.3.1929 4.9.1929

4.11.1929 29.9.1930 23.4.1931 23.2.1934

6.7.1934 22.8.1934 29.9.1934


9.6.1936 18.9.1937

Holiday p.m. for visit to Lockwood of the King and Queen. School closed down due to the Influenza epidemic (re-opened 21.3.1919).

(The Headmaster, Mr. Saville, was taken seriously ill on 8.4.1919 and due to poor health he resigned on 8.11.1919, being the 30th anniversary of his appointment. The next Head was Mr. Joseph Fambely, who commenced 3.5.1920 and was to remain Headmaster until his death on 17.9.1937).

A 200 sq.yd. plot has been obtained quite close to the school for use as a garden. School re-opened after holiday, during which time electric lights have been put in.

(Staff now consists of Head, one male teacher and five female teachers, with 237 children on the Register).

A playing field has been obtained for the school. A Carpet laid in the Staff Room, at the expense of teachers and at a cost of £2.2s.6d. Holiday in honour of the wedding of the Duke of York to Lady Elizabeth Bowes- Lyon. (The late King and present Queen Mother). Schoo! supplied with a Stool Ball Set and a Rounders Stick.

(In September 1923 it is noted that nine children have obtained passes to and now attend High or Grammar Schools. Another five are named as having passed but being of poor families, were unable to afford to go to the higher schools).

The Headmaster and Miss Edith Brooke, together with ten girls and ten boys, left by the 8.15 a.m. train to spend four days in London, to visit the Empire Exhibition and to tour London. (First school trip out of town).

(During 1924/25 the modern practice of different teachers for different subjects was introduced in the higher classes, previously one teacher having a particular class all the time for all subjects, except Woodwork, Needlework and Cookery).

New premises in Parochial Hall opened. Standards VI and VII moved. Diphtheria epidemic. All scholars examined by doctor. Attendance poor owing to intense cold, 28 degrees of frost, coldest for 200 years. Pneumonia, Pleurisy and Bronchitis and Influenza all prevalent. Decide to provide hot milk for children who wish for it. Frost just as bad, school nearly empty. Infant School gutted by fire. Broke out in the Babies Room and was detected at 6.10 a.m. and not subdued

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School. The school closed on 29th March 1972. The last surviving Log Book commences in March 1970, a few extracts

Page 94

CROSLAND MOOR BOARD SCHOOL Originally this school was opened in the United Methodist Church in 1860 and it was taken over, with the existing teaching staff, by the School Board on 29th July 1872. Additions to the buildings were made in 1875 (Infant School) and the main building as remembered by older natives of the area, was opened on 23rd April 1877. The school closed in May 1956 upon the opening of the new Junior School on Dryclough Road, although the building was then used as a temporary Roman Catholic School until November 1960. The building was demolished in early

BRIERLEY WOOD BOARD SCHOOL (INFANTS) This school, built on the Manchester Road between Moor Bottom and Pinfold and nearly opposite the site of the Britannia Inn, was opened by Mr. J.W. Carlisle on Sth April 1875. To accommodate 120 infants, the building was designed in the Gothic style by Mr. Ben Stocks of Huddersfield. With a total cost of £1,651 in terms of cost per scholar head (£13.46) it was the most expensive school then built by the School Board. Although designed for 120 children, upon opening provision was made for only 85. Soon, a total of 153 children were on the register but, as the average attendance in 1876 was only 75 and in 1879 only 87, there were probably no prob- lems on accommodation. Of local schools this was the shortest lived, closure coming on 31st March 1922.

POORHOUSE SCHOOL, CROSLAND MOOR Little is known of this school and its existence was very short. Opened in

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ALL SAINTS CATHOLIC SCHOOL For a short period of four years, September 1956 to November 1960, the former Crosland Moor Council School was used by the Roman Catholic authorities until the completion of their new schools at Bradley.

CROSLAND MOOR COUNTY JUNIOR SCHOOL Built as a replacement for the Crosland Moor Council School this was the first of our modern schools. Opening in May 1956 there were 300 pupils on the Register and a staff of 15 teachers including the Headmaster. Due to delays between the planning stage and actual construction, the premises were too small for the number of children attending and so Moorfield House, at the junc- tion of Blackmoorfoot Road and Park Road West, was taken over as an annexe. This house, previously owned by the Taylor family and older than the vacated school, was purchased by the Corporation in 1926 and had previously served the local area as a library and for evening educa- tional classes. Use of this building continued until summer 1976 when additional extensions at Dryclough were opened.

MOORCROSS C.E. INFANTS’ SCHOOL The second of the new schools on Dryclough Road was opened in 1968 as a state-aided church school, replacing the Park Road premises. A sign of the times was that whereas the first church school to be built in the township had cost a total of £202 the tables alone for this new school cost £529. The total cost of this school in its initial phase came to £117,880.

CROSLAND MOOR COUNTY INFANTS’ SCHOOL Established in 1977 this school occupies the buildings erected in 1968 for the Church School (that school now occupying new buildings erected on the same site).

MOOR END COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL The final school of our era was built as a replacement for Mount Pleasant Council School. Opening on 19th April 1972 it was not until 1976 that the final phase was completed.

Under the current system of education the school caters for the 11 to 16 year old group

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Finally, in this section we come to Adult Education in our area. However, the reader must bear in mind that in the 19th century the term ‘Adult’ could relate to anyone over thirteen years old and the organisations to be mentioned in general catered for this age group up to eighteen years of age.

LADIES SCHOOL, SWAN LANE it was in 1830 that Mrs. Hannah Nicholson opened a school for ladies in what later became No.7 Swan Lane, a fair-sized house, still standing in a yard off Swan Lane above the Co-op building. Besides being the school, this was also the family home although later in the century Nos. 9 and 11 were also occupied by the family. Mrs. Nicholson, born at Birkby in 1804, spent most of her early life in the Sherburn area, coming to Lockwood in the year the school opened. In the school Mrs. Nicholson was assisted by her two daughters, Jane and Maria. Little is known of the school, listed here under Adult Schools because of its title, it must be added that the one boarder listed in 1871 was only six years old. The last reference found to the school was in 1890/1 when it was run by Maria Nicholson.

MECHANICS INSTITUTE This organisation was founded in Scotland by Dr. George Birkbeck about 1799 and was well established by 1823. In our immediate area Huddersfield was the first town to have a branch and a direct line can be traced through to the massive Polytech College.

LOCKWOOD MECHANICS INSTITUTE This was described as by far the most successful of all the local institutes and its activities and methods were often quoted by the ruling body (The Yorkshire Union) as an example to other institutes. One of the reasons for its success lies in the fact that it was actively supported by two local men of substance, Mr. Bentley Shaw and Mr. George Crosland.

The beginnings in Lockwood go back to the year 1844 when a few young men, anxious to improve their education, hired premises in Bath Terrace. They collected a few books

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Abbey, designed in the Roman Doric style. Original estimates were for £1,241 but later rose to £1,600. Asite in Meltham Road was obtained and in 1865 the foundation stone was laid with much pomp and ceremony.

This event took place on 19th April 1865 and the Honourable the Earl de Grey and Ripon, who was to perform the ceremony, was met at Huddersfield railway station by a military guard of honour and conducted to the Masonic Hall in South Parade, Huddersfield. From there a proces- sion of police, some 90 riflemen and over 30 Masonic Lodges paraded to Lockwood, where grand- stands had been erected in Meltham Road for public viewing. Amongst those present were Mr. R.J. Bentley of Finningley Park, owner of Lockwood Estates. The trowel was presented by Mr. Bentley Shaw and the mallet by the Rector of Lockwood, the Rev. T.B. Benstead. A con- tainer of coins, newspapers etc. was placed below the foundation stone.

The main contractors, G. Pollard, worked steadily through that year and the next, con- structing the building which when complete comprised a Lecture Hall 69’ x 42’, six classrooms, each 17’ x 14’ and a cottage at the rear for the Curator. The completed building was opened in September 1866 and a three day bazaar was held which attracted the attendance of 3,000 people and provided a profit of £800.

At this time there were 433 names on the register (308 male and 125 female) with an average nightly attendance of 181 (120 males and 61 females). With the provision of the new building the subjects and examinations offered broadened. In addition to the Yorkshire Board of Education examinations in elementary subjects there were added in 1872 Society of Arts examinations with new classes studying magnetism, electricity and physical geography. 1875 saw mechanical drawing and chemistry added to the list.

The membership started to decline in the late 1870's but in 1881 the School Board came to the rescue and under the provisions of the Elementary Education Act, membership again increased from 155 to nearly 300. However, this was only a temporary respite and by 1883 only seven females attended classes. In 1899 the membership was still 200 but the last report to the Central body was dated July 1901 and it is assumed that the Institute closed around that date.

The work of the Mechanics Institute was very valuable to the community, particularly in the early years when a large proportion of the population could neither read nor write. As the years went by and the up-coming generations had received education at the National and Board schools the need for the Institute at elementary level diminished. However, as seen above, the Institute still flourished in higher subjects and also provided facilities not available elsewhere in the town, such as by 1878 a library of 1,168 volumes and a reading room providing twenty daily and weekly news- papers plus magazines.

On 1.11.1902 the building came into the ownership of Huddersfield Corporation and early the following year a new dance floor was laid. In 1903 Lockwood Musical Festival commenced using the hall for rehearsals and concerts. In July 1903 the Corporation instituted Evening Classes in Reading, Arithmetic, Science, Drawing and Book-keeping. Being the largest public building in Lockwood many other organisations have made use of it and many events held in the Concert Hall, a few of a long list being: a Board School, a Girls High School, a Working Men’s Club, a Public Library, a Roman Catholic Church, a Methodist Sunday School, office of the Textile Workers’ Union and office of the Bentley Charity. Prize-giving for Mount Pleasant School was a regular event here as were numerous bazaars for the churches of the area. Recently sand-blasted the building still stands, today relegated to the role of a carpet warehouse.

CROSLAND MOOR MECHANICS INSTITUTE This Institute was short-lived and never had its own premises, meetings being held in the Methodist School in Blackmoorfoot Road.

It was in 1855 after a number of public meetings that plans to form an institute were announced and classes commenced the following year, the President being Mr. T.P. Crosland. The membership in 1858 was 71 (50 males and 21 females), rising by 1861 to 123. A Reading Room and a Library of 375 volumes were available to the members and the subjects offered were reading, writing, arithmetic and singing, with the addition for the female members of needlework and crochet.


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The decline of the Institute appears to have been swift for the final report to the central body was in 1865 at which time membership had sunk to 62. In February 1866 the Trustees of the Methodist Church gave the Institute notice to quit as the rent had not been paid for some considerable time. It may be significant that the new building in Lockwood opened that year and maybe the Crosland Moor students transferred to partake in the wider range of subjects offered there.

RECREATIONAL EVENING CLASSES Finally, in the Adult Education Section are the Recreational Evening Classes, which of course are still held today at Moor End Comprehensive Schoo! (1978).

These classes first started in our area in September 1891, for both sexes at Crosland Moor Board School and for girls and young women at Mount Pleasant. Basic educational classes in the 3 R’s were available, but in addition there were classes in Natural History, Science, Drawing, Needlework, Singing, Drill, Slojd, Woodcarving, Clay Modelling, Shorthand and Lantern Slide Lectures on various topics.


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In previous chapters some idea has been given of the type of people who have inhabited Lockwood and North

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The Church Rate of 1770 gives some idea of the value of the different localities, a penny rate calculated to raise: —

Almondbury £4.19s.

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The greatest jump in population occurred between 1871 and 1881, increasing from 8,270 to 14,751, a massive 78% increase. This was due to a number of factors, mainly health and migra- tion. It will be seen in the chapter covering Local Government that a start was made in 1864 ona drainage and sewage system. This was soon followed by a piped water supply, thus providing more hygienic conditions and this, coupled by some advance in medical science led to a reduced death rate. At the same time the prosperity of the town was attracting migrants from all over the country to our textile and engineering works.

In the following ten years a further 14% increase brought the population of 1891 to 16,829, being very near the total of today. From the 830 people in the tiny village of 1790 had sprung in one hundred years the substantial township of nearly 17,000. From the 160 houses, mostly huddled around Swan Lane had come 4,000 homes, completely covering the land from Rashcliffe to Crosland Moor.

From the beginning of this century the figures for Lockwood and Crosland Moor are quoted separately :—

Houses Male

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Shortly before being taken over by the Corporation the Huddersfield Amateur Swimming Club was formed at the baths (1868) and their meetings were held there for eleven years. Under Corporation control the baths were much used by various schools throughout the Borough, commencing as early as 1874 when Mount Pleasant Board School held swimming lessons there. King James Grammar School followed in April 1887 and by 1936 the baths were also used by Stile Common, Crosland Moor, Newsome, Berry Brow Church and Board Schools and also by Royds Hall Secondary School.

For over 40 years Lockwood had the only public baths for miles around and it was not until 1st July 1879 that the next baths, in Ramsden Street, Huddersfield, were opened. The baths continued in use well into the Second World War years, arrangements being made in 1940 for West Riding children to make use of the premises. In April 1946 it was decided by the Baths Committee that they had no further use for the building, transfer being made to the Estates Department and on 18th November, 1946, Shaw, Son & Greenhalgh purchased the premises for conversion into an engineering works.

BEAUMONT PARK The origin of this park goes back to the days when Lockwood was an independent town. In 1866 discussions were held between the Lockwood Local Board and Mr. Dunderdale, the agent for the Beaumont Estate with a view to obtaining Dungeon Woods for use as a public park. Nothing was settled and the discussions came to an end in 1868 when Lockwood was swallowed up by Huddersfield.

Local agitation for a public park continued and Mr. Beaumont was not against giving some of his land for this purpose. A site was offered at Crosland Moor but the (Huddersfield) Town Council considered the site was too far from the centre of population and they reminded Mr. Beaumont of

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The children’s playground of swings, slide, etc. was added in May 1936 and the most recent addition is the Nature Trail, formed from the track of the disused railway line to Meltham.

THE FEAST Sometimes in the past referred to as Lockwood Feast and sometimes as

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in 1890 a Professor Blumenfeld was exhorting people not to forget to visit his great variety entertainment, including juggling, acrobatics and feats of strength. Barnum & Baileys Great Wild Beast Show came to the Feast in 1898, arriving in Grand Parade, the streets lined with school children who had a special holiday for the event.

These yearly events seem to have gone on with very little trouble. Occasionally pick-pockets were brought before the Magistrates and the odd brawl occurred. From time to time local residents complained of stalls being erected on their doorsteps, but in general a good and merry time was had by all. At Feast time the local police force of one constable was reinforced by the import of a sergeant, who was not as lenient with the publicans as the local ‘bobby’. Edward Brown, licensee of the Red Lion fell foul of the sergeant by serving after time, at 4.45 a.m.

By 1891 the centre of the town was becoming too congested for the Feast, with more traffic and steam trams squeezing through the narrow streets and so the location was changed to a field off Moor End Road (now covered by Yew Green Avenue and the north side of Thornfield Avenue), although even then a few stalls were still erected in Swan Lane and Albert Street, the site being a field on the north side of the Spa Baths, but as early as 1887 buildings were being erected on the site. By 1905 a small Feast fair was also held on Deadwaters.

However, the hey-day of the Feast was already over. More people were in a position to go away to the seaside for a holiday and the School Board reduced the school holiday at Feast time in 1899 from a whole week to just two days and by 1912 there was no school holiday at all. The decline of the Feast continued until it finally expired around 1914.

With a sense of nostalgia one can try to imagine the centre of Lockwood when the Feast was in it’s hey-day. Thousands of people milling around the Bar, horse and carriage owners looking for a stable, much as the modern motorist looks in desperation for a parking space. The various rides either spinning round or going up and down, each powered by it’s gleaming steam engine, the sunlight flashing on speeding cranks and flywheels. The music from the barrel organs in danger of being drowned by the shouts of the hucksters encouraging people into the various side-shows

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THE CINEMA Cinema going was probably THE entertainment for a vast slice of the population of Lock- wood between 1912 and 1960. When you think about it, there was little else to do with your time, the only other entertainment worth thinking about was the Church social and probably local dances. Cinemas were far more popular in the middle of this century than they are today. In an age that was just beginning to wake up to the potential of mass entertainment, the cinema provided a sophisticated lead. In the early days there was no television, few families owned a radio and people did not, on the whole, go out to restaurants and pubs with quite the enthusiasm that they do today. The clubs with their sophisticated shows were still a thing very much of the future, so the early cinema had a large market just waiting for them.

“THE CINEMA” This picture-house opened at Moor Bottom on 19th October 1912 and was the first cinema in our area. Silent pictures had been shown in Huddersfield sixteen years earlier, on 21st Septem- ber 1896, and the first purpose-built cinema, the Picturedrome, had opened in Huddersfield two years earlier on 22nd December 1910. ‘’The Cinema” just missed being the first suburban cinema being preceded by Milnsbridge Picture Palace which opened on 8th July 1912.

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Lascelles Hall, founded in 1825 and Dalton, founded 1831. The Lockwood Club was probably formed from the Mechanics Institute team which had been formed in 1845, playing on the land between the Bath Hotel and the Spa Baths, this team disappearing when the Lockwood Club was formed.

At the foundation of the Club some familiar names appear. The first Chairman was Mr. J.C. Fenton, a local solicitor who was, amongst other positions, solicitor to Lockwood Local Board. The first Vice-President was Mr. Bentley Shaw, owner of the brewery, major land owner, with strong connections with the Mechanics Institute and Almondbury Grammar School and giver of the land on which the club played. The first secretary was Mr. J.B. Abbey, a well-known local architect.

The Club has only had the one ‘home’, at Birks Bottom and few grounds can be in a better setting even if the midges rising from the river can be a little troublesome. In the early years the Club appears to have had a close connection with Lockwood Parish Church for it is recorded that the annual subscription was five shillings but that ‘‘adult members of the Lockwood Church Choir be admitted as members on payment of a nominal entrance fee’’. A photograph of the very first team of 1857 was reproduced in the Huddersfield Examiner in May 1943, showing A. Cartwright, A. Ainley, C.H. Bradley, J. Wilkinson, W.F. Crosland, — Berry, J. Sugden, — Crosland, J. Beaumont, E. Dawson, T. Burns and B. Rushworth.

The Huddersfield League was not founded until 1892, Lockwood being one of the ten founder members. Prior to 1892 all matches were ‘friendlies’ and the teams played came from a Wider area than is the case today, such as Pudsey, Barnsley, Dewsbury and (1881) Sheffield Wednesday. The first professional to be employed by the Club was Teddy Osborne who came from Sheffield in 1876.

A League record was established at Lockwood in 1914 when Herbert Haigh and David Roe- buck made 301 for no wicket together, a record first wicket stand. In that season they scored between them nearly 2,000 runs.

The close proximity of the lofty railway viaduct has always presented a challenge to cricketers and cricket balls. Charles Hirst is the first recorded player to throw a ball over the 122 feet high structure. The same feat was accomplished by the Lancashire fast bowler, Jack Crossland, in 1874, while standing in a barrel. During the Second World War the American base- ball players at Birks Bottom also joined in the fun, hitting strikes over the railway.

Of the many characters associated with the Club one of the original team, C.H. Bradley, showed unusual enthusiasm. It is recorded that every time he played he had a coach and horse waiting at the ground and, should he be ‘out’ early in the game, he would drive as fast as he could to the next ground in the hope of getting another game. He is said to have played in as many as three matches in the one day. Mr. Bradley went on to be selected for England to play against Australia on their very first tour.

Another well-known player was Frank Crow who played for Lockwood from the early years of this century, both as amateur and professional. In one season alone he was credited with taking 115 wickets and in 1905 he won the Huddersfield and District League bowling medal. Altogether, Mr. Crow was a regular player for thirty four years, most of them with Lockwood.

FENTON LADIES CHOIR Choirs abound in the West Riding of Yorkshire and Lockwood can boast of this Ladies Choir which is of a high standard. Formed in 1942 the quality was such that within ten years, out of sixty-two competitions entered, the choir was awarded fifty prizes, twentv-three being ‘Firsts’. First noticed by the BBC in 1952 the choir, consisting of fifty-six local ladies, have often broadcast and in 1978 they appeared in the television programme ‘‘Stars on Sunday’’. Apart from Competition work the choir often give concerts under their Conductor and Founder, Mr. Jack Durrans.

While not exactly Amenities in the same context as the foregoing sections, below are short details of the Postal Service and Charities within our area: —


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POSTAL SERVICES Regular postal deliveries and collections commenced in Lockwood in 1788 when James Tilburn (1758-1846) undertook the carrying of the mail from Halifax (then the local sorting office) to Honley. The mail was carried by horseback and, to announce his coming, Mr. Tilburn had a horn on which he blew to alert the township as he passed through. James’ son William eventually took over the carrying of the mail and James obtained the appointment as sub-postmaster for Lock- wood in 1830 assisted by his son-in-law, James Hawkyard. For 10/- a month plus %d charge on each letter delivered, Mr. Tilburn undertook collections and deliveries in an area covering Lockwood centre, Lockwood Road to the Bath Hotel, Taylor Hill, Salford, Bumroyd, New Laith, Tunnacliffe Hill, Ashenhurst, Stile Common, Primrose Hill, Kings Mill Lane, Yew Green, Yews Hill and Crosland Moor. James Tilburn died in 1846 and James Hawkyard continued as the appointed sub-postmaster. This was a seven days a week job for, by 1847 there were two deliveries daily, at 10.30 a.m. and 6.15 p.m. from Lockwood, outgoing mail being despatched to Huddersfield at 3 p.m. With a late delivery commencing at 6.15 p.m. over the area mentioned Mr. Hawkyard would be lucky to finish his work before 11 p.m. each evening. In fact, by 1848 when he was delivering 600 letters a week in an area populated by 8,000 people, Mr. Hawkyard, with the backing of the loca! people, petitioned the GPO to suspend the Sunday 6.15 p.m. delivery so that he might have some free time on the Sabbath Day. This was granted, setting the good people of Lockwood to think that other concessions might be wrought out of the GPO so a petition was organised for a free delivery service. By this time the charge was a ‘4d for those near at hand, 1d for middle distance and 2d to the furthest flung parts of the area. The petition was successful in as much as free delivery within a radius of two miles from Lockwood Post Office was granted and to compensate for the reduced income Mr. Hawkyard’s salary was increased from £10 to £18.50 p.a.

Mr. Hawkyard retained his position until his death in 1888 when his daughter succeeded to the job. Miss Emma Hawkyard continued until 1920.

The Post Office from 1830 to about 1910 was in the shop, next to Wallaces corner shop, on the east side of Bridge Street and in addition to post office work the business developed into a news- agent and stationers. In 1910 Miss Hawkyard moved the business to No.250 Lockwood Road (next to the Baptist Chapel).

Following nearly one hundred years in the same family, the death of Miss Emma brought a change of ‘ownership’ and premises. The new post office was at 24 Meltham Road and the new sub- postmistress was Agnes Huldah Moles. In 1935 the post office made its final move to the present premises at 219 Lockwood Road, the sub-postmistress then being Mrs. Ainley, who continued in office until 1972.

BENTLEY CHARITY This Charity was formed on 29th April 1850 by Robert Bentley, wealthy local landowner and part owner of Lockwood Brewery. Mr. Bentley gave to a Board of Trustees the sum of £1,500 (in today’s values about £30,000), to be invested and the interest upon £500 to be paid annually to the Huddersfield and Upper Agbrigg Infirmary. The interest on the remaining £1,000 to be paid annually upon St. Thomas’ Day (21st December) to six poor residents of the township of Lockwood. The original Trustees were George Crosland, Bentley Shaw, Godfrey Berry, John Shaw, James Crosland Fenton, Thomas Pearson Crosland, Mallinson Abbey, James Woodhouse Spivey, Samuel Ogden, Henry Brown, Robert Robertson and Timothy Tate, (most names to be found else- where in this book): Meetings were held for many years in the Red Lion where a room was Provided free of charge, later meetings being in the Town Hall and the Mechanics’ Institute. The interest on the various investments was paid to Bentley & Shaw’s brewery who then handed a lump sum to the Trustees for distribution as shown above. Amongst the various investments were the Lockwood Local Board during its existence but by 1889 the whole principal sum was invested in Huddersfield Corporation (£1,000 @ 3% and £500 @ 2%%). The payments to the poor were sub-

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in October of each year. The current (1976) payment on the £1,000 investment amounts to £22.87 to each of the six poor. {In addition, the interest on the £500 originally set aside for the Infirmary is now paid to a further three poor persons, thus now nine people benefit annually from the generosity of Robert Bentley. In selecting the recipients the Trust gives preference to the very old and the seriously incapacitated.

NETTLETON’S CHARITY This charity only concerns Lockwood in as much as the Salford area was in the Township of Almondbury. This charity was founded in December 1613 for the benefit of the people of the town and township of Almondbury by way of relief to the poor, to help poor maids in marriage and for the repair of highways and bridges. By 1899 the investment in shares etc. amounted to £3,035.00 and substantial areas of land were owned by the Trustees. For many years Lockwood National Schoo! in Salford received an annual grant from this charity.


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Although the Church of England was the established religious body of the land for centuries, the inhabitants of Lockwood and North Crosland had to travel to Almondbury for their spiritual needs. With a population only numbering hundreds until the end of the 18th century, it was not economical to build a church in Lockwood. On occasions such as christenings and weddings no doubt the long walk up the hill to Almondbury added to the festivities. Although for the ordinary church-goer the walk often proved tiring, for among the Churchwarden accounts an entry for 9th May 1705 reads

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I In 1849 plans were laid for a new chapel. The foundation stone was laid on 22nd April 1850 and the new building, costing £1,250 was opened on 2nd January 1851. Enlargements were carried out in 1869, bringing the seating capacity to 720 and an external appearance as seen today. Also in 1869 a new school was built to the rear of the chapel and in 1980 this is the only school in use, the Hanson Lane premises being sold in 1947 to the YMCA, later passing to the current owners, the British Legion.

The Church has had thirteen Pastors to date. The longest term was served by the Rev. John Barker, who gave 31 years of his life to the church, from 1847 to 1878.

LOCKWOOD PARISH CHURCH (EMMANUEL) This was the second church to be built in our area, but, being at the foot of Taylor Hill in Salford, it is outside the Political area of Lockwood.

The foundation stone of the church, designed by Dennis Chantrell of Leeds, was laid in 1828 and the building, seating 920 people was, with the exception of the Chancel, completed in 1830 and was consecrated on 27th August 1830 by the Archbishop of York, the most Rev. Vernon Harcourt. This church costing around £3,000 was built from funds provided in what was known as “The Million Act’’, the sum of one million pounds being voted by a grateful government as thanks to God for victory over the French, the sum being used to build new churches in areas where they were needed. There is a story that Lockwood got the wrong church and that the plans were mixed up by the Architects with those for the proposed church at Netherthong, so Netherthong got our church and we got theirs.

The building of the church did not make Lockwood a separate parish and the church remained a chapel to Almondbury until 1843 when the parish was formed. The original parish, as explained in Chapter I was huge, covering an area from Hall Bower across to Crosland Hill. However this area was greatly reduced during the last century as new churches were built and new parishes carved from that of Lockwood Church.

The Chancel was added in 1848, the cost of £611.15s.3d. being raised by Subscription, organised by Mr. James Crosland Fenton who himself gave £100. A similar sum was given by Sir John Ramsden. No description of the exterior is needed for, following the stone cleaning opera- tion of 1973, the church looks exactly as it did 130 years ago.

As was the custom in all churches until the early part of this century, a rent was charged for seats or pews. At Lockwood Church out of the 920 seats, 398 were free and the rest rented at 9d a quarter year. With churches in the 19th century often crowded, most people were quite happy to pay this sum to be sure of a good seat. The figure of 920 seats is probably correct, however, the Diocese of Ripon statistics for 1849 gives the number of sittings at Lockwood as 1,000, a figure shared with Honley and Meltham as the largest church buildings in the parish of Almondbury, the mother church having 950 seats.

The first baptism at the church took place on 27th August 1830 when Sarah Ann Berry of Newsome Cross was baptised. The first burial was that of twelve year old William Garner of Crosland Moor on 14th November 1830. The church was not licenced for marriages until 1837, the first wedding being that of the Rev. Joseph Hughes (who served at Lockwood) and Catherine Laycock of Armitage Bridge.

The first Vicarage was described as being in Lockwood Road, which in those days was the name for Woodhead Road. From Census Returns of the period the vicarage was probably where today is Mr. Page’s dental surgery. The present vicarage (which became a Rectory in July 1868) was built in the Solid in 1850. This building, in the grand manner of the time, is nearly as large as the church.

The Sunday School always made use of the Day School buildings, first the tiny school in the corner of the churchyard and later the new school lower down Woodhead Road. The pattern of attendance followed that outlined for the Baptist Church, having 519 scholars and 41 teachers in 1878, 640 scholars in 1880 with the figure reducing to 238 by 1921. In 1976 this figure had shrunk to 12 scholars with two teachers. Likewise the church attendance has suffered, only about 50 of the nine hundred seats being regularly occupied.


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The churchyard today only has a few reminders of those people who have gone before us. in 1973 the grounds became an amenity area under the care of the local authority and the crow- ded head stones were removed and placed to form a boundary wall. Inside the church, memorials are to be found to Bentley Shaw of Woodfield, born 18th January 1816, died 28th March 1878, also of Robert Bentley Shaw, his son, of Oakwood Grange, born 20th March 1849, died 11th November, 1873. There are also memorials to James Crosland Fenton, died 3rd April 1858 aged 61 and to Doctor Dow, died 20th March 1873, aged 55. These names appear frequently in the history of the growth of Lockwood throughout the middle part of the last century.

Following the internment of William Garner in 1830, many hundreds of Lockwood folk have found their last resting place alongside Lockwood Church. Very few Chapels had their own burial ground and even the one at the Baptist Church was full by 1869, so practically all those passing away, irrespective of their religious beliefs, were buried in this churchyard. In fact, the Original yard was nearly full by 1866 and additional land was then purchased from Sir John W. Ramsden for £100, the extension being consecrated by the Lord Bishop of Ripon in July 1868. This remained the town’s only burial ground unti! the opening of the Woodfield cemetary on Meltham Road at the beginning of this century.

Being one of many churches built from the Million Act fund, one could say that to some extent Lockwood Church is a mass-produced product and of no architectural interest. Whether true or not, at least it was soundly built and no large scale work on the exterior has yet been: necessary. Only two minor calamities have been noted in the records. In 1880 the bell broke loose from it’s mounting and was refixed in place by Mr. Tom Brook, founder of T. Brook & Sons, Engineers at Folly Hall. The original pinnacle of the belfry was demolished by tightning a number of years ago, a stone Cross now surmounts the belfry.

The interior has only undergone minor alterations over the years. The organ, which was Originally in the West Gallery was replaced in 1898 by a new instrument, built by Peter Conna- gher & Co. and this was installed in its present position by the north side of the Chancel steps. In like manner the choir followed the organ from gallery to Nave. The pulpit has had more changes than any other part of the fittings. Originally in the Nave, it was moved into the north side of the Chancel when that section was built in 1848. In 1880 a new pulpit was installed, paid for by subscription in memory of Mr. John Henry Abbey, Borough Surveyor, of Royd House, Swan Lane. In 1945 the pulpit was removed from the Chancel, shortened in height, painted and installed in its present position in the Nave. The brass lecturn was presented to the church in 1880 by Mr. James Priestley of Bankfield, Taylor Hill. Gas lighting replaced oil lamps as the source of illumination in 1862/3. At the same time the church was redecorated through- out in avery ornate manner, including ceiling decorations (a photograph taken in this period still exists and a copy is on file with Kirklees Archives). The original seating throughout the church was box pews but the present seating in the Nave was installed around 1880. Upon entering the church today, ones attention is immediately drawn to the large cross, suspended from the ceiling at the Chancel steps. This was erected in 1958 in memory of Mr. H.H. Tate.

Of the many Vicars and Rectors of Lockwood, probably the best remembered is the Rev. Thomas Barton Benstead. Born at Chatham in July 1809, the Rev. Benstead first came to the area as Curate at Honley and became Vicar (later Rector) of Lockwood in 1848. Mr. Ben- stead served for thirty years, in a period which covered the rapid growth of our town. He was instrumental in forming out of his own parish the new parishes of Newsome and Rashcliffe, and the building of the new school. In addition to his work for the church he was also involved in the Mechanics Institute movement and was closely connected with the building of the Institute in Meltham Road. Mr. Benstead’s service to our community came to an end on 1st January 1878, being found dead of a heart attack on the horse-bus at Folly Hall.

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REHOBATH (BAPTIST), PARK ROAD, YEW GREEN As shown in the history of the Baptist Church at Lockwood Bar, a dispute arose in 1831, causing the congregation to split into two camps. In simple terms the dispute was whether Christ died to save al! men or did he die to save Believers only. The latter view was taken by the break- away group and, religious fervour being so great in those days, they could not tolerate to worship under the same roof as people who held the opposite view.

The new church body was formed on 10th June 1832 and originally the 55 founder members met in an upper room at ‘’The Green” in Meltham Road, the room having previously been a com- munal ‘mangle’ house and gossip shop, the ground floor destined to become a doctor's surgery for the next century. The Particular Baptists, as the group was known, soon came round to a plan for a church building and on 8th July 1832, a building committee was formed. A piece of land known as the ‘‘Cocked

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By 1873 the parish, carved from Lockwood Parish, covered an area from Milnsbridge to Primrose Hill and a Curate was attached to the church, leading to the erection in 1883 of a tin mission hall at Primrose Hill. From this hall developed St. Matthew’s Church, built in 1904.

The year 1873 saw the redecoration of the whole church at a cost of £230, this sum being given by Mr. Henry Terry of Lockwood House. However, within five years it was found that the building required very expensive repairs. When the foundations were being dug the remains of rushes were to be found at great depths, indication of marsh land dating back thousands of years. Due to the marshy state of the ground, underground springs and the fact that a quarry then existing between the vicarage and the school channelled water towards the church, all added up to the church floor being in an advanced state of decay. The church was closed while a new drainage system was installed and a new floor laid, re-opening on 14th November 1879.

Sir Joseph Radcliffe of Milnsbridge House gave to the church a plot of ground in Park Road and upon this a school was erected in 1874. This building was also used as a Mission Church and eventually provided the foundation of the parish of St. Barnabas. As noted elsewhere in this book, this building is once more a church, today being used by the Seventh Day Adventist Church. In addition to the Park Road school, the church was also responsible for the schools at Rashcliffe, details of which are given in the Chapter relating to schools.

Various small additions have been made to the interior of the church over the years, such as the dedication on September 30th 1908, of a new pulpit and choir stalls, a chancel screen and war memorial windows in November 1923, and stained glass windows in 1925 and 1929. In 1918 a memorial tablet and brass were installed to the memory of Dr. MacGregor. Dr. MacGregor was so popular and well-known that many readers will remember tram and trolley conductors well into the

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1902 200 1912 230 1922 167 1932 151 1942 119 1952 92 1962 63 1968 48 (lowest) 1970 58 1972 72 1974 89 1976 95

METHODIST CHURCHES The Methodist Movement and the resulting churches form a confusing pattern and a few words of general history may help to set the scene.

Around 1730 a group of Oxford students led by two brothers named Wesley got together for regular religious study. Following a missionary visit in 1735 to Georgia they returned to England and in May 1738 John Wesley commenced travelling throughout the country preaching from the pulpits of parish churches. Originally this work was within the framework of the Church of England but gradually the Methodist Movement drew apart from the Established Church. As the movement grew so did splits within its own ranks, secession from the Wesleyan Church starting in 1797 with the formation of the Methodist New Connexion. Other breakaway groups followed: Primitive Methodists in 1815, the Protestant Methodists in 1828 and the United Methodist Free Church, 1857. In 1907 the New Connexion, the Bible Christians and the United Free Methodist Church joined to form the United Methodist Church. In 1932 the Wesleyan, Primitive and United Methodists became one organisation, leaving two small groups, the Wesleyan Reform Union and Independent Methodist Churches in separation.

As far as the Huddersfield area is concerned, the first Methodist movement commenced in 1775 but it was well into the following century before any churches were built in the Lockwood area. By 1819 travelling pastors held regular prayer meetings at a house in Taylor Hill, this group in later years banding together to build the Primitive Church there. A group meeting at Crosland Moor from around 1827 united to build a church at the junction of Nabcroft and Blackmoorfoot Road. Meetings held in Lockwood before 1840, at Highgate Cottage in Hanson Lane by a Mr. Chapman, and at the homes of Messrs. Wood and Lodge, gave birth in due course to Bentley Street Church. Mount Street and Victoria Street churches had their beginnings in meetings held from T850 in a cottage in Victoria Street owned by a Mrs. Buckley. Meetings from 1821 in the home of William and Rebecca Shaw of Crosland Hil! resulted in a church being built in the village in 1871. However, because of the many splits in the movement all too often members of one prayer meeting group would eventually finish up in different churches.

METHODIST CHURCH, BLACKMOORFOOT ROAD, CROSLAND MOOR The first purpose-built Methodist ‘house’ in our Township, this group actually worked in the reverse of what future groups were to do, in that they built a Sunday School first and a Chapel later. Erected on the site now partly occupied by a complex of Old Peoples Homes, between Nabcroft and where later Chapel Terrace was to be built, the school was opened on 3rd November 1845. The building cost of the school, which included a Mission or Preaching Room, is not known, nor is the size except that it was about half the size of the school in its final form and that it Originally catered for 50 boys and 45 girls.

The finances of the group must have been quite good, for by early 1850, gas lighting was installed in the school and plans were already afoot for a Chapel building, to be erected behind the school, with frontage onto Blackmoorfoot Road (or Barton Road as it was then named). Costing around £800 the Chapel opened in May 1855 but within two months the group started to split over the question as to which branch of the Methodist movement they should belong, resulting in a number of members leaving, who were later to build Park Road Wesleyan Chapel, while the Barton Road Chapel joined with the United Methodist Free Church.

In July 1860 the school building was let at £5 per annum for use as a Day School. Although not named in the records consulted, this private school was probably run by John F. Boothroyd, who remained as headmaster when the church took over control of the Day School in 1866. In 1870 the existing school was enlarged and a new Infant School built at a cost of £650. The entire school, including teachers, was taken over by the newly formed Huddersfield School Board on 29th July 1872 and was used on a rental basis as a Board School until a new Board School opened in 1877.


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A hardy lot were the members of this church, for it was not until 1857 that a heating system was installed, which probably warmed the draughts from the cracks in the west wall, discovered in May 1861. Plenty of hot air was generated that same month when the choir decided that they should dictate as to who was to play the basses. These instruments were supplied by the trustees and the dispute ended with the entire choir being dismissed. A Compromise of September saw the choir back in place but now under a joint Trustee and Choir Committee, with a harmonium replac- ing the basses. The draughty west wall was rebuilt in 1863 and in December of that year a new Vestry and ‘Convenience’ was built.

In November 1865 negotiations were commenced with Sir J.N. Ramsden to obtain additional land for a Burial Ground and School enlargement and this came to fruition in May 1869.

The back-breaking task of the Chapel Keeper (paid £8.50 a year) of carrying water from the well for the heating system came to an end in July 1874 when piped water reached the premises.

In March 1878 the Crosland Hill Mission requested better accommodation and the Trustees resolved to provide them with a new chapel (see Crosland Hill) which opened in February 1879.

In May 1881 the large school and the vestry were reslated and four additional pews were purchased for Crosland Hill. New heating apparatus was installed in the chapel and large school in November of that year.

Early in the

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Thoughts turned to the building of a chapel early this century and this got as far as the planning stage and the Lockwood Sub Committee of Huddersfield Corporation gave permission for the new building in December 1908 (Plans No.5043), however, the new chapel never came into being and the Mission was closed in June 1921. The assets were sold and the proceeds divided into four equal shares of £8.50, were given to the Buxton Road Circuit Board, Local Preachers Aid, Huddersfield Royal Infirmary and Thornton Lodge Wesleyan Church.

METHODIST MISSION, BRIERLEY WOOD The existence of this church has not been established. The one and only reference found was that in October 1887 planning permission was given by the Lockwood Sub Committee for a proposed Wesleyan Mission at this location.

BENTLEY STREET, LOCKWOOD, METHODIST CHURCH Before 1840 prayer meetings of Methodists were held in various houses in Lockwood, in particular, at the homes of a Mr. Wood and Mr. Lodge. Classes for women were held in the lodge house of Bentley & Shaw’s brewery and classes for prospective members were held at the home of Mr. T. Chapman at Highgate Cottage in Hanson Lane.

Following a meeting of 8th February 1848 a room was hired in Crosland’s mill (which stood behind Bridge Street and has been recently demolished). This room was fitted out as a chapel with 23 pews, five of which were free. Gas lighting was also installed and the church opened on Good Friday, 21st April, 1848.

It would seem that, although originally connected with the Wesleyan movement, this society soon became independent, for Wesleyan records show that of the 75 members in 1845, only two, Mr. Chapman and Betty Wood, remained in 1851. While Messrs. Wood and Lodge, mentioned above, were at the February 1848 meeting, Mr. Chapman was not, thereby indicating that the majority of members had already seceded from the Wesleyan movement. However, it was not until 21st March 1863 that the society joined the United Methodist Free Church.

The corner stone for the present church was laid on Good Friday, 1864, the ceremony being performed by Mr. Alfred Crowther, Chairman of the Local Board of Government and Owner of Broadfield Mills. On Good Friday, 14th April of the following year the Church was officially opened, the first service being conducted by the Rev. W. Griffiths, who preached to a congregation of over 300 people. The new church, the front of which is of white stone, quarried at Netherton, was designed in the Doric style by Mr. J.H. Abbey of Lockwood. Designed to seat 450 people, the building cost £1,100 and the furnishings of straight back box type pews, pulpit, etc., added a further £440, the total debt being cleared eleven years later in 1876. In the original design both the choir and organ were situated in the gallery above the entrance.

The Sunday School was founded in April 1848, using the same room in Crosland’s mill. When the present church was built the Sunday School used a curtained-off section of the building. By 1878 there were 312 children attending (134 boys and 168 girls), being taught by 38 teachers and a library of 350 books was available to the scholars. Due to shortage of space, use was also made of the Mechanics Institute for a while but in 1882 plans were laid for the building of a separate school to the rear of the church. The corner stone was laid on 16th August 1884 and the building, designed by Mr. Ben Stocks, had outer walls strong enough to take an extra storey at a later date (which of course never came to fruition). Having cost £2,100 the school was officially opened on Easter Saturday, 4th April 1885, by a service conducted by the Rev. R. Bruce.

The next major works came in 1898 when £220 was spent on the present choir seats and Rostrum, together with a replacement second-hand organ. Plans were laid in 1912 for what amounted to a complete rebuild, only the outer walls remaining untouched. The original estimates amounted to £1,500 but, owing to the First World War intervening and the consequent inflation the actual cost came to nearly £2,565. The work commenced in May 1923 and was not completed until 21st June 1924. The reconstruction consisted of a new roof, new floor, new windows, installation of electric lighting and new seating. Following this, the present organ, built by Conachers was purchased for £1,635 and was ‘opened’ on 3rd April 1926. All these works left the church £700 in debt and it was not until 1938 that it was cleared. The debt would have been much larger had not £800 been raised in 1914 by way of a large Bazaar, held in both the Sunday School


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building and in the Mechanics Institute, both buildings being joined for the occasion by a covered overhead gangway.

As economy has forced the closure of other Methodist churches in recent years, so Bentley Street has now become the ‘home’ of the former Taylor Hill, Mount Pleasant and Victoria Street churches. (Many Taylor Hill members transferred to Berry Brow Chapel).

PARK ROAD WEST METHODIST CHURCH, CROSLAND MOOR Breaking away from the chapel that stood in Blackmoorfoot Road, when that church decided to join the United Free Methodist, Church, the first record of this Wesleyan group is found in 1855 when meetings were held at the home of a Mrs. Bywater in Matlock Street. Known as the “Cushionites’’, because they took the cushions from the old chapel as their share of the assets, the meetings were often so crowded that both an upstairs and a downstairs room were used, with the Preacher conducting the service from the stairs.

Early in 1864 land for a chapel was purchased in Park Road West at 6/8d a square yard, making a total of £115.5s.3d. The foundation stone was laid on 29th October 1864 and the building similar in design to that in Bentley Street but somewhat smaller, was opened by the Rev. James Loulit on the 24th September 1865. Costing £350 to build, accommodation was provided for 110 people. The Sunday School used the same building, starting with 14 teachers and only 27 scholars but growing within a year to 123 scholars and by 1897 to over 350 children. While no firm evidence has been found it is possible that for a while around 1866 the church also operated a Day School, for in that year a Sarah Charlesworth is listed as Mistress of the Wesleyan School, Crosland Moor.

Within ten years the church was proving too small, so four adjoining cottages and land were purchased and on Good Friday 1877 a Mr. Thomas Mallinson laid the foundation stone for exten- sions, which also included raising the height of the present chapel to permit a gallery to be installed. During the alterations services were held at the Crosland Moor Board School and the enlarged church was opened on 17th February 1878, the building then capable of seating 250 people and the work having cost £2,000.

Within twenty years once again the lack of space was felt and in 1894 a committee was formed, originally with the idea of enlarging the Sunday School which had then overflowed into the chapel. The first fund-raising effort raised £1.32 but future efforts were more rewarding. In 1899 additional land abutting on to the church was purchased for £500 and to finance this, shares in the land at 38p. a square yard were sold to the church members. An

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On 31st December 1957, Milnsbridge Methodist Church closed and that congregation joined with Park Road, as did the congregation of Blackmoorfoot Road two years later.

in May 1964 the old Chapel and Sunday School was demolished to provide the site for a new Church Hall and School. Costing £17,380 the new hall was opened on ist May 1965.

With rising overheads and falling congregations, a factor common to most churches in recent years, in 1978 it was decided to discontinue use of the church building and to use the new hall for services. Vandalism caused severe damage to the chapel building during 1979 and so the decision was taken to demolish what the vandals had left standing, this being done in the early part of 1980.

VICTORIA STREET METHODIST CHURCH, RASHCLIFFE The earlier years of this group were entwined with the group that finally built Bentley Street Chapel. By 1850 the Methodists living at the Rashcliffe end of the town, preferring to worship nearer home, commenced holding prayer meetings at the home of a Mrs. Buckley in Victoria Street. Eventually these premises were not large enough and so in 1866 the newly built Town Hall in Swan Lane was hired at £15 per annum for Sunday use. At the same time a fund was started to finance the building of achurch. Rashcliffe was the poorest part of the town and the group leader Mr. John Kaye and the other fifty members had a hard time raising funds. It was also around this time that a dispute arose as to which faction of the Methodist movement they should be allied to and this resulted in the Wesleyans leaving to form their own group in 1877. Asite for the new church was acquired in Victoria Street and, with the sponsorship of Brunswick Street United Methodist Church, a building to seat 300 people was erected. Built on a ground plan in the shape of the letter

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The Sunday School which, when the new premises had opened, totalled 24 teachers and 150 scholars, had by the late

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CROSLAND MOOR PARISH CHURCH (ST. BARNABAS) The parish and church of St. Barnabas are outstanding on two counts, firstly on account of the very large sum of money given to endow the parish and secondly on the length of time taken to complete the. building of the church.

The church, now standing opposite David Brown’s factory, is really the second parish church in the area. In the early 1870's this part of Lockwood Township was in the parish of Rashcliffe and Rashcliffe Church built a small school and Mission Church on Park Road. This building, completed in 1874, can still be seen, complete with a small bell tower (but minus bell) at the corner of College Street and Park Road. In March 1897 this small church became the centre of the newly created parish of Crosland Moor, being formed out of parts of Lockwood, Milnsbridge and Rash- cliffe parishes. it was at this time that an anonymous gift of £10,000 (today’s value approx. £170,000) was given to endow the living and to provide a vicarage, but expressly forbidding its use for financing a new church. It is now believed that this sum was given by Mr. W. Brooke of Honley. With this large sum at its disposal, the parish was not extravagant in the provision of a vicarage for the original one was at 32, College Street and although the purchase price is not recorded, would not have cost more than £300.

The population of the parish in 1897 was 2,400 but this figure was increasing fairly fast as housing development spread up from the valley and so it was felt that a larger church was needed to replace the Mission Church. However, as yet there wasn’t even enough money to build a dog kennel, in fact a debt of £170 still remained on the Mission with an annual loss of £25 on upkeep. However, the parishioners were not daunted and in 1898 a Building Committee was formed, soon to be encouraged by a donation of £1,000 from Sir John Crosland. A ‘Sale of Work’ raised £231, clearing the Mission Church debt and so a search was on for a suitable site for a new church.

Originally, a site near the Mission Church was considered but negotiations fell through and eventually, in October 1898, a plot at the junction of May Street and Park Road was purchased for £1,263. By 1899 almost £5,000 stood to the credit of the Building Fund and the services of an architect, Mr. Hodgson Fowler, were retained to design a church with a cost of £10,000 in mind. Mr. Fowler had previously designed Marsden Parish Church and later went on to be architect of Lincoln Cathedral. A promise of £1,000 was received from the Church Building Society on condi- tion that the seating should accommodate 700 and that the Chancel should be the first section to be completed.

Various plans were drawn up and various amendments made. Originally, the roof was to be of equal height throughout but an amendment led to the addition of aclerestory to the Nave. The final plans show the church as it was built, with one important exception; a fine 25’ square tower surmounted by a spire.

Little by little the money was collected, including another anonymous gift of £1,500 and on 17th January 1900 the final decision to commence building was taken but, due to the estimated cost of £2,424, the building of the tower and the two west porches was deferred. The 4th August 1900 was the day upon which the Bishop of Wakefield performed the stone laying ceremony, assisted by Sir J. Crosland and Sir T. Brooke.

The beginning of 1901 saw £3,000 still being required to clear the building cost, or £5,500 if the tower was to be built, yet in the month following the Foundation Ceremony the fund had increased by just 14 shillings (7Op.).

Gradually the church took shape and with the help of a loan of £750 the contractors were paid and furnishings obtained, although most of the furnishings were free gifts from the people of Crosland Moor. Finally, all was ready and on 4th October 1902 the building was consecrated by the Bishop of Wakefield.

All was ready but not all was finished for the tower was not yet built and, as a temporary measure, the bell was hung on the west wail, protected by a simple wooden canopy and in this obviously unfinished state the church remained for many years. in 1950 the church inherited a sizeable sum of money and it was decided to investigate the possibility of building the tower and completing the church. Alas, with the passage of time the £2,500 figure of 1901 had now risen to over £30,000. Not able to afford this figure, a compromise was reached and a slim extension, with west window, all in a matching style, was built and conse- crated on 2nd July 1958, thereby finally completing the building.


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The Vicarage in College Street gave way in 1905 to ‘Moor Lea’ in Thornton Road (Blackmoorfoot Road today). In 1936 the present Vicarage, built alongside the church, was completed.

The church choir had been formed in the old Mission Church, originally including ladies. However, the ladies retired from the choir in 1897 in favour of men and boys. What provided the musical accompaniment here and in the new church is not recorded until 1907 when the purchase of a second-hand organ was to be investigated. Somehow, money was found for a new Conacher organ which was installed in 1908.

The old church in College Street, apart from being a day school, continued to serve as a Sunday School and Parish Hall. A new Parish Hall was built opposite the church in De Trafford Street in 1961 and later enlarged. The tennis club, formed in 1935, originally had courts in Yews Hill Road but new courts were built alongside the new hall, however, in 1977 this land was taken over by David Browns as a Car park.

Following the building of the new Church School on Dryclough Road the old Mission Church and School was sold in 1969 to become once again a church, now for the Seventh Day Adventists.

THE SALVATION ARMY, RASHCLIFFE The Salvation Army first came to nearly Huddersfield in 1883 and by 1903 the movement had spread to Lockwood, the ‘barracks’ being in Albert Street. In fact, the movement might have been established earlier for on 9th March 1891 General Booth applied for planning permission for a wooden Mission Church in Lockwood Road but this was rejected by the Lockwood Sub Committee of the Corporation.

The oldest surviving member of the Salvation Army in our area is Mr. James Thorley of Lockwood Road, Rashcliffe, now 81 years old. Below is a transcript of his comments on the church.

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The Roman Catholic faith returned to Huddersfield in 1828 when Father Thomas F. Kelly arrived from Ireland to supervise the building of St.

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There is little to tell of the work of the police in our small area over the bygone centuries. Indeed, the police force as we know it today, only dates from the middle of the last century, when the sudden rise in population made an organised force necessary.

In the Wakefield Court Rolls reference is made to ‘raising the hue and cry’ meaning that in those days (14th century and before) the system put the responsibility for catching law breakers upon the general public, or to be more exact, upon male inhabitants between the ages of 12 and 60. Should a crime be committed it was the duty of the inhabitants of the village to raise the ‘hue and cry’ throughout the area, catch the culprit and hand him over the appointed Constable for the area. if a crime was committed and the inhabitants failed to raise the ‘hue and cry’ then they were fined by the court for failing in their duty.

This system worked well from long before the Norman Conquest until the end of the 14th century. Gradually, the keeping of the peace at local level became the responsibility of the Lord of the Manor, acting through the Court Leet (see also Local Government & Services). Each year the Court Leet appointed from among the local inhabitants officers for various positions, such as Weights & Measures and Pindar. The most important officer chosen was the Constable. This office (and the others) was unpaid and the holder had to carry out his duties in addition to his ordinary work. However, he did appear to have the power to call upon the local inhabitants to help him in finding and arresting wrong-doers, as indicated in this directive, dated 14th June 1522.

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So, of the four appointed Constables, three delegated their duties to other men. These particular substitutes may have carried their duties well, but the general picture was of the Constables work being neglected, leading to the breakdown of the system.

It was of course in the larger towns that law and order first broke down and new measures had to be taken to enforce the law. Henry Fielding, a London magistrate tackled the problem in that city by organising his own private police force, the ‘Bow Street Runners’, founded in 1750 and by the end of the century, seventy men were employed in the force of paid Constables.

Sir Robert Peel, the ‘father’ of the modern police force, became Home Secretary in 1822 and he was instrumental in forming the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829, giving London a paid, full-time police force. However, the remainder of the country was still under the old system of Parish Constables and it was not until 1835 that the Municipal Corporations Act paved the way for provincial police forces. Police forces cost money and so formation of provincial forces was very slow and as late as 1853 half the counties of England and Wales were still relying upon the old system and so it came about that the Government ordered all authorities to set up their own force, promising to pay a quarter of the cost, providing the force was efficient.

Coming now to local conditions, the appointment of Constables by the Vestry at Almond- bury continued until around 1830 at which time a separate Lockwood Vestry was formed, appointing its own Constables, the appointments still being confirmed by the Court Leet. For one year only (1848) the Chief Constable appointed by the Vestry had a salary of £10 but this payment was not repeated. Besides appointing the Chief Constable the Lockwood Vestry also appointed seven ordinary constables, each being issued with a stave and handcuffs.

In 1856 the West Riding of Yorkshire Police Force was formed and, although the Vestry continued to appoint Constables, the real power went to the new force. During

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Lockwood and North Crosland do not abound in stately homes nor mansions and the majority of buildings in our area were only erected in this or late last century. The buildings mentioned here were erected up to the middle of the last century, being a point in time when Lockwood prospered, or at least some folk did. Many substantial houses were built in the area, the largest being Crosland Lodge. In the town centre in the area between the Baptist Chapel and Mount Street stood the homes of the ‘better off’ folk, such as Fenton House, The Limes, Longfield House, Lea House and Lockwood House. In Swan Lane stood Royds House (now the Liberal Club) and opposite stood Ash Villa and North House.

CROSLAND HILL HALL One of the two oldest buildings in our township, the oldest part dates back to the early

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the Board held their first meeting there the following month, 14th May 1866, which dates Lock- wood’s Town Hall 15 years before that of Huddersfield, although one must admit that the latter building is on a far grander scale, costing £57,000. It is also a fact that Lockwood Local Board was the first such body in the whole country to provide itself with a Town Hall. The building was designed by William Cocking, who was a local architect of some repute, also having designed amongst other buildings, Britannia Buildings in St. George’s Square, Huddersfield. The style chosen was of modern Italian, built of moulded stone and having a moulded cornice. The tym- panum of the pediment (the peak in the middle) contains an elaborate scroll, in which is inscribed “Town Hall

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DRYCLOUGH HOUSE This building, now a private hotel, was the home of the ‘well-to-do’ Battye family (see also Crosland Hill Hall). The earliest part of the building dates back to around 1650 and, obvious from the long row of upper windows, was originally a weaver’s house. Also attached was a small barn with various outbuildings around the yard, showing, as one would expect that in addition to weaving, farming was also carried out. Originally the building was owned by the North family but came into the Battye family in the 18th century. Around 1750 the building was extended on the south west side. The extension, of equal size to the original building, is of a style in keeping with the residence of a gentleman. A point of interest is that a number of windows, including a whole row in the north east gable, have been filled with stone, a relic of the days when tax was paid upon the number of windows in a house, a tax which was only repeated during the last century.

HIGHGATE COTTAGE, HANSON LANE Although only a small cottage this building deserves mention as one of the older ordinary working man’s homes in the area. The exact date of erection is not known but it was around the year 1630, being built by the Whitley Beaumonts as a Game-Keeper’s Cottage, the ‘game’ being in Dungeon Wood (now Beaumont Park). The earliest mention of this house so far discovered is an entry in Almondbury Parish Registers for 1636 and a further note in the Beaumont file for 1767 shows the occupants as Hannah Grimes and John Brook. Mention of this cottage can also be found in this book, in the chapter dealing with churches, the building being used as a form of Mission Church to a Methodist congregation around 1840 under the leadership of Mr. T. Chapman.

Until recent years this cottage was part of the Beaumont Estate and although the house is now privately owned the Beaumont Estate has retained the right for the passage of coaches, horses and cattle along the short drive leading off Hanson Lane.

The house is built upon bedrock and, at the rear, into the bedrock. All the walls are of drystone construction. The building for most of its history, consisted of two dwellings. Nowa- days the building is just one residence and due to careful modernisation it has lost none of its ‘farmhouse’ character.

WOODFIELD HOUSE Mentioned as being typical of the smaller ‘mansions’ of the area, this house stands off Mel- tham Road to the north east side of the cemetary.

Woodfield House was the centre of an estate of over 27 acres of grounds, including not only the ‘big’ house but also two lodge houses, thirteen cottages and a variety of outbuildings. The house was built for Mr. William Shaw, father of Mr. Bentley Shaw, part owner of Lockwood brewery and in general a fairly rich man. His son, Bentley Shaw, who also lived in the house, increased the family fortunes further and in partnership with his brother and others finished up owning most of the land in Lockwood.

Built about 1836 the style is similar to the older family house at the brewery, having a central porch with stone columns built on a pedestal of steps, with two windows to either side of the porch and five windows on the upper floor. The accommodation comprised of, on the ground floor, Entrance Hall, Dining Room, Drawing Room, Breakfast Room and Liorary for the family and Butlers Room, Kitchen, Scullery, etc. for the servants. On the first floor were seven bedrooms, a Dressing Room, Billiard Room and a Toilet (but no bathroom). The attic was divided into rooms for the servants. In the basement there were two Wine, two Keeping and one Meat Cellar, a Laundry, Coal Store and servants’ W.C. An outside ‘loo’ was also provided. There were extensive outhouses grouped to the rear of the house, comprising of: Coachman’s House, Stables for three horses, Coach House with a Hayloft over, Saddle Room, Harness Room with the Groom's bedroom over. Two looseboxes, another Coach House, Cow House, Store House, Mushroom House, Stoke House with a heating boiler for the Vinery and Greenhouse and with a Granary on the first floor. In addition there were Piggeries, Fowlhouses, Greenhouses and a Vinery. All this was fronted by extensive gardens reaching down to Meltham Road, including tennis lawns, swimming pool and an ornamental lake complete with island and rustic bridge. A total of three private roads led to the house, one from Dog Hall where the cottages were built, one from a small lodgehouse, which today is the entrance to the cemetery, and one from Woodfield


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Lodge. This latter building is itself a very large house, having on the ground floor: Hall, Morning, Drawing and Dining Rooms, a Library, Kitchen and Scullery and on the floor above a Nursery, five Bedrooms, Dressing Room, Bathroom and W.C. In addition there are both cellars and attics The ‘home’ estate covered an area from Woodfield Lodge to Dog Hall in one direction and from the Meltham railway line to Dungeon Mills in the other.

Mr. Bentley Shaw died in 1878 but his widow continued to live at the house until her death in 1893, following which the estate was purchased by Huddersfield Corporation. The house is still in use, Now divided into two residences. The outbuildings have also survived but are now in a derelict condition.

CONCRETE HOUSES At the bottom of Woodside Road on the south side there is a row of six terrace houses which, apart from having flat roofs, do not appear to be unusual. However, this terrace built in 1877, is one of the earliest examples in this country of the use of pre-cast concrete in building construction. The idea was imported from America where the son of the builder, W.F. &

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The general history of public houses, inns, taverns, etc., goes back many centuries. Long before the coming of the Romans, probably as far back as 3,000 B.C., ale was brewed in this country. However, it is in the Roman period that the first recorded evidence of public houses can be found. Wooden huts called tabernae were built alongside Roman roads for the sale of liquid refreshment, each house being identified by a long pole on which hung an evergreen bush. As history progressed the church became one of the main brewers of ale, providing this and accommodation in the religious establishments for weary travellers. By the year 750 A.D. private establishments, known as taverns, were in existence and it is from this point in history that the story of the public house commences.

By the time of King Edgar (959-975 A.D.) there were far too many ale-houses in the country and the King declared that there should be only one ale-house for each village, also declaring that there should also be only one system of measure. From various laws decreed by the church at this time it is also clear that alehouses were already providing not only drink but also entertainment and music.

In the year 1188 there came the first tax on the liquor trade, when Henry II raised a levy to finance the war with Saladin. The year 1266 (Henry I11) saw the first laws to control the price of ale, the Act reading ‘‘When a quarter of wheat is sold for 3/- or 3/4d and a quarter of barley for 20d or 2/- and a quarter of oats for 15d, then Brewers in Cities ought and may well afford to sell two gallons of ale for one penny and out of Cities to sell three gallons for one

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Throughout history drunkenness has, to lesser and greater degrees, been a problem to the authorities and most legislation regarding public houses has been in attempts to curb this. James I referred to alehouses as not being for entertainment or harbouring of lewd and idle people to spend and consume their money and time in lewd and drunken manner and it was enacted that only travellers, lodgers and labourers, for one hour at dinnertime could receive such entertainment. From 1606 drunkenness was punished by a fine of 5/- or six hours in the village stocks. Ifa person was found drinking in his own neighbourhood there was a fine of 3/4d or a spell in the stocks. From 1609 the alehouse owner was in danger of losing his licence should any of his customers become drunk.

The Excise Duty on beer, ale, etc., dates from 1643 when it was imposed by the Parlia- mentarians to finance their war against the King. The King (Charles |) raised exactly the same tax in 1645 to pay his army, which presumably meant that many alehouses were obliged to pay double taxes. This tax has of course continued to present times and it was this tax which was responsible for the sudden increase in the consumption of spirits, which originally were not covered by the tax, not being drawn into the net until 1736. This resulted in a drop in the amount of beer being consumed and a further drop came with the introduction of coffee about 1650, chocolate around 1657 and tea in 1660, for up to the introduction of these beverages beer or ale was the common drink at meal-times, even for young children. It was also in this period that bottled beer made its first appearance, although from contemporary reports it was not very popular.

The long period of time during which spirits were free of tax nearly brought to an end the life of the alehouses. Gin, and to a lesser extent, brandy, was being consumed at the rate of a gallon per head of population per year and by 1743, out of the 15,288 establishments in London, 8,659 were Spirit Bars. Even with the introduction of tax on spirits it was many years before the position was reversed, the peak of the gin era coming around 1740. Various measures were taken by the government, one Act in particular forbade the granting of licences to grocers and chandlers, causing the number of houses licensed for spirits to drop from 37,000 in 1779 to 30,000 in 1799.

Up to the end of the eighteenth century practically all public houses were ‘free’ houses, either brewing their own beer or purchasing from a brewer of their free choice. Although com- mercial breweries were increasing in number it was the exception rather than the rule for them to own any retail outlets. The large brewers were quite happy with this situation, it being the custom for publicans to always order from the same brewery. However, as different types of beer became available publicans began to shop around. Also, in many cases as villages grew rapidly ,into towns, many publicans were unable to cope with the financial side of the business, so to protect their own interests the brewers were forced to purchase existing houses or open new houses. During the period 1801 to 1901 when the population of England and Wales rose from under 9 million to nearly 33 million, the number of licensed premises rose from 49,000 to 102,000 and a number of the new premises were owned by the commercial breweries.

In 1828 all previous status which related to the granting of full licences by J.P.’s were consolidated into one Act. In 1830 the Beerhouse Act was passed. This enabled any householder to obtain an Exercise Licence, but not requiring a Justices Licence, to retail his own beer from his own dwelling, either for ‘on’ or ‘off’ sale, the only restriction being that they should not open before 4 a.m. and were to close by 10 p.m. The purpose of the Act was to discourage spirit drinking and needless to say, was not favoured by the licensees of Inns, Taverns and Alehouses. Within two months 24,342 licences were issued to beer houses, 12 situated in Lockwood by the year.1837, and these unrestricted premises soon became extremely disorderly and it was not until 1869 that Beerhouse Keepers were required to obtain a Justices Licence.

A new comprehensive Act was introduced in 1872, one of the main features being to ban the sale of spirits to persons under 16 years of age and in 1901 laws were enacted forbidding the sale of any intoxicating liquor to children under 14.

We now come to our local inns and beerhouses of which somewhere in the region of 50 establishments have existed at one time or another. Research has been made difficult into this subject through two reasons. Firstly, the oldest Brewster Sessions Returns (held at Wakefield) only date back to 1771 and are only complete up to the year 1803. The records held at the Magistrates Court in Huddersfield commence around 1868, leaving a gap of over sixty years in the official records. Early Directories help to fill in the gaps, however, beerhouses were only


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listed under the licensees name and not the ‘house’ name. Another complication of early records is that Lockwood formed the boundary between three licensing areas, resulting in the Shoulder of Mutton being in Crosland Half, The Red Lion in Quarmby and the Folly Hall end of our area coming under Huddersfield.

Before listing the licensed houses in our township, detailed below are all licensees in the Huddersfield area for the end of the 18th century.

Almondbury 1771 John Aneley, Joseph Drake, Elizabeth Kaye (widow), Dorethy Merriot (widow), Robert Schorah. The same names appear in 1773, 1777, 1778 and 1781, John Aneley replaced in 1778/81 by his widow, Martha. Abraham Mellor added to the list in 1781.

Crosland Half 1771 Grace Arlom, widow (Shoulder of Mutton Lockwood), Martha Brayshaw, widow (Travellers’, Blackmoorfoot), William Barker (Fleece, South Crosland), and Daniel Dyson. In 1803 the licensees were: John Sykes (Travellers’), William Murgatroyd (King’s Arms, South Crosland), William Arlom (Shoulder, Lockwood), James Barker (Fleece) and Thomas Parkin (Bull & Dog, later renamed Star, Linthwaite).

Quarmby 1771 John Dawson, James Dyson, Abraham Hall, William Horsfall, John Hanson, David Haigh, Sarah Haigh, widow, Joseph Nowhill, George Robinson, Abraham Shaw, Sarah Sykes and John Sykes. Added in 1777 were John Brighouse, William Crosley, William and Mary Dawson. Added in 1781 were Nancy Dawson, widow, Sarah Robinson, widow, and Benjamin Haigh.

Huddersfield 1771

Martha Bradley

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was converted from a dwelling house and having escaped rebuilding, the Railway is today probably the oldest pub building in the area.

BRIDGE INN, Water Lane, Lockwood. Originally a beerhouse dating back to 1837 when Sam Bryam was licensee, the Hanson family who owned the house converted in 1870 to Inn status. In 1880 Henry Clayton, previously of the Victoria, became licensee and he built up a thriving Livery Stable business in a yard alongside the river, near the Inn. Purchased by Bentley & Shaw in 1896 closure came on 5th December 1935. The building remained empty for many years until demolished in the

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FORESTERS, Park Road West, Crosland Moor. Opened by David Hirst in 1851 the same family were licensees until around 1876 when the house was sold to Bentley & Shaws. According to the records consulted, Bentley & Shaw sold out to the licensee, Henry Dawson, in 1892 but Bentley & Shaw were again the owners by 1902 although Henry Dawson remained licensee until sometime after 1924. The house was rebuilt during 1925/6 and remains open today under Bass control.

FOX & GRAPES, Albert Street, Lockwood. Privately owned by the Levitt family, this

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RAILWAY, Crosland Moor. Very little is known of this short-lived pub. It appears in the records for 1853 with John Baxendale as licensee but by 1858 it is listed ‘To let’’ and by 1861 the title had been taken by John Ashton of the Shipwreck. There is no trace of John Baxendale in the 1851 census returns for Lockwood Township but he is listed as a beerseller in Milnsbridge between 1847 and 1850.


RED LION, Lockwood Bar. Although now in a building dating from 1938, the earliest surviving deeds to the original building date back to 1722, although it is not certain the premises were then an Inn. In 1722 the property was given as a gift by Ann Bottomley to her daughter, Anne, wife of John Horsfall. John Horsfall was definitely an Innkeeper in 1741, being shown as such in the Parish Records when they commenced stating occupations. The house passed to his son William (baptised 19.7.1749) and his name appears as licensee in 1771. The original house was far less in size than the building demolished in 1938 and the deeds consulted cover adjoining property which eventually grew into the main Inn in the township. The previous building con- sisted of two converted houses facing the road with an adjoining older farmhouse with its gable end to the road, the upper floor of which was one large room. Set further back were stables, barns and brewhouse. In 1803 George Brook was licensee and owner, followed by his widow, Martha, in 1837. In 1845 Henry Brown became licensee and owner. In addition to running the pub both George Brook and Henry Brown were farmers. Henry Brown was also a contractor for the upkeep of the roads, Chairman of the Lockwood Vestry (the local government body of the day) and generally a respected member of local society. The house remained in the Brown family until 1880 when it was taken over by Seth Senior’s of Shepley. A new building was planned in 1936 but the original plan was rejected by Huddersfield Corporation, the design being more fitting for the promenade at Blackpool. The amended design was approved and the present building construc- ted in 1937/38. in 1966 the successors of Seth Senior (Bass) handed the house over to Allied Breweries as part of a general West Riding exchange deal, bringing the Tetley sign to the building. Due to its original size and position in the town centre, the Red Lion was the focal point for many local meetings and events. In the days of

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WARREN HOUSE, Blackmoorfoot Road, Crosland Moor. Remembered in history for its slight connection with the Luddite troubles of the early 19th century, this inn was founded prior to 1781 when Joseph Armitage was the owner and licensee. Situated (according to the 1841 census) on the east side of Blackmoorfoot Road, between Park Road and Nabcroft Lane, the inn was no doubt often busy with long distance travellers for in those days Blackmoorfoot Road was the main Manchester Road, carrying all Lancashire-bound traffic.

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Following the closure of our local workhouse the remaining establishments within the Union were Birkby with accommodation for 121 persons, Almondbury 48,

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was raw flesh. During the following week when we were getting bathed she was always taunting me about my ‘stars and stripes’ back and all the other lads had a laugh at me. Then she went on holiday and a temporary Mother came and she liked her beer, me, being the oldest boy had to go down to the pub with a jug. While she drank the beer and read the newspaper she would doze off and that was my opportunity to help myself to sugar, jam and treacle out of the cupboard. One night I made porridge, you've never seen anything like it in your life, I put two pounds of sugar in, a pint of oatmeal into a gallon of water, jam and treacle. It were purple and it were nice to begin with but it was too rich and some of it was left so to get rid we took it to the bottom of the yard and pushed it through the fence to some hens. We didn’t know but the lady who kept the hens saw us. We were in the cellar when our Foster Mother returned from holiday and we heard the lady from next door say to her ‘Your boys have been feeding my hens with porridge, I don’t mind but its the first time I’ve known your boys to have food to throw away’. When we heard that we knew we were in trouble and me and another lad flew up out of the cellar and out of the house and we ran away. We went to my pal’s uncle but he said he dare not help us but gave us 6d each which we spent on cakes. As it grew dark we thought we should go back, but, remem- bering the flogging of a short while ago, I was scared. My pal said there was a man in town who might help us, an Inspector of Cruelty to Children, so we went to his house, now after midnight and knocked him up. He said that he and the Guardians had been looking for us all over the place and he asked why we had run away. I told

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births, 82 deaths, admitted 904 and discharged 798 inmates and had between 339 and 385 inmates in their care at all times.

Master J.A. Heastie £80 plus apartments and food Matron Annie Grant £40 Book-keeper Edmund H. Grant £20 "

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sick males, three unemployed males, their 12 wives and 13 children. 13 widows and their 33 chil- dren, one unmarried mother and child, 6 orphans, 15 male and 50 female non-able bodied persons also received payment. Unlike today’s unemployment benefit there were strings attached to pay- ments to the able-bodied, which in 1910 amounted to 6/- (30p) a week for a man and his wife, plus 1/9d for each child. In return for this sum the man had to report to the Master of the Work- house and each day he had to either break and crush half a ton of stone, or grind 120 |b of corn, or chop into firewood 9 cwt of railway sleepers. Alternatively, work on the 20 acre farm or on the pig and poultry farm might be called for. For women, work in the laundry with its piles of soiled linen from the Hospital section, was Hobson’s Choice.

In 1895 more land was purchased at Crosland Moor at a cost of £650 and alterations and extensions carried out at £1,750. Also, the Workhouse well was repaired and put back into service, thereby reducing the bill from Huddersfield Corporation for piped water.

During the last decade of the century the number of children detained in the Workhouse was slowly being reduced by farming them out to foster parents, the Union making payments until the child was thirteen years old, at which age they would be sent out to work.

The year 1900 saw the opening of a ward in No.3 Hospital for tuberculosis cases, the hospital section of the Institution then being made up of:

No.1 Hospital 86 beds Chronic Sick and Infirm No.2 ” 34

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In 1920 the Union introduced a strict 48 hour week for its employees but, even with extra staff, this system soon proved unworkable. Also in 1920 women confined in the Workhouse were allowed to find employment outside the institution where possible and their children were looked after during the daytime by qualified nurses. In the following year the Maternity service, which up to then had only been available for inmates of the Workhouse, was made available, upon pay- ment to the general public.

In 1922 the upkeep of Tuberculosis cases was taken over by Huddersfield Corporation, but having no suitable premises the cases remained at Crosland Moor, the Corporation paying £1.50 per head per week to the Union. These cases were eventually removed in 1929 and the vacated block was then converted into a Chridren’s hospital.

In 1923 the Laundry was converted to electric power and a new large coal shed was built by unemployed labour. Also as part of the scheme to help the unemployed, al! the roads within the grounds were remade in 1924 at a cost of £3,276. In 1925 the Nurses Kitchen was enlarged and an Internal Telephone system installed throughout the Institution, followed by the installa- tion of Wireless Receiving equipment for £161 in 1927.

The final major work of the Huddersfield Poor Law Union at Crosland Moor commenced in 1927 with the purchase for £2,800 of 14% acres of land adjoining the Institution, Upon this land a new 109 bed block hospital was built at a cost of £18,500, plus £1,800 for furnishings. The new block was opened on 29th November, 1928, by Sir Berkley Moynihan.

The staff of eight in 1878 had by 1928 risen to 86, even though the number of inmates remained fairly constant at 343 (172 in the Workhouse and 171 in the Hospital) making one again wonder how the original eight ever managed to cope with the job. The staff of 1928 consisted of:—

Master, Matron and General Staff 21 Kitchen Staff 4 Laundry " 9 Cleaning

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Following the take-over by the Corporation the first change was that of title. At a meeting of the Health Committee in December 1930 it was proposed that the Institution should be titled Municipal Hospital’’, but a meeting on 14th January 1931 rejected this title in favour of’St. Luke’s Hospital’’, being the name which survives today. However, this was still an institution for the poor and it was not until June 1934 that it was decided to make the hospital services avail- able to the general public, or more to the point, to paying patients. During the early years of Cor- poration, Health Committee rule changes were only of a minor nature, in April 1931 land border- ing Blackmoorfoot Road being released for house building, female inmates of the Workhouse being moved into the Lock Hospital and their former wing being used by male inmates and in 1933 flowerbeds were laid out in the grounds.

Major changes in administration came in 1935 when St. Mary’s Hospital was taken over by the West Riding County Council and St. Lukes then came under the Public Assistance Committee, underlining the status of the inmates and patients.

In 1936 it was agreed to sell to the Education Department for £3,160 nine acres of land in Dryclough Road on which to build a new Senior School. Although this transaction went through, the Second World War intervened, the land being used as allotment gardens and some thirty years were to pass before the planned school was built.

Accommodation for the nursing staff was now in short supply and in December 1935 “The Headlands” in Clare Hill was rented from the Estates Dept. at £40 per annum, the building being converted into a Nurses Home. In January 1937 plans were laid to build a house in the grounds for the Master and Matron.

During the summer of 1937 major alterations were carried out to the Casual Wards, involving the removal of the upper storey and resulting in the bed accommodation being reduced by 15 down to 82 beds.

Another move towards expansion of the hospital service came in 1938 when arrangements were made for members of the Huddersfield & District Contributory Scheme to receive treatment at St. Lukes.

Upheaval came again in 1939 with the start of the Second World War, staff being increased by the enrolment of refugee girls from Europe as Probationer Nurses. In 1940 the Emergency Hospital Scheme came into effect and Pennine Grange (between New Hey Road and Laund Road, Salendine Nook) and Woodhouse Hall were taken over by St. Luke’s and the main hospital was then available for sick and wounded troops.

1941 saw another change in the title of the governing body, changing then to the Social Welfare Committee and in 1942 a resolution passed by the Committee marked the end of an era, even though the resolution was a temporary wartime measure. The resolution was to close down the Casual Wards, thereby ending the operation as a Workhouse. A Vagrant Master and Matron were still employed and persons arriving in the town could still be accommodated until they received their first

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A telephone was provided and nurses were now allowed to have visitors of either sex and, finally, Off Duty Lists were replaced by On Duty Lists.

At the end of 1946 a report on St. Luke’s Hospital, then having 255 beds plus 17 cots, came to the conclusion that accommodation was inadequate and that extensions should be considered. However, overcrowding was a problem facing all hospitals and to elevate the position at St. Luke's the West Riding Authority was requested in March 1947 to take some of the chronic sick into Dean- house. This was refused so, in retaliation, St. Luke’s refused to accept any maternity cases from the West Riding area.

in July 1948 St. Luke’s Hospital came under the newly formed Huddersfield Hospital Management Committee, being part of the changes caused by the implementation of the National Health Service Act. The Corporation retained the obligation to care for old-aged persons and for this purpose a few members of the staff at St. Luke’s remained on the Corporation pay-roll.

The ‘make-up’ of St. Luke’s at this time was, in the hospital section: Block 1 Geriatric, 48 beds. Block 2 Maternity, 33 beds. Block 3 Children, 15 beds. Block 4 Geriatric 80 beds, a total of 176 beds, all administered under the National Health Service. In addition there was the Workhouse Block and the Casual Wards and both these latter buildings came under the Social Services Department of Huddersfield Corporation, but the day-to-day administration was provided by St. Luke’s Hospital. For the remainder of this chapter the three sections are treated separately.

The Workhouse: A fine building of classical Victorian architecture which today houses the headquarters of the Kirklees Area Health Authority. In 1948 the exterior was black with grime and the interior was a typical workhouse. A visiting Member of Parliament is reported to have said that he had never seen anything so near to the Charles Dickens description of a Victorian Work- house. Vast rooms, devoid of any cheerful decoration, devoid of floor covering, devoid of any of the comforts of life. The bare walls lined with wooden benches upon which sat the elderly citizens of our town, with nowhere to go and nothing to do, living out the autumn of their years in a meaningless existence. These inmates were in the main the elderly and while not ill enough to be in hospital they were too feeble to look after themselves and they either had no relatives or none willing to look after them. But not all were elderly for also confined in the Workhouse were younger inmates, such as people suffering from epilepsy, people in the early stages of multiple sclerosis and young people who were mentally handicapped. Huddersfield Corporation, recognising that this type of accommodation was out-moded began buying old large houses for conversion into Old People’s Homes, such as Heathfield and Moorview at Crosland Moor and gradually the number of inmates at the Workhouse was reduced until, finally, the Institution was closed in 1954. For a number of years the building served no greater importance than use as a general store building. In 1967 the Hudders- field Royal Infirmary moved from Huddersfield to the new buildings at Lindley and at this time the Group Headquarters, which were situated at the old Infirmary building, took over the old Work- house Block at St. Lukes.

The Casual Wards: This block, which in 1948 consisted of 20 cells, was situated along the Nabcroft Lane boundary of St. Lukes. As the title implies, this section provided overnight accommodation for those ‘passing through’ the town, these people being mainly tramps. These visitors could not book in before 6 p.m. They then had to take a shower or bath before being given a supper of bread, margarine and cheese, following which they were issued with a nightshirt. Following a night’s sleep in the cell and a breakfast of porridge followed by sausage and a mug of tea, the visitor was required to work in the hospital grounds for the rest of the day. Dinner and tea were given and accommodation for a further night. Following this the visitor was obliged to leave and the rules specified that he (or she) could not return for at least a month. Generally the Casual Wards were used by single people but occasionally whole family units were catered for. During one period of two years the accommodation was used on a long-term basis, Huddersfield Corpora- tion housing there families evicted from their homes.

The Hospital: In 1948 the hospital was antique, outmoded and inadequate but it was to be a number of years before any large scale modernisation was to be carried out. The first progress towards the modern hospital of today came in 1955 when the first Operating Theatre was installed in Block 4 (the block originally built in 1924). At the same time a schoo! was formed to train S.E.N. nurses. In 1965 a start was made on the major alterations that produced the hospital as seen today. Designed by John Poulson and built by Higgs & Hill Ltd. at a cost of £1% million.


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This involved the demolition of Block 1 (the Geriatric patients were transferred to Storthes Hall Hospital at Kirkburton for two years) and of Block 3. The new general hospital of 224 beds was built across the site and included twin Operating Theatres, complete with Recovery Rooms, Occupation Therapy Unit, Outpatients’ Section, X-ray Department and Pathology Lab. All departments were equipped with the very latest in the way of equipment. In addition to the general hospital a 100 bed Acute Psychiatry Unit was built. This Unit handles short-term patients of all age groups, that is those expected to require treatment up to five or six weeks (long term patients going to Storthes Hall Hospital at Kirkburton). This Unit is staffed on the nursing and medical side by Storthes Hall, the ancillary staff (porters etc.) provided St. Lukes. During 1967 Block 4 was upgraded, the large ‘Nightingale’ wards of 26 to 30 beds were rebuilt as 4 bed bays and twin operating theatres were included in the modernisation.

In 1975 the Maternity Section (Block 2) was closed down as the facilities at the Princess Royal and Royal Infirmary provided sufficient beds for the needs of the town. in 1977 this block was refurbished for use by the Family Practitioner Unit.

Of the buildings erected by the Huddersfield Union, four remain. In the centre of the site is the imposing Headquarters building with a Nurses Home to the left. To the right of the H.Q. building and to the front of the new hospital is Block 2 and to the rear of the new hospital is Block 4. The total number of beds now available at St. Lukes is 408 and the total staff, from the senior posts to porters and cleaners is 600.


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Prior to the start of the last century there was little effective local government, mainly because there were few people to govern and it was only with the spectacular growth of population that the need for more day-to-day rules and regulations was felt. In earlier days government and law were basically the same thing. Going back to the 12th and 13th centuries a building licence would be granted by the same court that would try a thief. As shown at the beginning of this book, following the Norman Conquest, Lockwood was retained by the King, eventually devolving to the Earls Warren at Wakefield, although the Court travelled around the area, being held at Rastrick, Brighouse, Kirkburton and other local places. Almondbury and Huddersfield were given to the de Laci family and therefore their law and government came from Pontefract. Eventually, Almondbury and Huddersfield also came under the control of Wakefield following their devolving to Henry !V in 1399. Probably connected with the growing population and the establishment of the Beaumont family as Lords of the Manor, from the beginning of the 16th century the local government for Lockwood came from Almondbury. As the years went by the power of govern- ment became shared between church and Court Leet, that is Almondbury Church and the Beaumont’s and later still, the Ramsden family. Very roughly, the church was responsible for civil matters, including operation of the Poor Law, from the time of Elizabeth I and for the repair of the highways. The Court Leet (vested by the Crown in the Ramsden family in the 17th century) concerned itself originally with criminal cases, with trial for serious offences being passed on to the Quarter Sessions at Pontefract or York Assizes. However, as the years passed the powers of these two bodies, being ill-defined to start with, often overlapped and came into conflict with each other and, as the popula- tion increased, neither had the ability to handle the new situations arising.

in criminal matters the first major change came during the 18th century when

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Whitehead Lane and Primrose Hill. On 28th September 1799, there was recorded a rare entry of the Leather Searchers actually finding something to complain about. On that date they presented at Court five pairs of children’s black leather shoes, seized at Huddersfield Market from George Robin- son of Denby, for being made partly of horse leather.

While the powers of the Court Leet were not yet expended, by the year 1833 Lockwood had its own local governing body, referred to as the ‘Vestry’. While the title would suggest in these days close involvement with the church and indeed this is where the body did originate, the body was not connected with the Established Church and indeed many members were ‘chapel-goers’. Meeting in the old Town School in Swan Lane (until the building was demolished in 1865) this body initially confined itself to the upkeep of the roads and highways. The first entry in the surviving Minute Book, dated 1st June 1833, gave the right to Richard Brooke of the Waggon & Horses Inn, Moor Bottom, to have the sand that may be washed into the ditches on the old Manchester Road (Blackmoorfoot Road) from Noah Eastwoods (above Crosland Hill) to his own house, for the half-yearly sum of ten shillings. At this time our Township was divided into two areas, Lockwood in Crosland and Lockwood in Quarmby.

The original Vestry was made up of George Crosland, Chairman, John Smith, Henry Brown, Benjamin France, George Shaw, James Crowther, John Greenwood, John Maldestone, Joseph Priestley, Joseph Whiteley, Joseph Armitage and the Constable, George Crowther. A deputy to the Constable (George Woffenden) was appointed in 1834. The Chairman, George Crosland, was the builder of Crosland Lodge, founder of a textile concern with mills at Crosland Moor and at Lockwood and father of Thomas and Sir Joseph Crosland who both became Members of Parlia- ment for Huddersfield. Joseph Armitage (1778-1860) was a Justice of the Peace and at some time Deputy Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire. Originally residing in Lockwood, he moved to Milnsbridge House in 1820 (purchasing the house in 1823). Son of George Armitage of High- royd House (1737-1815) he had fifteen children by his wife Ann.

The first year’s accounts for the upkeep of the Highways show: —

From Highway Rate £67. 19s. 3d. To Labour £140. 7s. Od. Rate - - -

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Dry Clough Lane

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The Vestry also concerned itself with the Town School. The meeting of 20th May 1849 was called to consider the state of the school, which belonged to the inhabitants of the Town. It appeared that of the original trustees only two were still alive, George Crosland of Crosland Lodge and David Crowther of Lane Top. To these the Vestry appointed Bentley Shaw of Woodfield House, John Shaw of Swan Lane, James C. Fenton of Buxton Road, Thomas Abbey of Swan Lane, and Daniel C. Battye of Dryclough House. A meeting of the new body of School Trustees resolved that Mr. Jackson be requested to pay five shillings (25p) a year. No explanation of this entry is given, but probably Mr. Jackson was the teacher and the school building rented to him for this sum.

Also in May 1849 an enquiry into what land was owned by the town revealed that Judd Cliffe was so owned and that George Crosland agreed to pay 1/- a year for its use. Also Barton Tower was owned by the Town for which Thomas

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Henry Moore John Haigh John Sykes John Crow John Hanson Abraham Sharp


William Whiteley Henry Avison John Haigh Benjamin Wood John H. Crowther George Kirk

Cloth Miller Cloth Dresser Rate Collector Green Grocer Lead Pipe Maker Grocer

Machine Maker Cloth Dresser Cloth Dresser Overlooker Manufacturer Machine Maker

Signed: Henry Brown, Chairman

Mill Yard Rashcliffe Crosland Moor Meltham Road Folly Hall Brierley Wood

Yew Green Hawthorne Terrace Rashcliffe Crosland Moor Buxton Road Rashcliffe Mills

Although the powers of the Vestry came to an end, it was in general the same persons who became involved with the Local Board so in a sense it was only the title that changed.

This now brings us to the time when Lockwood was a separate and complete township, controlling its own day to day interests. Before moving on to details of the Lockwood Local Board

it might help to try to describe Lockwood in the year 1863.

Reference to the maps in the chapter covering Roads and Highways will show that there were very few roads compared with today. Not only were there fewer roads but even these were in very poor condition. Although the Vestry had instituted a system of repair work the basic surfaces were just the natural earth with loose stones thrown in to fill pot-holes, even the once common stone set or cobble stone had not yet made its debut, no proper drainage systems existed and in short the roads were a mess.

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present much of a problem apart from helping to damage the roads, for the natural contours of the land would drain it toward the river. For human effluent there was no drainage. Again on the farms this would present no problem for even today farms in many areas manage without main drains. In the town, with 7,000 people closely packed together it would be a different story and we can leave to the imagination the smell in Lockwood in the middle of

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At the first meeting, held as were subsequent meetings until the Town Hall was built, at the Red Lion Inn, Mr. Fenton was appointed Solicitor to the Board, Mr. Hawkyard, the Postmaster, appointed as Rate Collector and Mr. John Shaw as Treasurer. The General Rate was fixed at 5d in the Pound with a similar rate for Highways. By March 1865 the General Rate rose to 10d in the £, calculated to raise £761.42 per annum, the Highway Rate remaining at 5d. The following year the General Rate was increased to 1/3d and to meet current expenditure the Board was borrowing substantial amounts of

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P.C. Redman certainly kept everyone on their toes. The contractors for the Meltham railway, then being built, were in trouble for blocking footpaths in Dungeon Woods. The licensee of the Red Lion, home of the Board, did not escape when drainage from his stables overflowed into the cellar of a nearby house. The P.C. laid a complaint in May 1866 against a Mr. Holroyd regarding his property in Victoria Street where cellars of houses were deep in mud, sewage and water. These complaints continued later in the year when Victoria Street was described as the dirtiest and filthiest part of the town and the stench in the cellar dwellings was unbelievable, to such an extent that the occupants of the houses had to get up in the middle of the night to open their doors to relieve the smell from the cesspools in the cellars below. The Local Board were afraid of cholera, already prevelant in other nearby areas and instructions were given to the Highways Department to con- struct a new drain as a matter of urgency. Then, as now, red tape intervened regarding who should pay for what and, before anything was done cholera broke out in Victoria Street, the first victim being Edward Gelder, a cart driver. Following this the Board announced that disinfectants would be available, free of charge, throughout the township,

The dead also brought problems for the P.C. in April 1868. Edward Brown, licensee of the Red Lion, whose cellars abutted onto the Baptist Church graveyard, complained of the vile substances oozing through his cellar walls. It seems that by this time the graveyard was so full of bodies that paths were torn up and out buildings demolished to make room for more bodies and graves were now less than four feet deep. The Board decided to request an order for the closure of the graveyard this being confirmed in August 1868.

Street Lighting

The Board never got as far as owning their own gas works but it did make a start on lighting the streets. Gas was manufactured at Croslands mill and two gasometers were built behind the houses and shops in Bridge Street (the circular base walls still standing today) and it was mainly from this plant that gas was supplied to the

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By early 1864 the Board got around to talking about a drainage system, although agreement as to where to make a start was not reached immediately. Some members thought that Swan Lane to New Street (Albert Street) would be a large enough scheme to start with, but Mr. Hopkinson suggested that Lockwood Road to Rashcliffe should have priority as fever was raging in that area, a neighbour of his having already lost three out of four children. The Rashcliffe scheme won the day and by February 1865 tenders were being sought for laying 3,200 yards of sewer pipe and by September the work was completed although a few problems regarding flow occurred.

February 1866 saw drains being laid from the Jumble in Yew Green, with complaints from the Board that the pipes were not being laid deep enough below the road surface.

By October 1867 £2,400 had been spent on providing drainage and sanitation, which now included Swan Lane down to the river. As yet there were no drains at all in the Crosland Moor area, a fact which was brought to the attention of the Board in February 1868 and by April of that year plans were drawn up for drains to be laid from Barton Tower (Ivy Street) to Longroyd Bridge and from Pinfold along the new Manchester Road to Longroyd Bridge.



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Although a yard existed behind the new Town Hall, this would not accommodate all the tackle of the Highways Department so in February 1867 part of the Workhouse field, opposite the Rehobath Chapel, was rented for use as a Stone Yard and as a place to keep the (horse powered) road roller, the Slush Cart and the proposed Water Cart.

During late 1867 causeways were laid in Meltham Road as far as Woodfield, also up Swan Lane to Bentley Street on one side and opposite the Shipwreck Inn (Railway) on the other side. In early 1868 pavements were laid in New Street (Albert Street) and in old Manchester Road (Blackmoorfoot Road) from Lane End (Park Road) to Barton (Ivy Street). Following the ‘making-up’ of New Street in August 1868 some residents requested the Board to allow them 30 years in which to pay their share. Needless to say, the answer was a very definite ‘No’.

General Meeting Notes

In May 1866 the new Town Hall was ready and the

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Although a lot remained to be done, nevertheless, in five years the Local Board had achieved quite a lot. Many of the roads were properly surfaced, most of the town had drainage and sanitation where none had previously existed. Street lights, although only like miniature lighthouses in the darkness, covered the town and finally, like all good town councils, they had got themselves into debt. Water was the only service that the Board failed to supply for nowhere in the township was there room for a reservoir and cost forbade other ambitious schemes. Lockwood then, with its 8,000 natives, was a prosperous thriving town and there was then a feeling of pride at being a Locked’er. This pride in one’s own township did not die with the Local Board, indeed it lasted for nearly another hundred years. Nowadays it seems that Lockwood is nearly a dirty word and no sense of township now exists. The many suburbs of Lockwood, such as Crosland Moor, Crosland Hill, Thornton Lodge, Rashcliffe, Folly Hall and Longroyd Bridge, now have no connection with their former centre. Houses on the west side of the township, when offered for sale are advertised, similar to the proverbial Blackpool landladies, three minutes from the sea, as

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an earlier bridge, opened in 1861, nicknamed as the Duck Bridge.

Yews Hill Road was widened and paved in March 1904 and in May Dryclough Road was also widened and paved. In December 1906, Church Street,

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