Early Man in the District of Huddersfield (1924) by James A. Petch

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R. 16743.

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In bringing together the fragmentary records relating to the advent of man in the Huddersfield District, we are aware of the many pitfalls awaiting those who attempt to interpret the facts, and a good deal of courage was necessary to hazard the task. This could not have been done single handed with any hope of success, but with proffered help of a substantial kind, Mr. Petch undertook the task.

During the past fifty years many workers have interested themselves in collecting flint implements, so often exposed on our moors after heavy rains. Most of these, however, were surface finds, and little attempt was made to excavate the sites or correlate the results. Keenly interested in this work was a band of working. men of whom George Marsden, Ammon Wrigley and Robert Law were pre-eminent. The former often searched the moors at day— break, to return to work at the factory at six in the morning, and notwithstanding these difficulties, accumulated a_ considerable collection. It was he who discovered the Bronze Age burials on Pule Hill, Marsden, and after arduous excavation secured an interesting collection of remains. To his family we owe the first stimulus towards a more scientific presentation of the facts relat— ing to Early Man in this neighbourhood, and for this purpose they very generously presented his collection to the Museum. His friend, Ammon Wrigley, has also been a very generous donor, and to them we owe our sincere thanks.

Since the war, the study of the remains of Early Man in this district has been taken up again by Mr. Francis Buckley in a new spirit and with great enthusiasm. His keenness and trained intel- _ligence soon yielded striking results. He undertook the

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Mr. Petch’s task has been one of great difficulty, and we hope that the energy he has shown and the cautious and skilful hand- ling of the material at his disposal will be rewarded by a full appreciation of his efforts which have resulted in such a happy blend of guide and history.

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Introduction eee eee

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For the story of man there are two sources of information available : (a) written accounts of happenings which have survived the writer; (b) objects fashioned by man of material so durable that they have long outlasted maker and owner. On this differ— ence in source is based the distinction between History and Pre- history. A period is styled Historic if the historian of it ultim— ately derives his information from accounts written by men who lived in that period. Such written information may be illustrated and reinforced by material remains; but if objects manufactured’ in the era dealt with alone survive as basis for the story, the record is known as FPre-history. This terminology, though of service, is arbitrary. We find that History begins in Egypt in the fourth millennium before Christ, in Greece round about 900 B.C., in Britain comparatively few years before the opening of the Christian era, while in some parts of the world—Central Africa, for instance —History has not yet begun. The employment of these terms is, however, of use, in that they emphasize the difference in the sources available to the historian.

This contrast in origin is reflected in the nature of the

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8 i

tinguishable from other animals, yet existed. Recent discoveries at

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The first type of man which all recognise as such is known as Early Paleolithic or Lower Paleolithic Man (palaios, old; lithos, stone). In excavations, the earliest remains are of course found beneath what came later in time. Paleolithic Man and his imple- ments must have had something from which they sprang, but in neither case can that something be as yet definitely identified. It may have been Eolithic Man and Eoliths, respectively (eos, dawn) ; perhaps such folk as may have manufactured the ‘‘rostro-carinate’’ (‘‘

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animals. - He lived at first on the banks of rivers (‘‘River Drift Man’’) later in caves or, where caves did not exist, in huts made of grass, twigs and leaves (Upper

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vated site typical of that particular culture, and the full scheme 1S i—

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implement is now. Very important, because the results of scienti- fic excavation, are the finds made by Mr. Francis Buckley in 1922-3, on Windy Hill (site 3). There the lowest level produced over twenty tools of chert, including two large carinated planes, a large

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shop sites. During the Period of La Madeleine, properly the last stage of the

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e.g., March Hill and Windy Hill, were as a rule protected on one side at least by higher ground. As is naturally to be expected, on the whole the sites have a southern rather than a northern aspect.

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(2) (Fig. 8). These are the remains of nodules from which a number of flakes have been struck. They show clearly by the grooves on their surface the kind of flakes that have been detached. In a district where flint had to be imported and small tools were fashioned, naturally the cores were cut away until little remained when they were discarded. Small cores were sometimes chipped in a special manner to form small planing-tools, but the core-scrapers found with pygmy flints seem never to have been very large. (8) Wasters. These are irreguiar slices taken off the nedule, or irregular pieces produced accidentally through flaws in the flint. Some of the wasters are also accounted for by the fact that before useful flakes could be taken off, the nodule had to be given a flat top or ‘‘ striking

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(d) Gravine Toots (Fig. 4, Nos. 17 and rg) are special forms of chisel or gouge, and are the ‘‘ key ’’ tools of the local industry, providing the most important evidence of date and period. See Appendix (p. 87).

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(b) CHERT is a more local stone than flint. It could be ob- tained from Pendleside and the district further north, and from Derbyshire. Being an inferior stone and more

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grey-sand level or whether they were used in some way by the Mas d’Azil-Tardenois people we cannot at present say.


There are two peculiarities about the local flint sites which are of importance for the determination of the comparative age of the sites and their relation one to the other. In the first place, the workshops are generally small and concentrated. They do not spread indefinitely over a hill-side. Though the tools and flakes may be scattered, the workshops are well-defined (p. 14). Secondly, different kinds of flint were employed at different times, this appar- ently denoting changes in the source of supply. Once a workshop has been detected by the finding of a group of flakes on an exposed surface of the grey sand, by clearing away the peat down to that level and sifting the grey sand thus exposed a group of tools will probably be found, and these will be character- istic of that particular site, revealing the material used there and the shapes fashioned. As a rule such a group is consistently of one kind, either entirely of clear flint or entirely of flint patinated white. Chert may be mixed with the flint but chert was used in vary- ing degrees at all periods. Only two workshops have been found where chert alone was manufactured into tools, one at Windy Hill, the other in Dry Clough, Brushes Moor. By adding to the group gained by excavation any tools of the same colour, whatever that may be, that are found in the locality, a fairly typical group of tools will result, e.g., knives, scrapers, borers, points, in varying numbers, and, in the Huddersfield district, gravers and other pygmy tools as well. On the group thus got together the following considerations are brought to bear. The angle-graver (Fig. 6), perhaps the best type tool of the early period, is abundant on some sites, rare on others, and absent altogether from those sites where the flint is pat- inated white. Secondly, the beaked tool or micro-graver (mtkros : small) is rarely found associated abundantly with the angle-graver (see Fig. 4, 5 and 6). On other sites it is generally present in abund- ance. Thirdly, flint patinated white marks the later workshops

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pygmy industry that the development ot form is from blade to triangle and from triangle to trapeze (p. 17). In this district the triangle is common in the angle-graver or first period, much rarer ia the age of patinated flint. In this last period there is a distinct approach towards the trapeze, but in the English pygmy series the true trapeze form has rarely if ever been found. Locally, the tri- angle has a tendency to degenerate into the crescent, which is often merely a carelessly made triangle, or into a trapezoid form, which in its most developed form resembles a rhomboid. It has now (1924) been proved by excavations that

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WaRCOCK HILL SoutH SITE. Winpy Sire 3

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fig. 5. Broad Blade Pygmies, Badger Slacks. Site 2.

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Fig. 7. Narrow Blade Pygmies, Dean Clough.

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gravers have been found. There is also evidence, though not very pronounced, of occupation at a later date. Recently two Bronze Age arrowheads have been found and others have occurred in past years. CupwitH Moor. About a quarter mile south of Cupwith Hill a small workshop which produced about three hundred flakes has come to ight. The number of tools found has been’small. The site belongs to the micro-graver period, and is later than the main site on the Hill. Scattered flakes appear from time to time at different spots on this moor. DEAN CLouGH or Rapycon DEAN,

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represented. The earlier, producing an occasional large graver, lies on the higher ground and also to the S.E. of Dog Hill. The later period is represented on the ground between the foot of Dog Hill and the reservoir. Perhaps the most characteristic tools of the earlier industry are the small blades with battered backs. Mr. H. P. Kendall has made a fine collection from this area, and a good series may be seen in the Halifax Museum. Tools and weapons of the Neolithic-Bronze Age have been found fairly frequently here, some of the most recent finds having been made by Mr. J. W. Barrett, of Rish- worth.

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on exposed surfaces two

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Fig. 9. Broad Blade Pygmies, Warcock Hill. North Site.

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On a general view of the local pygmy industry, two main points become plain. There is in the first place a class of pygmy flints which belongs almost peculiarly to the Pennines. These are

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rung to rung. [or the right understanding of the subject, it is worth while studying an illustration and a parallel. The Saxons invaded England in Historic times. Yet in their settlements we find stone implements. That is to say, in Historic times, a use characteristic of

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come the more backward peoples of the invaded lands. On the other hand, the late M. Déchelette categorically denied any such connection. He ascribed increase of knowledge not to ‘‘ a violent irruption of warrior invaders,’’ but to ‘‘ the busy and quite peace— ful industry of an unknown population of workers ’’; for, to repeat what has been said, the Neolithic civilisation did not erase the Paleolithic and Mesolithic.

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noticed, in the lower levels of the peat—beds. But from this very fact that they were left on the ground surface, and therefore were subject to great disturbance by subsequent agricultural and other processes, no adequate scheme of classification has been arrived at. In sketching general and local Neolithic civilization there— fore, it is well to regard the sketch as typical of the times towards the end of the period, containing as it does features that in all probability were not contemporary, but whose chronological sequence we as yet do not know. Neolithic man was a herdsman and an agriculturist, in course of time domesticating the dog, the horse, the cow and the sheep. A hungry dog lurks round a

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of advanced intelligence will be few. All these changes began of course to affect profoundly the mode of life, and especially the type of dwelling. In Neolithic days, the use of caves is compara— tively rare. Instead of being scattered in families, a tendency to congregate in villages, composed of mud or stone huts which probably always sheltered related groups, takes effect. Sites were chosen in fertile valleys, or on plateaux capable of easy defence, on the seashore, and, most noteworthy of all, villages have been discovered on the continent, especially in Switzerland, which were built on large platforms erected on piles set in the waters of or marsh. These “‘ pile-dwellings ’’ would hardly

Fig. 73. Querns or Hand Corn Mills. seem to have been suitable for a people who lived by their herds and possibly the inhabitants of such settlements lived mainly by fishing. But it remains true that Neolithic man, for instance such Neolithic folk as may have lived in this district, was a herdsman and an agriculturist, living on the slopes of valleys and on open tiny hut-clusters on the shoulders of such heights as Castle Hill, anticipating the tiny hamlets which cluster there to—day, or else on hill-tops. It is to be noted that he preferred fairly high ground. Though he had no love for the very hill-tops such as Tardenois man had shown, we may picture him settled in the sparsely scat- tered open ground on the hill-sides throughout the district whereso-

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ever there was possibility of primitive cultivation. This occupa— tion of rising ground is easily explicable when it is recalled that the valleys and even the stretches of land between one settlement and the next would still be tangled jungle, and the undrained plains and low-lying land treacherous and impassable morass, while the more remote hills were covered with dense forests of birch, oak and other trees. It is probable that the stone axes which have been found locally saw in their day hard service as a result of the necessity for clearing patches of land for the women to cultivate, and the occurrence of numerous querns (fig. 13) suggests the growing and grinding of corn. Moreover, rising ground is more easily defensible against marauders, whether human or animal. AAs none of the numerous earthworks of the district (p. 63 to 76) has yet been excavated, it is impossible to state whether any of them belong to this age, and if so, whether they do contain traces of such clusters of huts, surrounded by a stockade. The site described on page 55 produced arrowheads which seem to be Neolithic; but the age of the site as a whole is doubtful. Settlement in a community, even whilst it is a community of related family groups, as opposed to scattered and single family

dwellings, has two important results. The need for definite organization must at length be met, and so some one is recognised as chief man of the group. Secondly, man tends to become a

specialist. Paleolithic man probably made his own spear and then went out to hunt with it. Neolithic man was not compelled so todo. Tools (Fig. 14) would be made by someone

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‘sI9q}O pue

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Fig. 17. Bronze Age Barbed Arrowheads.

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Fig. 78. Bronze Age Barbed Arrowheads.

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In the Bronze Age flint was still employed, and a very fine example of the good workmanship of this period is provided in the flint dagger (Fig. 19) found at Ragstone, near Denshaw, by Norman Gartside, a 12 year old schoolboy. On January 3rd, 1924, he found the two larger pieces of the weapon. He continued to search for the missing triangular fragment until he succeeded in finding it on April 18th.

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Fig. 79. Flint Dagger showing the working on the two sides.

and in the Museum is a celt which was found many years ago in Doctor garden at Kirkburton (Fig. 21). It weighs 3 Ibs. 2 ozs. and has apparently been twice pierced, the first shaft hole having been worn through, this necessitating the second perfora— tion. The holes were by boring both sides in turn, and the diameter of the hole in the centre is 2 in. less than at the surface. Another specimen (Fig. 21, 2 and 3), obtained by the late

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fig. 20. Stone Axes or Celts. Sections of these are given in the lower figures,

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George Marsden, was found in the river bed at Slaithwaite, and is now in the Museum. The socket is oval (Fig.

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D. G. Wheelwright. There is given here a list of the stone celts found in the


been polished at the cutting edge only, and was found on Booth

Moor by Mr

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It remains to mention the funeral observances of Neolithic times, though interments of this date have not been discovered

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tion he could erect more permanent habitations; but he still con— tinued to be an agriculturist. There is one change however. Tools, weapons and domestic utensils became objects not merely of utility but of great artistic beauty, for metal is capable of better lines and more effective ornamentation than the most easily workable of stones. The earliest tools of metal found in England occur in the south, and gradually its use spread northward. Metal was at first very precious, too precious to be buried with the man who in life had owned it. By degrees it became more common, and W. England may have become one of the great producing centres by 1000 B.C. The local examples give us a fair idea of the graduai evolution of type. Neolithic man had discovered the most suit— able shape for such implements as the axe and other agriculturai implements. It was the material which needed improvement. So the introduction of metal at first merely meant a change of material, while the shape of the stone implementis remained unchanged. Then, as skill in metal-working grew, the forms also began to change. The earliest bronze axes are very like stone celts in form. Then the thickness was reduced, and as the cutting edge was hammered out to obtain keenness its breadth increased. Next it was found that the head could be better fastened on to the cleft prongs of a wooden shaft if the edges were beaten up to form a groove into which the cleft head of the shaft would fit, as in the example from Rishworth (Fig. 22, 1). Finds at Greenfield and Skircoat show the next improvement

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No. 6 Bronze Spear Head, Cartworth Moor,

Nos. 1 to 5 illustrating development.

Bronze Axes.

Fig. 22.

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disappears; then the ‘‘ socketed celt’’ could be made by

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secondary pressure-flaking. Some of the local earth-works may on excavation provide examples of Bronze Age settlements. The section (Fig. 23) shews the succession of finds of these periods in excavations at Warcock Hill. I Several Bronze Age interments have been found in the locality. Of these the most important is that discovered on the summit of Pule Hill and excavated in 1896 by the late Mr. George Marsden. The finding of an arrowhead led to digging and four urns containing burnt human remains, and a

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found an arrowhead, one or two scrapers, a disc, a few pygmies (called at the time ‘‘gravers’’) and a number of flakes and chippings. It is important to note that these flints are mostly the

Fig. 2g. Nos. 1 and 2 ‘‘Insense Cup.’’ Ncs. 3 and 4 Food Vessels, Pule Hill, Marsden. relics of a Mas d’Azil-Tardenois workshop which existed long before the interment was made on the summit of Pule Hill, and that they have no necessary connection with the Bronze Age burial. At the time of the discovery confusion very simply and naturally arose because no one had yet recognised the presence of this peculiar industry. Mr. Wrigley later found burnt flints on the site. It is in no way extraordinary that no bronze was found In the first stages of its employment it was too precious to be buried along with its owner, and possibly it was always so in this locality. I Owing to the generosity of the late Mr. George Marsden, the discoverer, and his family, the urns are now in the museum. Thev

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‘form one of the most striking exhibits in the Prehistoric section. They are illustrated in Figs. 24 and 25.

The smallest of the group (Fig. 24, 1 and 2) belongs to the type known as ‘‘

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distinct groove between them. No. 4 has two slight lugs opposite to one another, which appear to have been pinched up from the body of the vessel; they were perforated but the holes have been broken out. Fig. 25, Nos. 1 and 2, is the best of the series, it is ornamented with small

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Watson (Halifax) illustrates on Plate IV. (3), a funeral urn from Skircoat (Fig. 26).

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in which there is a definite resurrection of the body—a corporal life. Cremation, on similar lines of interpretation, would point to a belief in an existence after death, but one that is spiritual only, and even tools pass through the fire so that the human spirit may use them. if this is matter of controversy, it is, however, clear that the first people of whose language we know anything did not enter these islands until about 600 B.C. This first wave of Keltic- speaking peoples is known as Goidelic, the name by now having become Gael. Very possibly these folk in time more or less coalesced with the peoples already in Britain, who may have been the ancestors of the race later known as Picts. The Goidels are sometimes known as Q-Kelts, as distinguished from the next wave, the P-Kelts or Brythons. The distinction is one based on philology, the one people using O where the other employs P. Thus

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the E. Mediterranean as a result of trade. Mention has already been made of Pytheas (p. 61), who sailed along the coast of Britain. On his travels he is said to have made a complete circumnavigation of these islands, possibly reaching in the north Shetland, though it is said that he returned down the west coast, he managed tc remain totally ignorant of anything Irish. His return he made across Gaul to Marseilles by the long-established trade-route from north to south based on the river system of that country.

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Philip bore on one side the head of Apollo wreathed with laurel, on the reverse a two-horsed chariot with charioteer and the name of Philip in Greek. To the Kelts all these symbols were meaning- less, and as they were copied by folk who did not understand, the symbols pass through a gradual process of degradation until the final products, that is the latest coins, bear signs that would be utterly meaningless were it not for their predecessors (Fig. 27). On the obverse, the curly-haired head of Apollo gradually dissolves into. a few scattered pellets of various shapes, according as they are derived from curls of hair or features of the face. Through: ail, the laurel-wreath is generally distinguishable, and on one of the coins from Castle Hill is represented by a straight band with a crescent at either end (Fig. 39, No. 7). On the reverse, the Greek lettering almost at once becomes a slight decorative motif of chevrons, the chariot loses a horse, then disappears itself, the

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we can say that such works are not earlier than Neolithic days is simply that a huntsman, even a primitive herdsman, does not build permanent. dwellings. Only the agriculturist is definitely settled in one spot. With the advent of agriculture comes the settled dwelling—place, and when man settles he generally tends to settle in groups. Thus with the help of his fellow—settlers he is enabled to erect quite elaborate defences. The advent of metal tools allowed yet greater erections to be made—it is hard to imagine that the great trenches at Castle Hill, Almondbury, were dug with implements of stone and flint alone. The choosing of sites for settled habitations seems to be governed by certain considerations, though their influence may be in some degree

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inner works of the camp cover an area of about ten acres. As

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Fig. 30.

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As to the date of the camp in its original form, the objects found on the hill and in the surrounding neighbourhood are suggestive. From the hill itself came the hoard of gold Brigantian coins described on page 79; another from Light- cliffe (p. 84); and a third from Honley contained five silver Brigantian coins, including one of the Brigantian queen Carti- mandua (p. 79 foll.). Stone celts have been found so near as Woodsome Hall, Damside, Moldgreen and Slaithwaite. It ‘is noteworthy that from the distribution of the coins of the Brigantes—they are found in Lincolnshire and do not occur north of Pickering—it has been suggested that their kingdom

Fig. 33. Gateway, Native Hill-fort, Castle Hill, Almondbury.

was centred somewhere in southern Yorkshire. That the camp was originally pre-Norman is hardly to be questioned— apparently the de Lacis found the earthwork in existence and they adapted it, though very un-Norman in nature, because of its splendid position and capabilities of easy defence. If pre-Norman, it is probably pre-Roman judging from its nature and size. The facts point to the conclusion that Castle Hill, Almondbury, must at some time have been a local stronghold of the Brigantes (p. 78), probably a hill shelter for the people and their herds in times of

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as determined by Mr. Cocking’s survey, are as follows :—

Outside of Inside. Centre of Ditch. Rampart.

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CASTLE HILL, DEnBy DALE. Watson has no mention of this earth— work, portions of which are still clearly visible (Figs. 34-5). Morehouse (Kirkburton, pp. 4 and 244) gives a plan, here re- produced, and mentions that ‘‘ two large British weapons ’ have been found in the neighbourhood, one at Highflats, half. a mile to the east, the other at about one mile to the west (p. 46). The V.C.H. (Yorks., I., p. 7) describes the position as a

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this work with Castle Hill, Almondbury, seeing in it a farm belonging to the garrison. This suggestion is quite baseless. Castlé Hill, if it was one of the usual type of hill forts, that is, only used as a place of refuge in times of stress, never had a ‘‘garrison’’.in the strict sense of the term until Norman days, and it is no argument that Castle Hill is to-day visible from Crosland Moor. See also Hulbert’s Annals of Almond- bury, p. 393, GILBERT HILL, LANGSETT (BROWNEDGE). On this

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approaching the declivities, but re-appeared at some distance on higher ground.’’ Whatever Morehouse saw, to-day only the outlines of the ’’ are apparent.. The

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England, the conquest of Wales being undertaken and completed, The tribes to the north were however not unaffected. The north- ern counties were occupied by the Brigantes, a powerful tribe so far as extent of territory was concerned, though allowance must be made for the large waste tracts of hill-country. The tribe may be racially connected with the Brigantes who lived on the eastern shore of Lake Constance (compare the Parisii of the Humber with the people who have given their name to Paris). At this time the Brigantes were ruled by a woman—Cartimandua. Caratacus, the

Fig. 39. Gold Brigantian Coins. Nos. 1 to 9 from Castle Hill, Almondbury ; No. 10 from Lightcliffe.

leader of the Welsh in their struggles with the Romans, was defeated in 51 A.D. and fled to the court of Cartimandua. The queen decided for friendship with Rome, threw him into chains and handed him over to Ostorius Scapula, then Roman Governor of the province.. This end the war in Wales and, to add to: the troubles of the Romans, Cartimandua found herself threatened by civil war. She had married a chieftain Venutius but had quarrelled with him, and in the cheerful fashion of the times hadi

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murdered some of his relatives. Supported by the anti-Roman party, Venutius took up arms and his wife appealed to the new Roman Governor, Aulus Didius. A detachment of the Ninth Legion was dispatched to assist her and the pro—Romans. After desultory fighting, apparently a truce was patched up, for fifteen years later Cartimandua and Venutius were still reigning” conjointly. In 1829 there was found at Castle Hill, Almondbury, a hoard of coins, comprising about two hundred

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_ 1. Obverse

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Fig. 41. Part of the Honley Hoard. Nos. 1 to 5 Silver Brigantian Coins; No 6 Brooch or Fibula; Nos. 7, 8 and 9 Seal Box; No. 10 Bronze Ring.

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these boxes were used to protect seals. The cord fastening the package or folding writing-tablet was passed through the holes in the side of the box, and the seal was placed upon the portion of the cord inside the box, the lid protecting the seal-from accidental breakage (Fig. 42). “Seal-boxes ’? are Roman and it is interesting tc note that Brigantian natives were employing Roman usages before the era of conquest was definitely begun. The Romans did not encounter absolute barbarians in these islands. The fibula or brooch is of a

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cealment (soon after 72-3 A.D. ), evidence of the troubles of those years—the invasion of the Brigantian territory by the Romans and the commencement of their subjection. In the course of the struggle, or else when it was seen to be imminent, some native hid his wealth, hoping to recover it when peace was again restored. We can briefly trace in Tacitus the origin and result of this war.

The advance of the Romans against the Brigantes was due to internal strife within the tribe providing an opportunity for that subjection of the northern parts of England which was absolutely necessary if the south was to be retained. Cartimandua and her consort were again quarrelling. Finally, Cartimandua repudiated her husband and married his armour-bearer Vellocatus (69-70 A.D.).. The insulted chieftain took up arms; once again Carti- mandua appealed to Rome. This happened either in the last days of the governorship of Bolanus or else in the early days of that of Petillius Cerealis. At all events the Governor seized his oppor- tunity and sent a few cohorts to the aid of the pro-Roman faction. They were overwhelmed by numbers and could only manage to carry the queen off to a place of security, and thenceforward she drops out of history. Venutius was left on the throne, and for some years, though the Romans were distracted by the conquest of Wales, the Brigantes and the Romans waged open warfare.

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Lud Hill, Rib in Ribble and Ribbleden. Cowmes, Chevinedge, Rose Hills, Krumlin, Balin, Cartworth, and the debated Almond- bury, are all by some ascribed to a Keltic origin. As to the name Brigantes, Professor Rhys derives it from brigant, ‘‘noble, free, privileged,’’ others from the Welsh Bryn or Bre (hill), thus trans- lating it as ‘‘ Hillmen.’ Sykes in his History of Huddersfield, gives a list of local dialect words to which he ascribes a Keltic origin, but this highly debatable ground is better left free for the battles of specialists. Some of the suggestions may be correct, but the most certain relics of long—past days consist not in matters of speech nor in physical characteristics, for these vary from cen- tury to century, but in the evidence collected in the Museum and from the evidence that may be hoped for when the local earthworks have been excavated. As yet we owe far more of our knowledge of early local history to such men as the late George Marsden and the many others who have worked and

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The exact type of graving tool found on a site goes far to determine the character of that site. However, until 1920 these tools had not been recognised as occurring in this district. Though numerous specimens had been picked up before that date, they were. left lying among the debris in the general collections of waste flint and chippings in the various local museums. Invented by later Cave Man, the graver was used by him to make his carvings on bone and ivory (p. 10)... Other uses to

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Fig. 43. Broad Blade Pygmies, Badger Slacks, Site 2. No. 21 Combined Angle and Single-blow Graver.

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side of a naturally pointed blade or the flat top of a broken blade. These are known as ‘‘single-blow’’ gravers. In other cases the backing-edge may have been artificially made, sometimes by means of removing with a second graver-blow the opposite natural side of the blade. The result is that one graver-scar is backed against an- other graver-scar, this type being the ‘‘true’’ graver. Very often the

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It remains to point out that graving tools of one sort or another have been found on all the principal local workshop sites. Whilst however single-blow gravers and gouge-gravers of the older type probably occur throughout the series, the angle-graver and the micro-graver rarely occur abundantly on the same work- shop floor. This fact becomes important for tracing the gradual development of the pygmy industry locally, for the small angle- graver is typical of Mas d’Azil times and the micro-graver of the true Tardenois industry. So far as is at present known, there is. an. abundance of angle-gravers on March Hill, a few near Windy ‘Hill; elsewhere it has

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tool have been simplified, e.g., the slice No. 4a was in fact removed by a series of blows and not by. one blow ;.and the unworked parts of the original blade No. 1 are shown throughout in black. This is the only instance of an angle-graver being found with its own

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The broad outlines of the period we have been study! ing’ are then somewhat as follows :—

Man possibly existed at the end of the Tertiary Age, making rostro-carinate flint implements.

During the succeeding Ice Age, River—Drift Man lived in east England. Later, Upper Man occupied shelters and caves. During warm periods lions and hyenas lived in Britain; the last cold period saw the mammoth and reindeer. Before La Madeleine times, the Cresswell Caves inhabited.

Mas d’Azil- Tardenois men, making pygmy implements of flint, then move northwards, small parties making short stays on the local hill-tops.

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A. i. Paleolithic: Collins; Discovery of an Early Paleolithic Implement in V orks. (Preh. Soc. E. Anglia, Vol. III. (1922), pt. 4).

ii. Mas d’Azil Tardenois : Buckley ; A Microlithic Industry, Marsden, Yorks., 1921, (Privately). Buckley ; Yorkshire Gravers, (Preh. Soc. E. Anglia, Vol. III., pt. 4).

Page 100


1. History of Ravensknowle by LEGH TOLSON.


Scheme for the Development of a Local

Museum (Second Edition) by T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D.,

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